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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-13-060
Date: June 2013

 

Ultra-High Performance Concrete: A State-Of-The-Art Report for The Bridge Community

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FOREWORD

Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is an advanced construction material that affords new opportunities for the future of the highway infrastructure. The Federal Highway Administration has been engaged in research on the optimal uses of UHPC in the highway bridge infrastructure since 2001 through its Bridge of the Future initiative. This report presents the state of the art in UHPC with regard to uses in the highway transportation infrastructure. Compiled from hundreds of references representing research, development, and deployment efforts around the world, this report provides a framework for gaining a deeper understanding of UHPC as well as a platform from which to increase the use of this class of advanced cementitious composite materials. This report will assist stakeholders, including State transportation departments, researchers, and design consultants, to grasp the capabilities of UHPC and thus use the material to address pressing needs in the highway transportation infrastructure.

Jorge Pagán-Ortiz
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

 

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

 

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-13-060

2. Government Accession No. 3 Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Ultra-High Performance Concrete:
A State-of-the-Art Report for the Bridge Community

5. Report Date

June 2013

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

Henry G. Russell and Benjamin A. Graybeal

8. Performing Organization Report No.

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Henry G. Russell, Inc.
Engineering Consultant
720 Coronet Road
Glenview, IL 60025-4457

10. Work Unit No.

11. Contract or Grant No. DTFH61-10-D-00017
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Infrastructure Research & Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final: 2011-2012

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

HRDI-40

15. Supplementary Notes This report was developed by Henry G. Russell, Inc., under subcontract to Professional Service Industries, Inc., of Herndon, VA, as part of FHWA's "Support Services for the Structures Laboratories" contract. Ben Graybeal (FHWA) provided technical oversight/assistance and drafted portions of the final report.
16. Abstract

The term Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) refers to a relatively new class of advanced cementitious composite materials whose mechanical and durability properties far surpass those of conventional concrete. This class of concrete has been demonstrated to facilitate solutions that address specific problems in the U.S. highway bridge infrastructure. Initial material development research on UHPC began more than two decades ago. First structural deployments began in the late 1990s. First field deployments in the U.S. highway transportation infrastructure began in 2006. For this study, UHPC-class materials are defined as cementitious-based composite materials with discontinuous fiber reinforcement that exhibit compressive strength above 21.7 ksi (150 MPa), pre- and post-cracking tensile strength above 0.72 ksi (5 MPa), and enhanced durability via a discontinuous pore structure.


The report documents the state of the art with regard to the research, development, and deployment of UHPC components within the U.S. highway transportation infrastructure. More than 600 technical articles and reports covering research and applications using UHPC have been published in English in the last 20 years, with many more published in other languages. The report includes information about materials and production, mechanical properties, structural design and structural testing, durability and durability testing, and actual and potential applications. The report concludes with recommendations for the future direction for UHPC applications in the United States.

17. Key Words

UHPC, ultra-high performance concrete, fiber reinforced concrete, bridges, structural performance, mechanical performance, durability, applications

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classification
(of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classification
(of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

171

22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized
Approximate Conversions to SI Units
Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol
Length
in inches 25.4 millimeters mm
ft feet 0.305 meters m
yd yards 0.914 meters m
mi miles 1.61 kilometers km
Area
in2 square inches 645.2 square millimeters mm2
ft2 square feet 0.093 square meters m2
yd2 square yard 0.836 square meters m2
ac acres 0.405 hectares ha
mi2 square miles 2.59 square kilometers km2
Volume
fl oz fluid ounces 29.57 milliliters mL
gal gallons 3.785 liters L
ft3 cubic feet 0.028 cubic meters m3
yd3 cubic yards 0.765 cubic meters m3
NOTE: volumes greater than 1000 L shall be shown in m3
Mass
oz ounces 28.35 grams g
lb pounds 0.454 kilograms kg
T short tons (2000 lb) 0.907 megagrams (or "metric ton") Mg (or "t")
Temperature (exact degrees)
°F Fahrenheit 5 (F-32)/9
or (F-32)/1.8
Celsius °C
Illumination
fc foot-candles 10.76 lux lx
fl foot-Lamberts 3.426 candela/m2 cd/m2
Force and Pressure or Stress
lbf poundforce 4.45 newtons N
lbf/in2 poundforce per square inch 6.89 kilopascals kPa

 

Approximate Conversions from SI Units
Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol
Length
mm millimeters 0.039 inches in
m meters 3.28 feet ft
m meters 1.09 yards yd
km kilometers 0.621 miles mi
Area
mm2 square millimeters 0.0016 square inches in2
m2 square meters 10.764 square feet ft2
m2 square meters 1.195 square yards yd2
ha hectares 2.47 acres ac
km2 square kilometers 0.386 square miles mi2
Volume
mL milliliters 0.034 fluid ounces fl oz
L liters 0.264 gallons gal
m3 cubic meters 35.314 cubic feet ft3
m3 cubic meters 1.307 cubic yards yd3
Mass
g grams 0.035 ounces oz
kg kilograms 2.202 pounds lb
Mg (or "t") megagrams (or "metric ton") 1.103 short tons (2000 lb) T
Temperature (exact degrees)
°C Celsius 1.8C+32 Fahrenheit °F
Illumination
lx lux 0.0929 foot-candles fc
cd/m2 candela/m2 0.2919 foot-Lamberts fl
Force and Pressure or Stress
N newtons 02.225 poundforce lbf
kPa kilopascals 0.145 poundforce per square inch lbf/in2

* SI is the symbol for the International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380. (Revised March 2003)

Table of Contents

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Equation. Compressive strength gain at any age after casting from Graybeal

Figure 2. Equation. Relationship between curing temperature and initiation of rapid compressive strength gain from Graybeal

Figure 3. Equation. Relationship between time after mix initiation and compressive strength as a function of curing temperature from Graybeal

Figure 4. Graph. Tensile stress-strain response of UHPC

Figure 5. Graph. Idealized uniaxial tensile mechanical response of a UHPC

Figure 6. Equation. Concrete tensile strength approximations

Figure 7. Equation. Graybeal equation for UHPC modulus of elasticity

Figure 8. Equation. Graybeal equation for UHPC modulus of elasticity

Figure 9. Equation. Ma et al. equation for UHPC modulus of elasticity

Figure 10. Photo. Flexural test of an AASHTO Type II girder made of UHPC

Figure 11. Equation. Strength of columns

Figure 12. Equation. Shear strength of UHPC beams

Figure 13. Photo. Mars Hill Bridge, Wapello County, IA

Figure 14. Photo. Route 64 over Cat Point Creek, Richmond County, VA

Figure 15. Photo. Jakway Park Bridge, Buchanan County, IA

Figure 16. Illustration. Cross section of pi-shaped girder 56

Figure 17. Illustration. Cross section showing CIP UHPC connection between precast beams

Figure 18. Photo. Pedestrian bridge, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada

Figure 19. Photo. Glenmore/Legsby pedestrian bridge, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Figure 20. Photo. Sakata-Mirai bridge, Sakata, Japan

Figure 21. Photo. Footbridge of Peace, Seoul, South Korea

Figure 22. Photo. Experimental precast pile made of UHPC

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Typical composition of Ductal®

Table 2. UHPC mix proportions of CRC by weight

Table 3. UHPC mix proportions from Teichmann and Schmidt

Table 4. UHPC mix proportions of Cor-Tuf by weight

Table 5. UHPC mix proportions for CEMTECmultiscale

Table 6. Parameters relevant to equation presented in figure 3

Table 7. Values of Poisson's ratio

Table 8. Values of coefficients of thermal expansion

Table 9. Range of UHPC material properties

Table 10. Reinforcement used in connections

Table 11. Measured transfer and development lengths

Table 12. UHPC properties used in finite element modeling

Table 13. Air-void system parameters

Table 14. UHPC applications in North America

Table 15. UHPC applications in Europe

Table 16. UHPC applications in Asia and Australia

Table 17. Other potential applications of UHPC

 

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