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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-97-146
Date: NOVEMBER 1997

References

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ACI. 201.1R: Guide for making a condition survey of concrete in service. In ACI manual of concrete practices: Part 1, Materials and general properties of concrete. Detroit.

ACI. 201.2R: Guide to durable concrete. In ACI manual of concrete practices: Part 1, Materials and general properties of concrete. Detroit.

ACI. 211.1: Standard practice for selecting proportions for normal, heavyweight, and mass concrete. In ACI manual of concrete practices: Part 1, Materials and general properties of concrete. Detroit.

ACI. 211.2: Standard practice for structural lightweight concrete. In ACI manual of concrete practices: Part 1, Materials and general properties of concrete. Detroit.

ACI. 211.3: Standard practice for selecting proportions for no-slump concrete. In ACI manual of concrete practices: Part 1, Materials and general properties of concrete. Detroit.

ACI. 221R: Guide for the use of normal weight aggregates in concrete. In ACI manual of concrete practices: Part 1, Materials and general properties of concrete. Detroit.

ACI. 224R: Oontrol of cracking in concrete structures. In ACI manual of concrete practices: Part 3, Use of concrete in buildings-Design specifications and related topics. Detroit.

ACI. 224.1R: Causes, evaluation, and repair of cracks in concrete structures. In ACI manual of concrete practices: Part 3, Use of concrete in buildings-Design specifications and related topics. Detroit.

ACI. 226.1R: Ground granulated blast-furnace slag as a cementitious constituent in concrete. In ACI manual of concrete practices: Part 1, Materials and general properties of concrete. Detroit.

Andrews, L. E. (1953). Record of experi mental air-entrained concrete 10 to 14 years after construction. (Highway Research Board Bulletin 70). Washington DO: Highway Research Board.

ASTM. C-9 Proposal P 214: Proposed test method for accelerated detection of potentially deleterious expansion of mortar bars due to alkali-silica reaction. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM C 29: Standard test method for unit weight and voids in aggregate. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 138: Standard test method for unit weight, yield, and air content (gray metric) of concrete. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 173: Standard test method for air content of freshly mixed concrete by the volumetric method. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 227: Standard test method for potential alkali reactivity of cement aggregate combinations (mortar-bar method). In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 231: Standard test method for air content of freshly mixed concrete by the pressure method. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 457: Standard test method for microscopical determination of parameters of the air-void system in hardened concrete. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 618: Standard specification for fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in portland-cement concrete. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 666: Standard test method for resistance of concrete to rapid freezing and thawing. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 702: Standard practice for reducing field samples of aggregate to testing size. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02 Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 823: Standard practice for examination and sampling of hardened concrete in constructions. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 856: Standard practice for petrographic examination of hardened concrete. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 989: Standard specification for ground granulated blast-furnace slag for use in concrete and mortars. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 1084: Standard test method for portland-cement content of hardened hydraulic-cement concrete. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 1105: Standard test method for length change of concrete due to alkali-carbonate rock reaction. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. C 1202: Test method for electrical indication of concrete's ability to resist chloride ion penetration. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. D 75: Standard practice for sampling aggregates. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

ASTM. E 11: Standard specification for wire cloth sieves for testing purposes. In Annual book of ASTM standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

Bartel, F. F. (1978). Air content and unit weight. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 122-131). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Beauchamp, R. H., & Williford, J. F. (1974). Metallographic methods applied to ultrathmnning lunar rocks, meteorites, fossils, and other brittle materials for optical microscopy. In J. L. McCall and W. M. Muller (Eds.), Metallographic specimen preparation: Optical and electron microscopy (pp. 233-250). New York: Plenum Press.

Beauchamp, R. H., Williford, J. F., & Gafford, E. L. (1972): Exploratory development and services for preparing and examining ultrathin polished sections of lunar rocks and particulates, NASA 9-11993, 211B00862: Final report, Parts I & II. Revision 1 to NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, TX 77068. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratories, A Division of Battelle Memorial Institute.

Bloss, F. Donald. (1961). An introduction to the methods of optical crystallography. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.

Cady, P. D. (1978). Corrosion of reinforcing steel. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 275-299). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Clemena, G. G. (1972). Determination of the cement content of hardened concrete by selective solution (NTIS PB-213-855). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., & Zussman, J. (1962-1963). Rock forming minerals (Vols. 1-5). London: Longmans, Green.

Diamond, Sidney. (1978). Chemical reactions other than carbonate reactions. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 708-722). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Dolar-Mantuani, L. (1983). Handbook of concrete aggregates. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.

Erlin, Bernard, & Woods, Hubert. (1978). Corrosion of embedded materials other than reinforcing steel. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 300-3 19). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Helms, S. B. (1978). Air content and unit weight. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 435-461). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Hilton, M. H. (1974). Expansion of reactive carbonate rocks under restraint (Transportation Research Record No. 525). Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

Hilton, M. H. (1990). A brief state-of the-art of pneumatically applied concrete or mortar (shot-crete) (VTRC Report No. 90-TARS). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Hime, W. G. (1978). Cement content. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 462-470). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Houston, B. W. (1969). Effects of axial restraint on length change of expanding mortar bars (Technical Report C-69-8). Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station.

Hwang, C. L., & Shen, D. H. (1991). The effect of blast-furnace slag and fly ash on the hydration of portland cement. Cement and Concrete Research, 20: 410-425.

Johannsen, Albert. (1968). Manual of petrographic methods (Facsimile of the Second Edition, 1918). New York: Hafner.

Kerr, P. F. (1959). Optical mineralogy (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kleiger, P., & Hooton R. D. (Eds.). (1988). Carbonate additions to cement (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 1064). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Kuhlman, L. A. (1991, January). Cracks in LMC overlays: How do they get there: How serious are they: What to do about them. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC.

Larson, E. S., & Berman, Harry. (1964). Microscopical determination of the non-opaque minerals (Geological Survey Bulletin 848). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Legatski, L. M. (1978). Cellular concrete. InSignificance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 836-851). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Lewis, D. W. (1978). Lightweight concrete and aggregates. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 503-524). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Lord, G. W., & Willis, T. F. (1951). Calculation of air bubble size distribution from results of a Rosiwal traverse of aerated concrete (ASTM Bulletin No. 177). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Lutz, L. A. (1978). Bond with reinforcing steel. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 320-331). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Mather, Bryant. (1957). Laboratory tests of portland blast-furnace slag cements. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 20; Proceedings 54, 205-232 (Reprint No. 54-13).

Mather, Bryant. (August 30, 1989). Letter to Kathy Greene, ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-1187.

Mather, Katharine. (1978). Petrographic examination. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 132-145). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Mullen, W. G. (1978). Weight, density, absorption and surface moisture. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 629-645). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Newlon, Howard, Jr. (1978). Resistance to weathering. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 351-368). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Newlon, H.,& Ozol, M.A. (1969). Concrete case study No. 20: Delayed expansion of concrete delivered by pumping through aluminum pipeline. Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Newlon, H.,& Sherwood; Sherwood, W. C. (1962). An occurrence of alkali-reactive carbonate rock in Virginia (HRB Bulletin No. 355). Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

Newlon, H. H., Sherwood, W. C., & Ozol, M. A. (1972). Potentially reactive carbonate rocks: A strategy for use and control of potentially reactive carbonate rocks (including an annotated bibliography of Virginia research): Progress report No. 8 (VHRC Report No. 71-R41). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Ozol, M. A. (1978). Shape, surface texture, surface area, and coatings. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 584-628). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Ozyildirim, H. C. (1991). Comparison of the air void contents in freshly mixed and hardened concretes. Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, 13(1): 11-17.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951-62, 7th Printing 1963). Dana's system of mineralogy (Vols. I-Ill). New York: Wiley & Sons.

Pistilli, M. F. (1976). Cement content of hardened concrete. Paper presented at the Cement Chemists Seminar, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois.

Pleau, R., Plante, P., Gagne, R., & Pigeon, M. (1990). Practical considerations pertaining to the microscopical determination of air-void characteristics of hardened concrete (ASTM C 457 standard). Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, 12(2): 3-11.

Rhodes, J. A. (1978). Thermal properties. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 242-261). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Roberts, L. R., & Scali, M. J. (1984). Factors affecting image analysis for measurement of air content. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Cement Microscopy . Duncanville, TX: International Cement Microscopy Association.

Rogers, A. F., & Kerr, P. F. (1942). Optical mineralogy (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Rogers, C. A., & Hooton, R. D. (1991). Reduction in mortar and concrete expansion with reactive aggregates due to alkali leaching. Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, 13(1): 42-49.

Schwartz, Donald R. (1987). D-Cracking of concrete pavements (NCHRP Synthesis No. 134). Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

Snyder, K., Hover, K, & Natesaiyer, K (1991). An investigation of the minimum expected uncertainty in the linear traverse technique. Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, 13(1): 3-10.

Soeder, Daniel J. (1990). Applications of fluorescence microscopy to study of pores in tight rocks. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 74(1): 30-40.

Sommer, H. (1979). The precision of the microscopical determination of the air-void system in hardened concrete. Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, 1(2): 49-55.

Stanton, Thomas E. (1940). Expansion of concrete through reaction between cement and aggregate. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 66: 178.

Stark, D. (1990). Handbook for the identification of alkali-silica reactivity in highway structures (SHRP Report No. C/FR-91-101). Washington, DC: National Research Council.

Steidtmann, Edward. (1917). The origin of dolomite as disclosed by stains and other methods. Bulletin of theAmerican Geological Society, 2: 431-458.

Swenson, E. G. (1957). A reactive aggregate undetected by ASTM tests (ASTM Bulletin No. 226). Philadelphia: ASTM. Swenson, E. G., & Gillot, J. E. (1960). Characteristics of Kingston carbonate rock reaction (Highway Research Board Bulletin 275). Washington, DC: Highway Research Board.

Transportation Research Board Committee on Chemical Additions and Admixtures for Concrete. (1990). Transportation Research Circular No. 535. Washington: National Research Council.

Tuthill, L. H. (1978a). Resistance to chemical attack. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 369-387). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Tuthill, L. H. (1978b). Mineral admixtures. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 804-822). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Verbeck, George. (1966). Pore structure. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169-A, pp. 211-219). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Verbeck, George. (1978). Pore structure. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169-B, pp. 262-274). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Walker, Hollis N. (1972). Void parameters of 24 cores of concrete removed from a consolidation test study section of 1-64 (V.HRC Report No. 72-R13). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Walker, Hollis N. (1978). Chemical reactions of carbonate aggregates in cement paste. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 722-743). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Walker, Hollis N. (1979a). Evaluation and adaptation of the Dobrolubov and Romer method of microscopic examination of hardened concrete (VHTRC Report No. 79-R42). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Walker, Hollis N. (1979b). Petrographic examination of carbonate aggregate prism specimens treated with chemical solutions normally occurring in portland cement concrete (VHTRC Report No. 79-R58). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Walker, Hollis N. (1980). Formula for calculating spacing factor for entrained air voids. Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, 2(2): 63-66.

Walker, Hollis N. (1981). Examination of portland cement concrete by fluorescent light microscopy. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cement Microscopy (pp. 257-278). Duncanville, TX: International Cement Microscopy Association.

Walker, Hollis N. (1983). Bias of air-void system data from fly ash concretes (VHTRC Report No. 84-R6). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Walker, Hollis N. (1988). Detecting flawed and non-standard concrete (VTRC Videotape No. VT1O4). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Walker, Hollis N., & Marshall, Bobby F. (1979). Methods and equipment used in preparing and examining fluorescent ultrathin sections of portland cement concrete. Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, 1(1): 3-9.

Walker, R. D. (1978). Needed research. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 169B, pp. 49-56). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Webb, John W. (1970). The wearing characteristics of mineral aggregates in highway pavements (VHRC Report No. 70-R7). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Wilk, W, Dobrolubov, G., & Romer, B. (1974).Development in quality control of concrete during construction (TRR Report No. 504). Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

SUGGESTED READING LIST


The literature on these subjects is voluminous. It is impossible to include all of the worthwhile works. A few are listed. It is recommended that individual subjects of interest be followed by using the bibliographies of the individual entries.

Aggregates (Also see Petrographic Methods)

Bates, Rebert L., & Jackson, Julia A. (Eds.). (1987). Glossary of geology (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Geological Institute.

There is also a paperback version, The Dictionary of Geology, that can be almost as useful. One of these two references should be available to writers and clerical workers in the geologic fields.

Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., & Zussman, J. (1962-63). Rock forming minerals (Vols. 1-5). London: Longmans, Green and Co. LTD.

This five-volume work should be available to all whose work includes the identification of mineral species. The minerals are grouped according to families, e.g., feldspars together, micas together. The end members of each family group are described, and the variables (chemical composition, indices of refraction, optical sign, etc.) between members identified. Sketches of the crystal orientation and numerous chemical analyses contribute to the usefulness of this work.

DeHoff, R. T., & Rhines, F. N. (1968). Quantitative microscopy. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Dolar-Mantuani, L. (1983). Handbook of concrete aggregates. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes.

This is a definitive and very important work that is recommended for study by anyone who has any control over the selection and purchase of aggregates for use in HOC construction.

Gaynor, R. D., & Meininger, R. C. (1983). Evaluating concrete sands. Concrete International, 15(12).

This work details a number of tests for the quality of sands to be used in concrete. Included are grading, sand equivalent, mica content, particle shape, surface texture, void content, and attrition. The reference list is extensive and informative.

Heinrich, E. Win. (1965). Microscopic identification of minerals. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Part 3 of this work contains numerous useful tables and charts, including the clearest and most easily understood chart of interference colors I have seen.

Krumbein, W C., & Pettijohn, F. J. (1938). Manual of sedimentary petrography. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Milner, H. B. (1952). Sedimentary petrography. London: T. Murby.

Mullen, W. G. (1978). Weight, density, absorption and surface moisture. In Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete making materials (ASTM Special Technical Publication 169B, pp. 629-645). Philadelphia: ASTM.

Very clearly written with good illustrations clarifying some of the concepts.

Pettijohn, F. J. (1975). Sedimentary rocks. New York: Harper & Row.

Well illustrated with photographs and sketches of thin sections.

Pirsson, L. V. (1953). Rocks and rock minerals. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Revised by A. Knopf.

Williams, H., Turner, F. J., & Gilbert, C. M. (1954). Petrography: An introduction to the study of rocks in thin section. San Francisco: Freeman.

Includes numerous sketches of the appearance of thin sections of rock under the microscope.

Aggregate-Paste Reactions

Bredsdorff, Per, Idorn, G.M., Kjaer, Alice, Plum, M. N., & Poulsen, Ervin. (1962). Chemical reactions involving aggregate. In Chemistry of cement: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium (Vol. 2). (NBS Monograph No. 43, pp. 749-806). Washington, DC: National Bureau of Standards.

Includes a discussion of the paper.

Fournier, B., Berube, M. A., & Bergeron, G. (1991). A rapid autoclave mortar bar method to determine the potential alkali-silica reactivity of St. Lawrence Lowlands carbonate aggregates (Quebec, Canada). Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, 13(1): 58-71.

Highway Research Board. (1964). Symposium on alkali-carbonate rock reactions (Report No. HRR 45). Washington, DC.

Hilton, M. H. (1974). Expansion of reactive carbonate rocks under restraint (Report No. TRR-525, Cement Aggregate Reactions). Washington, DC: Transportation

Research Board. This is the only experimentation in alkali-carbonate reactions that I have heard of in which the reaction took place under restraint. In field situations, expansive reactions are almost always under the restraint of the surrounding concrete and other portions of the structure. Even small members are usually under some restraint. For a report of an alkali-silica reaction under restraint, see Houston, B. W. (1969). Effects of axial restraint on length change of expanding mortar bars (Technical Report 0-69-8). Vick- sburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station.

Mather, Bryant. (1974). Developments in specification and control (Report No. TRR-525, Cement Aggregate Reactions). Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

An excellent summary of the knowledge available at the time.

Newlon, H. H., Sherwood, W. C, & Ozol, M. A. (1972). Potentially reactive carbonate rocks: A strategy for use and control of potentially reactive carbonate rocks (including an annotated bibliography of Virginia research): Progress report No. 8 (VHRC Report No. 71-Mi). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council.

All of the reports in this series may be found useful. This particular report includes an extensive bibliography and is listed to provide a reference and guide to the others of the series (1 through 7b).Canadian developments in testing concrete aggregates for alkali-aggregate reactivity (Report No. EM-92). Downsview, Ontario, Canada: Ministry of Transportation, Ontario, Engineering Materials Office, 1201 Wilson Avenue, M3M 1J8.

Recommended for information concerning the most up-to-date methods of testing for alkali-carbonate, alkali-silica, and alkali-silicate reactivity.

Ryell, J., Chojnaki, B., Woda, G., & Koniuszy, Z. D. (1974). The Uhthoff quarry alkali-carbonate rock reaction: A laboratory and field performance study (Report No. TRR-525, Cement Aggregate Reactions). Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

Stark, D. (1990). Handbook for the identification of alkali-silica reactivity in highway structures (Report No. SHRP-CfFR-91-101). Washington, DC: National Research Council.

This publication is noted for its fine color photographs that illustrate the features described more clearly than would black and white photographs.

Swenson, E. G. (1957). A reactive aggregate undetected by ASTM tests (ASTM Bulletin No. 226). Philadelphia: ASTM.

The first recorded instance of deterioration caused by alkali-carbonate-aggregate reactivity. As the title indicates, the ASTM tests available at the time could not detect alkali-carbonate reactivity. These early tests were designed to detect alkali-silica reactivity.

Walker, Hollis N. (1974). Reaction products in expansion test specimens of carbonate aggregate (Report No. ThR-525). Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

Wang, H., & Gillott, J. E. (1991). Mechanism of alkali-silica reaction and significance of calcium hydroxide. Cement and Concrete Research, 21: 647-654.

Air Voids

Backstrom, J. E., Burrows, R. C., Meilenz, R. C., & Wolkodoff, V. E. (1958). Origin, evolution, and effects of the air void system in concrete: Part 2-Influence of type and amount of air entraining agent. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 30, Proceedings 55, 261-272 (Reprint No. 55-16). Detroit.

Backstrom, J. E., Burrows, R. C., Meilenz, R. C., & Wolkodoff, V. E. (1958). Origin, evolution, and effects of the air void system in concrete: Part 3-Influence of water-cement ratio and compaction. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 30, Proceedings 55, 359-375 (Reprint No. 55-22). Detroit.

Meilenz, R. C., Wolkodoff, V. E., Backstrom, J. E., & Burrows, R. W. (1958). Origin, evolution, and effects of the air void system in concrete: Part 4-The air void system in job concrete. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 30, Proceedings 55, 507-517 (Reprint No. 55-33). Detroit.

Meilenz, R. C., Wolkodoff, V. E., Backstrom, J. E., & Flack, H. L. (1958). Origin, evolution, and effects of the air void system in concrete: Part 1-Entrained air in unhardened concrete. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 30, Proceedings 55, 95-121 (Reprint No. 55-5). Detroit.

These four reports were written during the time that air entrainment was beginning to come into widespread use. There was still much resistance to its use, a lack of belief in its efficacy, and fear that air would lower the compressive strength of the concrete below the specified strength.

Khayat, K. H., & Nasser, K. W. (1991). Comparison of air contents in fresh and hardened concretes using different air meters. Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, 13(1): 18-24.

Lane, D. 5. (1991). Testing fly ash in mortars for air-entrainment characteristics. Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, 13(1): 25-3 1.

ASTM Standards

ASTM. Annual book of ASTM standards. Volume 04.02: Concrete and aggregates. Philadelphia.

 

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