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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-042
Date: July 2004

Guidelines for Ultrasonic Inspection of Hanger Pins, 4 Experimental Results

4.3. ANGLE AND STRAIGHT BEAM SENSITIVITY TO CRACKS

As mentioned previously, to study the sensitivity of angle and straight beam transducers to cracks, "normal" pin inspection procedures were completed on each of the pins with manufactured cracks. From these results one can infer the relative sensitivity of each transducer to the cracks found in these specimens. The data for each of the pins are summarized in figures 42 through 46. Each figure gives the raw inspection data and a graphical representation of the scan results. Parts B and E of each figure show the centerline path of the ultrasonic beam as it traveled from the transducer to the indication. Parts C and F of each figure summarize the location of peak signal strength (indicated by the large dot) and the range about the circumference over which the typical signal was observed. Note that in parts B and E of each figure, the dotted line represents the known location of the cracks. As can be seen from the data, regardless of the transducer used, the inspector was relying on the beam spread to identify each crack. This may not always be the case in a typical pin inspection. Also of interest is the fact that for the smallest defect, the straight beam transducer was not able to reliably detect the crack. Further, the crack could only be identified when the inspector was aware that a crack existed. This finding illustrates the importance of selecting the correct transducer for each inspection.

 

Note

Scan angle, deg

Indication level, dB

Reference level, dB

Reading location, hh:mm

Beginning of signal location, hh:mm

End of signal location, h:mm

Distance to index, inches

Sound path distance, inches

Axial distance, inches

Radial distance, inches

Redarrow pointing right

1

0

73

47

7:30

7:30

7:30

1

3.9

3.9

1.00

Greenarrow pointing right

2

11

57

47

7:30

7:00

8:00

5/8

3.9

3.83

1.37

Unit conversion: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

a. Raw inspection data for end 1 scanning.

 

View alternative text

b. Pin elevation for end 1 scanning.

View alternative text

c. Pin cross section for end 1 scanning.

Figure 42. Pin 1 testing results.

 

Note

Scan angle, deg

Indication level, dB

Reference level, dB

Reading location, hh:mm

Beginning of signal location, hh:mm

End of signal location, hh:mm

Distance to index, inches

Sound path distance, inches

Axial distance, inches

Radial distance, inches

Red arrow pointing right

1

11

63

47

5:00

5:00

5:00

5/8

5.15

5.06

1.61

Greenarrow pointing right

2

14

59

43

5:00

5:00

5:00

9/16

5.15

5.00

1.81

Unit conversion: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

d. Raw inspection data for end 2 scanning.

 View alternative text

e. Pin elevation for end 2 scanning.

 View alternative text

f. Pin cross section for end 2 scanning.

Figure 42. (Continued) Pin 1 testing results.

 

Note

Scan angle, deg

Indication level, dB

Reference level, dB

Reading location, hh:mm

Beginning of signal location, hh:mm

End of signal location, hh:mm

Distance to index, inches

Sound path distance, inches

Axial distance, inches

Radial distance, inches

Red arrow pointing right

1

0

58

47

1:30

1:00

2:00

1

3.80

3.80

1.00

Orangearrow pointing right

2

0

58

47

5:00

5:00

5:00

1

5.95

5.95

1.00

Bluearrow pointing right

3

14

43

43

1:00

1:00

2:30

7/16

3.95

3.83

1.39

Greenarrow pointing right

4

14

51

43

5:00

5:00

6:00

11/16

6.00

5.80

2.14

Unit conversion: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

a. Raw inspection data for end 1 scanning.

  View alternative text

b. Pin elevation for end 1 scanning.

  View alternative text

c. Pin cross section for end 1 scanning.

Figure 43. Pin 2 testing results.

 

Note

Scan angle, deg

Indication level, dB

Reference level, dB

Reading location, hh:mm

Beginning of signal location, hh:mm

End of signal location, hh:mm

Distance to index, inches

Sound path distance, inches

Axial distance, inches

Radial distance, inches

Red arrow pointing right
1

0

57

47

10:30

9:30

11:00

1

5.00

5.00

1.00

Orangearrow pointing right

2

0

55

47

7:00

7:00

7:00

1

2.95

2.95

1.00

Bluearrow pointing right

3

14

39

43

6:30

6:30

7:00

1/2

3.05

2.96

1.24

Greenarrow pointing right

4

14

49

43

10:00

9:00

11:00

5/8

5.10

4.95

1.86

Unit conversion: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

d. Raw inspection data for end 2 scanning.

 View alternative text

e. Pin elevation for end 2 scanning.

View alternative text

f. Pin cross section for end 2 scanning.

Figure 43. (Continued) Pin 2 testing results.

 

Note

Scan angle, deg

Indication level, dB

Reference level, dB

Reading location, hh:mm

Beginning of signal location, hh:mm

End of signal location, hh:mm

Distance to index, inches

Sound path distance, inches

Axial distance, inches

Radial distance, inches

Red arrow pointing right

1

0

32

58

11:00

10:30

11:30

1

5.80

5.80

1.00

Greenarrow pointing right

2

0

42

58

5:00

4:30

6:00

7/8

3.85

3.85

0.88

Orangearrow pointing right
3

14

38

43

10:30

10:00

11:30

5/8

5.85

5.68

2.04

Bluearrow pointing right

4

14

36

43

4:30

4:00

6:00

5/8

3.95

3.83

1.58

Unit conversion: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

a. Raw inspection data for end 1 scanning.

 

View alternative text

b. Pin elevation for end 1 scanning.

 

View alternative text

c. Pin cross section for end 1 scanning.

Figure 44. Pin 3 testing results.

 

Note

Scan angle, deg

Indication level, dB

Reference level, dB

Reading location, hh:mm

Beginning of signal location, hh:mm

End of signal location, hh:mm

Distance to index, inches

Sound path distance, inches

Axial distance, inches

Radial distance, inches

Red arrow pointing right

1

0

37

58

12:30

12:00

2:00

1

2.90

2.90

1.00

Greenarrow pointing right

2

0

45

58

7:00

6:00

8:00

1

4.90

4.90

1.00

Bluearrow pointing right

3

14

34

43

1:00

12:15

2:00

1/2

3.05

2.96

1.24

Orangearrow pointing right

4

14

35

43

6:30

6:00

7:30

1/2

5.05

4.90

1.72

Unit conversion: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

d. Raw inspection data for end 2 scanning.

  View alternative text

e. Pin elevation for end 2 scanning.

 

View alternative text

f. Pin cross section for end 2 scanning.

Figure 44. (Continued) Pin 3 testing results.

 

Note

Scan angle, deg

Indication level, dB

Reference level, dB

Reading location, hh:mm

Beginning of signal location, hh:mm

End of signal location, hh:mm

Distance to index, inches

Sound path distance, inches

Axial distance, inches

Radial distance, inches

Red arrow pointing right
1

0

36

58

1:00

12:30

2:00

3/4

3.75

3.75

0.75

Greenarrow pointing right

2

0

65

58

1:00

1:00

1:00

7/8

5.90

5.90

0.88

Bluearrow pointing right

3

14

40

43

12:30

12:00

12:30

5/8

3.95

3.83

1.58

Orangearrow pointing right

4

14

50

43

1:00

1:00

1:30

3/8

6.05

5.87

1.84

Unit conversion: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

a. Raw inspection data for end 1 scanning.

 

View alternative text

b. Pin elevation for end 1 scanning.

 

View alternative text

c. Pin cross section for end 1 scanning.

Figure 45. Pin 4 testing results.

 

Note

Scan angle, deg

Indication level, dB

Reference level, dB

Reading location, hh:mm

Beginning of signal location, hh:mm

End of signal location, hh:mm

Distance to index, inches

Sound path distance, inches

Axial distance, inches

Radial distance, inches

Red arrow pointing right

1

0

30

58

11:00

9:00

12:00

3/4

4.95

4.95

0.75

Greenarrow pointing right

2

14

42

43

11:00

10:00

12:00

5/8

5.05

4.9

1.85

Unit conversion: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

d. Raw inspection data for end 2 scanning.

 

View alternative text

e. Pin elevation for end 2 scanning.

View alternative text

f. Pin cross section for end 2 scanning.

Figure 45. (Continued) Pin 4 testing results.

 

Note

Scan angle, deg

Indication level, dB

Reference level, dB

Reading location, hh:mm

Beginning of signal location, hh:mm

End of signal location, hh:mm

Distance to index, inches

Sound path distance, inches

Axial distance, inches

Radial distance, inches

Red arrow pointing right

1

0

24

56

6:30

5:45

7:00

3/4

3.90

3.90

0.75

Greenarrow pointing right

2

14

39

43

6:00

5:30

6:30

9/16

4.00

3.85

1.53

Bluearrow pointing right

3

14

36

43

7:00

7:00

7:00

1/2

3.90

3.78

1.44

Unit conversion: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

a. Raw inspection data for end 1 scanning.

 

View alternative text

b. Pin elevation for end 1 scanning.

 

View alternative text

c. Pin cross section for end 1 scanning.

Figure 46. Pin 5 testing results.

 

Note

Scan angle, deg

Indication level, dB

Reference level, dB

Reading location, hh:mm

Beginning of signal location, hh:mm

End of signal location, hh:mm

Distance to index, inches

Sound path distance, inches

Axial distance, inches

Radial distance, inches

Red arrow pointing right

1

0

29

58

5:45

5:30

7:00

5/8

4.95

4.95

0.63

Greenarrow pointing right

2

14

40

43

6:00

5:30

7:00

5/8

5

4.85

1.83

Unit conversion: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

d. Raw inspection data for end 2 scanning.

 

View alternative text

e. Pin elevation for end 2 scanning.

 

View alternative text

f. Pin cross section for end 2 scanning.

Figure 46. (Continued) Pin 5 testing results.

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