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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-98-171
Date: FEBRUARY 1999

Performance-Related Specifications for Pcc Pavements. Volume IIi: Appendices C Through F

  1. Darter, M.I., M. Abdelrahman, P.A. Okamoto, and K.D. Smith, Performance-Related Specifications for Concrete Pavements, Volume I: Development of a Prototype Performance-Related Specification, Publication No. FHWA-RD-93-042, Federal Highway Administration, November 1993.
  1. Darter, M.I., M. Abdelrahman, T. Hoerner, M. Phillips, K.D. Smith, and P.A. Okamoto, Performance-Related Specifications for Concrete Pavements, Volume II: Appendix A—Prototype Performance-Related Specification, Appendix B—PaveSpec Users Guide, and Appendix C—Annotated Bibliography, Publication No. FHWA-RD-93-043, Federal Highway Administration, November 1993.
  1. Okamoto, P.A., C.L. Wu, S.M. Tarr, M.I. Darter, and K.D. Smith, Performance-Related Specifications for Concrete Pavements, Volume III: Appendix D—Laboratory Testing Procedures and Testing Results and Appendix E—Review of Recent Studies and Specifications, Publication No. FHWA-RD-93-044, November 1993.
  1. American Concrete Institute Committee 214, Guide for Obtaining Cores and Interpreting Compressive Strength Results, May 1995.
  1. Bartlett, F.M., and J.G. MacGregor, "Equivalent Specified Concrete Strength From Core Test Data," Concrete International, March 1995, pp. 52-59.
  1. Hughes, C.S., Variability in Highway Pavement Construction, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Synthesis of Highway Practice 232, 1996.
  1. Demos, M., N.G. Gharaibeh, and M.I. Darter, Evaluation of Potential Applications of End-Result and Performance-Related Specifications, White Paper Presentations—Part II, Chapter V—Portland Cement Concrete Pavements, Publication No. FHWA-IL-UI-256, Illinois Department of Transportation, December 1995.
  1. Darter, M.I., "Variations of Concrete Properties Related to Rigid Pavement Design and Performance," Term Report for CE 393, University of Illinois, 1972.
  1. McMahon, T.F., W.J. Halstead, W.W. Baker, E.C. Granley, and J.A. Kelly, Quality Assurance in Highway Construction, Publication No. FHWA-TS-89-038, Federal Highway Administration, October 1990.
  1. Di Cocco, J.B., Quality Assurance for Portland Cement Concrete, Publication No. FHWA-RD-73-077, Federal Highway Administration, September 1973.
  1. Neaman, D., and J.G. Laguros, "Statistical Quality Control in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements," Transportation Research Record 184, Transportation Research Board, 1967, pp. 1-12.
  1. Wood, S.L., Evaluation of the Long-Term Properties of Concrete, Research and Development Bulletin RD102T, Portland Cement Association, 1992.
  1. Colorado Strength Data—I-70 near Vona, CO, photocopied article excerpt received from Peter Kopac, original source unknown, 1994.
  1. "Reality Is Average Strength for AASHTO Design," Concrete Pavement Progress, 1995, 35(3): 7.
  1. Steele, G.W., S.B. Hudson, and C.J. Van Til, "The Statistical Approach to Realistic Highway Specifications," Prepared for the 25th Annual Convention of SASHO, September 1996.
  1. ERES Consultants, Inc. Technical Memorandum for the Draft Report of Measurement and Specification of Construction Quality: Literature Survey Report for PCC Pavements, (for FHWA Contract No. DTFH61-94-C-00078), April 1995.
  1. Hughes, C.S., A.L. Simpson, R. Cominsky, K. Maser, and T. Wilson, Measurement and Specification of Construction Quality, Volume I, Publication No. FHWA-RD-98-077, Federal Highway Administration, May 1998.
  1. Greer, W.C., Jr., "Evaluation of Strength Tests and Acceptance of Concrete Pavements," Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Concrete Pavement Design and Rehabilitation, Purdue University, Publication No. FHWA-RD-89-208, April 1989, pp. 375-383.
  1. Gray, R.J., "Variability of Compressive Strength Test Results," Concrete Technology Today, June 1990, 11(2): 1-4.
  1. Fast-Track Concrete Pavements, American Concrete Pavement Association, 1994.
  1. Kosmatka, S.H., "Compressive Versus Flexural Strength for Quality Control of Pavements," Concrete Technology Today, December 1985, 6(4): 4-5.
  1. Lane, D.S., and G.C. Clemena, Determination of Concrete Quality Characteristics for the Development of a Performance-Related Specification for Concrete Pavements, Work Plan, Virginia Transportation Research Council, April 1995.
  1. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Quality Assurance Guide Specification, AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Construction, 1996.
  1. Flude, S.T., and D.J. Janssen, "Comparison of Air-Void Characterization for Various Concretes," Prepared for the 69th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 1990.
  1. Nagi, M.A., and D.A. Whiting, "Achieving and Verifying Air Content in Concrete," PCA R&D Serial No. 1975, Portland Cement Association, 1994.
  1. Ansari, F., "In-Place Air Content of Concrete by Fiber Optics," Strategic Highway Research Program Products: Proceedings of a Specialty Conference Sponsored by the Highway Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers and the Federal Highway Administration, April 1991, pp. 41-43.
  1. Magura, D., and G. Crawford, "New Concrete Test Device a Fresh Idea," Roads & Bridges, October 1995, p. 12.
  1. Parcells, W.H., Jr., Control of Pavement Trueness in Kansas, Interim Report, Kansas Department of Transportation, Bureau of Materials and Research, January 1992.
  1. Huft, D.L., "Analysis and Recommendations Concerning Profilograph Measurements on F0081(50)107 Kingsbury County," Transportation Research Record 1348, Transportation Research Board, 1992, pp. 29-34.
  1. Scofield, L.A., S.A. Kalevela, and M.R. Anderson, "Evaluation of California Profilograph," Transportation Research Record 1348, Transportation Research Board, 1992, pp. 1-7.
  1. Ksaibati, K., S. Asnani, and T. Adkins, "Factors Affecting the Repeatability of Pavement Longitudinal Profile Measurements," Transportation Research Record 1410, Transportation Research Board, 1993, pp. 59-66.
  1. Scofield, L.A., Profilograph Limitations, Correlations, and Calibration Criteria for Effective Performance-Based Specifications, NCHRP Project 20-7, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, 1993.
  1. Zollinger, D.G., T. Tang, and D. Xin, "Sawcut Depth Requirements for Concrete Pavement Based on Fracture Mechanics Analysis," Prepared for the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 1993.
  1. ERES Consultants, Inc., Analysis of Premature Cracking on Highway 115, Construction Contract 90-83, Ontario Ministry of Transportation, February 1993.
  1. Okamoto, P.A., P.J. Nussbaum, K.D. Smith, M.I. Darter, T.P. Wilson, C.L. Wu, and S.D. Tayabji, Guidelines for Timing Contraction Joint Sawing and Earliest Loading for Concrete Pavements, Publication No. FHWA-RD-91-079 and -080, Federal Highway Administration, February 1994.
  1. Okamoto, P.A., P.J. Nussbaum, and K.D. Smith, "Guideline Recommendations for Timing Contraction Joint Sawing of PCC Highway Pavements," Proceedings: Fifth International Conference on Concrete Pavement Design, Volume 2, Purdue University, April 1993, pp. 39-52.
  1. Donnelly, D.E., Consolidation of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Long Term Performance, Publication No. CDOH-DTP-R-80-1, Colorado Department of Highways, 1980.
  1. Tayabji, S.D., and D. Whiting, "Field Evaluation of Concrete Pavement Consolidation," Transportation Research Record 1110, Transportation Research Board, 1987, pp. 90-100.
  1. Popovics, S., "Effect of Porosity on the Strength of Concrete," Journal of Materials, JMLSA, 1969, 4(2): 356-371.
  1. Gerhardt, B.B., The Effect of Vibration on the Durability of Unreinforced Concrete Pavement, Publication No. CDOH-P&R-R&SS-75-2, Colorado Department of Highways, May 1975.
  1. Heston, D., and J. Wojakowski, Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Joint Faulting on US-69, Miami Co., Kansas, Kansas Department of Transportation, July 1992.
  1. Ayton, G., J. Cruickshank, E. Haber, and H. Richard, Concrete Pavement Manual: Design and Construction, Edition 2, Revision 3, New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority, 1994.
  1. Bock, B.T., and P.A. Okamoto, "Evaluation of Dowel Placement Using a Dowel Bar Inserter," Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Concrete Pavement Design and Rehabilitation, Purdue University, Publication No. FHWA-RD-89-208, April 1989, pp. 641-649.
  1. Tayabji, S.D., and P.A. Okamoto, "Field Evaluation of Dowel Placement in Concrete Pavements," Transportation Research Record 1110, Transportation Research Board, 1987, pp. 101-109.
  1. Ross, F.R., and T.S. Rutkowski, A Designed System of Load Transfer Dowels for Joints in PCC Pavement, Final Report, Applied Research Section C.O. Materials, Division of Highways and Transportation Services, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, January 1989.
  1. Tayabji, S.D., "Dowel Placement Tolerances for Concrete Pavements," Transportation Research Record 1062, Transportation Research Board, 1986, pp. 47-54.
  1. Okamoto, P.A., "Field Evaluation of Dowel Placement Along a Section of Interstate 45 in Texas," Transportation Research Record 1186, Transportation Research Board, 1988, pp. 16-34.
  1. Fowler, G., and W. Gulden, Investigation of Location of Dowel Bars Placed by Mechanical Implantation, Georgia Department of Transportation, Office of Materials and Research, May 1983.
  1. Segner, E.P., Jr., and J.R. Cobb, A Study of Misaligned Dowels in Concrete Pavements, HPR Report 32, Alabama Highway Department, August 1967.
  1. Soriano, A., Dowel Bar Placement and Displacement, Publication No. SK91-09-X, South Dakota Department of Transportation, March 1995.
  1. Schrader, E.K., "A Solution to Cracking and Stresses Caused by Dowels and Tie Bars," Concrete International, 13(7): 40-45.
  1. Pechlivanidis, C., C.G. Papaleontiou, A.H. Meyer, and D.W. Fowler, The Effectiveness of Membrane Curing Compounds for Portland Cement Concrete Pavements, Final Report, Publication No. FHWA-TX-89-1118-1F, Texas State Department of Highways & Public Transportation, November 1988.
  1. Grady, J.E., and W.P. Chamberlin, "Groove-Depth Requirements for Tine-Textured Pavements," Transportation Research Record 836, Transportation Research Board, 1981, pp. 67-76.
  1. Ardani, A., PCCP Texturing Methods, Interim Report, Publication No. CDOT-DTD-R-95-2, Colorado Department of Transportation, February 1995.
  1. Larson, R.M., Proposed 1994 Field Testing and Updated Work Plan, Technical Working Group on PCC Surface Texturing, March 1994.
  1. Carino, N.J., Chapter 5, "The Maturity Method," CRC Handbook on Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1991.
  1. American Concrete Institute Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-89), Section 9.5.2.3, 1992, pp. 93.
  1. Packard, R.G., "Slab Thickness Design for Industrial Concrete Floors on Grade," Publication No. IS195.01D, Portland Cement Association, 1976.
  1. Yoder, E.J. and M.W. Witzak, Principles of Pavement Design. Second edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1975.
  1. The AASHO Road Test: Report 2—Materials and Construction, HRB Special Report 61, Highway Research Board, 1962.
  1. Mielenz, R.C., V.E., Wolkodoff, J.E. Backstrom, and H.L. Flak, "Origin, Evolution and Effects of the Air Void System in Concrete, Part 1-Entrained Air in Unhardened Concrete," American Concrete Institute Journal, 1958, 30(1).
  1. Burg, G.R.U., "Slump Loss, Air Loss, and Field Performance of Concrete," American Concrete Institute Journal, 80(4): 332-339.
  1. Smith, K.L., K.D. Smith, L.D. Evans, T.E. Hoerner, M.I. Darter, and J.H. Woodstrom. Smoothness Specifications for Pavements, Final report prepared for the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, 1997.
  1. Dempsey, B.J., W.A. Herlache, and A.J. Patel, The Climatic-Materials-Structural Pavement Analysis Program, User’s Manual, Publication No. FHWA-RD-84-115, Federal Highway Administration, February 1985.
  1. Smith, K.D., A.L. Mueller, M.I. Darter, and D.G. Peshkin, Performance of Jointed Concrete Pavements, Volume II—Evaluation and Modification of Concrete Pavement Design and Analysis Models, Publication No. FHWA-RD-89-137, Federal Highway Administration, 1990.
  1. Yu, H.T., K.D. Smith, M.I. Darter, J. Jiang, and L. Khazanovich, Performance of Concrete Pavements, Volume III: Improving Concrete Pavement Performance, Publication No. FHWA-RD-95-111, Federal Highway Administration, 1997.
  1. Yu, H.T., L. Khazanovich, S.P. Rao, M.I. Darter, and H. Von Quintus, Guidelines for Subsurface Drainage Based on Performance, Appendices, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Project 1-34, August 1998.


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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