U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations
|This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information|
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-03-065
Date: September 2004
In-Vehicle Display Icons and Other Information Elements: Volume I
PDF Version (8.33 MB)
PDF files can be viewed with the Acrobat® Reader®
CHAPTER 14: REFERENCES
Adams, A. S., and Edworthy, J. (1995). Quantifying and predicting the effects of basic text display variables on the perceived urgency of warning labels: Tradeoffs involving font size, border weight and color. Ergonomics, 38(11), 2221-2237.
Advanced Systems Technology Branch. (1993). Preliminary human factors design standards for airway facilities (ACD-350). Atlantic City International Airport, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center.
American National Standards Institute. (1988). American national standard for human factors engineering of visual display workstations. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
American National Standards Institute. (1991). American national standard for environmental and facility safety signs: Z535.2. Washington, DC: Author.
American National Standards Institute. (1998). American national standard for criteria for safety symbols: Z535.3. Washington, DC: Author.
Arend, A., Muthig, K., and Wandmacher, J. (1987). Evidence for global superiority in menu selection by icons. Behaviour and Information Technology, 6, 411-426.
AS 2342. (1992). Development, testing, and implementation of information and safety symbols and symbolic signs. Sydney, Australia: Standards Australia.
Baber, C. and Wankling, J. (1992). An experimental comparison of text and symbols for in-car reconfigurable displays. Applied Ergonomics, 23(4), 255-262.
Barnard, P. and Marcel, T. (1984). Representation and understanding in the use of symbols and pictograms. In R. Easterby and H. Zwaga (Eds.), Information design: The design and evaluation of signs and printed material (pp. 37-75). New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Beardon, C. (1992). Computer-based iconic communication. In K. Ryan and R. Sutcliffe (Eds.), AI and cognitive science 1992 (pp. 263-276). New York: British Computer Society.
Belz, S. M., Robinson, G. S., and Casali, J. G. (1998). Auditory icons as impending collision system warning signals in commercial motor vehicles. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42nd Annual Meeting, 1127-1131.
Berglund, B., and Preis, A. (1997). Is perceived annoyance more subject-dependent than perceived loudness? Acoustica, 83(2), 313-319.
Blackwell, O. M., and Blackwell, H. R. (1971). Visual performance data for 156 normal observers of various ages. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, October, 3-13.
Blattner, M. M., Sumikawa, D. A., and Greenberg, R. M. (1989). Earcons and icons: Their structure and common design principles. Human-Computer Interaction, 4, 11-44.
Blattner, M. M. (1993). Sound in the multimedia interface (LLNL TR W-7405-Eng-48). Livermore, CA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Bliss, C. K. (1965). Semantography. Sydney, Australia: Semantography Publications.
Boff, K. R., Kaufman, L., and Thomas, J. P. (1986). Handbook of perception and human performance. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Brewster, S. A., Wright, P. C., and Edwards, A. D. (1993). An evaluation of earcons for use in auditory human-computer interfaces. INTERCHI '93, 222-227.
Brewster, S. A., Wright, P. C., and Edwards, A. D. N. (1994). A detailed investigation into the effectiveness of earcons. In G. Kramer (Ed.), Auditory display: Sonification, audification, and auditory interfaces, Volume XVII. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
Broadbent, D. E. and Gregory, M. (1963). Division of attention and the decision theory of signal detection. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 158, 222-231.
Broderbund. (1997). ClickArt 65,000: User's guide and visual catalog. Novato, CA: Broderbund.
Bucher, N. M., Karl, R. L., Voorhees, J. W., and Werner, E. (1984). Alerting prefixes for speech warning messages. IEEE Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Volume 2 (pp. 924-931). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.
Burt, J. L., Bartolome, D. S., Burdette, D. W., and Comstock, J. R. (1995). A psycho-physiological evaluation of the perceived urgency of auditory warning signals. Ergonomics, 38(11), 2327-2340.
Campbell, J. L., Carney, C., and Kantowitz, B. H. (1998). Human factors design guidelines for advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and commercial vehicle operations (CVO) (FHWA-RD-98-057). Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.
Campbell, J. L., Hooey, B. H., Carney, C., Hanowski, R. J., Gore, B. F., Kantowitz, B. H., and Mitchell, E. (1996). Investigation of alternative displays for side collision avoidance systems (Final Report). Seattle, WA: Battelle Seattle Research Center.
Campbell, J. L., Richman, J. B., Nakata, A., Simsek, O., and Schmidt, K. (2002). In-vehicle display icons and other information elements. Task E, Experiment 6. General versus specific icons: Implications for driver acceptance of IVIS messages (Final Report). Seattle, WA: Battelle Human Factors Transportation Center.
Carney, C., Campbell, J. L., and Mitchell, E. A. (1998). In-vehicle display icons and other information elements. Task A: Literature review (FHWA-RD-98-164). Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.
Caron, J. P, Jamieson, D. G., and Dewar, R. E. (1980). Evaluating pictographs using semantic differential and classification techniques. Ergonomics, 23(2), 137-146.
Christ, R. E. (1975). Review and analysis of color coding research for visual displays. Human Factors, 17(6), 542-570.
Cochran, D. J., Riley, M. W., and Douglas, E. I. (1981). An investigation of shapes for warning labels. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 25th Annual Meeting, 395-399.
Collins, B. L. (1983). Evaluation of mine-safety symbols. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 27th Annual Meeting, 947-949.
Collins, B. L. (1982). The development and evaluation of effective symbol signs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce (NBS Building Science Series, 141).
Corel. (1997). Corel gallery magic 200,000. Ottawa, Ontario: Corel Corporation.
Cowley, C. K., and Jones, D. M. (1992). Synthesized on digitized? A guide to the use of computer speech. Applied Ergonomics, 23(3), 172-176.
Crawford, A. (1963). Perception of light signals: The effects of mixing flashing and steady irrelevant lights. Ergonomics, 6(1), 287-294.
Davidoff, J. (1988). The use of color in visual displays. In D. J. Osborne (Ed.), International reviews of ergonomics (pp. 21-42). London: Taylor and Francis.
Decker, J. J., Pigion, R. D. and Snyder, H. L. (1987). A literature review and experimental plan for research on the display of information on matrix-addressable displays. Blacksburg, VA: Human Engineering Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Dewar, R. E. (1976). The slash obscures the symbol on prohibitive traffic signs. Human Factors, 18(3), 253-258.
Dewar, R. E. and Ells, J. G. (1974). A comparison of three methods for evaluating traffic signs. Transportation Research Record, 503, 38-47.
Dewar, R. E. and Ells, J. G. (1977). The semantic differential as an index of traffic sign perception and comprehension. Human Factors, 19(2), 183-189.
Dewar, R. E., Ells, J. G., and Mundy, G. (1976). Reaction time as an index of traffic sign perception. Human Factors, 18(4), 381-392.
Dewar, R. E., Kline, D. W., and Swanson, A. H. (1994). Age differences in comprehension of traffic sign symbols. Transportation Research Record, 1456, 1-10.
Dingus, T. A. and Hulse, M.C. (1993). Some human factors design issues and recommendations for automobile navigation information systems. Transportation Research, 1C(2), 119-131.
Donohoo, D. T. and Snyder, H. L. (1985). Accommodation during color contrast. Digest of the Society for Information Display, 200-203.
Dreyfuss, H. (1966). Case study: Symbols for industrial use. In G. Kepes (Ed.), Sign, image, symbol (pp. 126-133). New York: Braziller.
Easterby, R. S. (1967). Perceptual organization in static displays for man-machine systems. Ergonomics, 10(1), 193-205.
Easterby, R. S. (1969). The grammar of symbols. Print, 13, 6.
Easterby, R. S. (1970). The perception of symbols for machine displays. Ergonomics, 13(1), 149-158.
Easterby, R. S. and Zwaga, H. (1976). Evaluation of public information symbols, ISO tests: 1975 series (Report AP 60). Birmingham, UK: Applied Psychology Department, University of Aston at Birmingham.
Edigo, C. and Patterson, J. (1988). Pictures and category labels as navigational aids for catalog browsing. Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '88 Conference Proceedings, 127-132.
Edworthy, J. (1994). The design and implementation of non-verbal auditory warnings. Applied Ergonomics, 25(4), 202-210.
Edworthy, J. and Adams, A. (1996). Warning design: A research prospective. London, U.K.: Taylor and Francis.
Edworthy, J., Loxley, S., and Dennis, I. (1991). Improving auditory warning design: Relationship between warning sound parameters and perceived urgency. Human Factors, 33(2), 205-231.
Edworthy, J., Loxley, S., Geelhoed, E., and Dennis, I. (1989). The perceived urgency of auditory warnings. Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 11(5), 73-80.
Edworthy, J. and Stanton, N. (1995). A user-centered approach to the design and evaluation of auditory warning signals: 1. Methodology. Ergonomics, 38(11), 2262-2280.
Ells, J. G. and Dewar, R. E. (1979). Rapid comprehension of verbal and symbolic traffic sign messages. Human Factors, 21(2), 161-168.
Engen, T. (1971). Psychophysics: Scaling methods. In J. W. Kling and L. A. Riggs (Eds.), Woodworth and Schlosberg's experimental psychology (3rd ed.) (pp.47-86). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc.
Farrell, R. J. and Booth, J. M. (1984). Design handbook for imagery interpretation equipment. Seattle, WA: Boeing Aerospace Company.
Fowler, S. L. and Stanwick, V. R. (1995). The GUI style guide. New York: Academic Press.
Gaver, W. W. (1986). Auditory icons: Using sound in computer interfaces. Human-Computer Interaction, 2(2), 167-177.
Gaver, W. W. (1989). The sonic finder: An interface that uses auditory icons. Human-Computer Interaction, 4(1), 67-94.
Giddings, B. J. (1972). Alpha-numerics for raster displays. Ergonomics, 15(1), 65-72.
Glover, B. L., Magurno, A. B., Murray, L. A., and Wogalter, M. S. (1996). Pictorial negation: Preferences for different circle-slash variations. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 40th Annual Meeting, 910-914.
Graham, R., Hirst, S. J. and Carter, C. (1995). Auditory icons for collision avoidance warnings. Proceedings of the ITS America 1995 Annual Meeting, 1057-1063.
Green, P. (1981). Displays for automotive instrument panels: Production and rating of symbols. HSRI Research Review, July-August, 1-12.
Green, P., and George, K. (1995). When should auditory guidance systems tell drivers to turn? Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting, 1072-1076.
Green, P. and Pew, R. (1978). Evaluating pictographic symbols: An automotive application. Human Factors, 20, 103-114.
Haas, E. C. and Casali, J. G. (1995). Perceived urgency and response time to multi-tone and frequency modulated warning signals in broadband noise. Ergonomics, 38(11), 2313-2326.
Hakiel, S. R. (1991). Evaluating icons for human-computer interfaces (Report No. HF 144). Hursley Park, Winchester, UK: IBM UK Laboratories Ltd.
Hakkinen, M. T. and Williges, B. H. (1984). Synthesized warning messages: Effects of an alerting cue in single- and multiple-function voice synthesis systems. Human Factors, 26(2), 185-195.
Hart, A. (1986). Knowledge acquisition for expert systems. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Heglin, H. J. (1973). NAVSHIPS display illumination design guide: II. Human factors (NELC/TD223). San Diego, CA: Navel Electronics Laboratory Center.
Hellier, E., and Edworthy, J. (1989). Quantifying the perceived urgency of auditory warnings. Canadian Acoustics, 17(4), 3-11.
Hellier, E. Edworthy, J., and Dennis, I. (1993). Improving auditory warning design: Quantifying and predicting the effects of different warning parameters on perceived urgency. Human Factors, 35(4), 693-706.
Hemenway, K. (1982). Psychological issues in the use of icons in command menus. Proceedings of the CHI 1982 Conference on Human Factors in Computer Science, 20-23.
Hollander, M. and Wolfe, D. A. (1973). Nonparametric statistical methods. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Horton, W. K. (1994). The icon book: Visual symbols for computer systems and documentation. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Howell, W. C. and Kraft, C. L. (1959). Size, blur, and contrast as variables affecting the legibility of alpha-numeric symbols on radar-type displays (WADC Technical Report 59-536). Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: Wright Air Development Center (DTIC No. AD-232 889).
ISO 3864. (1984). International standard for safety colours and safety signs. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.
ISO 3461-1. (1988). General principles for the creation of graphical symbols, Part I: Graphical symbols for use on equipment. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.
ISO 7001. (1990). Public information symbols. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.
ISO/DIS 9186. (1988). Procedures for the development and testing of public information symbols. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.
ISO/TR 7239. (1984). Development and principles for application of public information symbols. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.
Jacobs, R. J., Johnston, A. W. and Cole, B. L. (1975). The visibility of alphabetic and symbolic traffic signs. Australian Road Research, 5(7), 68-86.
Joiner, C. (1998). Concept mapping in marketing: A research tool for uncovering consumers' knowledge structure associations. Advances in Consumer Research, XXV, 311-317.
Jones, S. D. and Furner, S. M. (1989). The construction of audio icons and information cues for human computer dialogues. Contemporary Ergonomics 1989. Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society's 1989 Annual Conference, 436-441.
Kantowitz, B. H. (1997, March). In-vehicle information systems: Premises, promises, and pitfalls. Paper presented at the Transportation Research Board Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems, Highway Safety and Human Factors, Washington, DC.
King, L. E. (1971). A laboratory comparison of symbol and word roadway signs. Traffic Engineering and Control, 12, 518-520.
Laird, D. A., and Coye, K. (1929). Psychological measurements of annoyance related to pitch and loudness. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1, 156-163.
Laughery, K. R., Sr., Rowe-Halbert, A. L., Young, S. L., Vaubel, K. P., and Laux, L. F. (1991). Effects of explicitness in conveying severity information in product warnings. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting, 481-485.
Laughery, K. R. Sr., and Stanush, J. A. (1989). Effects of warning explicitness on product perceptions. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting, 431-435.
Laughery, K. R., Sr., Vaubel, K. P., Young, S. L., Brelsford, J. W., Jr., and Rowe, A. L. (1993). Explicitness of consequence information in warnings. Safety Science, 16, 597-613.
Lee, J. D. (1997). A functional description of ATIS/CVO systems to accommodate driver needs and limits. In Y. I. Noy (Ed.), Ergonomics and safety of intelligent driver interfaces (pp. 63-84). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Lodding, K. N. (1983). Iconic interfacing. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 3(2), 11-20.
Main, B. W., Frantz, J. P., and Rhoads, T. P. (1993, July). Do consumers understand the difference between "flammable" and "combustible"? Ergonomics in Design, 1(3),14-17.
Marshall, D., Lee, J D., and Austria, A. (2001). Annoyance and urgency of auditory alerts for in-vehicle information systems. Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2, 1627-1631.
McCormick, E. J. and Sanders, M. S. (1982). Human factors in engineering and design (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
McGraw, K. and Harbison, K. (1997). User-centered requirements: The scenario-based engineering process. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
McMillan, G. R., Eggleston, R. G. and Anderson, T. R. (1997). Nonconventional controls. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 729- 771). New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
MIL-D-87213A. (1986). Military specification displays, airborne, electronically/optically generated. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
MIL-STD-1472D. (1989). Human engineering design criteria for military systems, equipment and facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.
Miller, R. B. (1971). Development of a taxonomy of human performance: Design of a systems task vocabulary (AIR-72/6/2053-3/71-TRII). Washington, DC: American Institute for Research.
Miller, R. B. (1974). A method for determining task strategies (AFHRL-TR-74-26). Washington, DC: American Institute for Research.
Modley, R. (1976). Handbook of pictorial symbols. New York: Dover Press.
Mollenhauer, M. A., Dingus, T. A., and Hulse, M. C. (1995). Recommendations for sensory mode selection for ATIS displays. Proceedings of the Institute of Transportation Engineers 65th Annual Meeting: A Compendium of Technical Papers (pp. 667-672). Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers.
Mourant, R. R. and Langolf, G. D. (1976). Luminance specifications for automobile instrument panels. Human Factors, 18(1), 71-84.
Mueller, C. G. (1951). Frequency of seeing functions for intensity discrimination at various levels of adapting intensity. Journal of General Psychology, 34, 463-474.
Murch, G. M. (1987). Visual perception basics. Society for Information Display Seminar Lecture Notes, 1, 2-1-2-36.
Murray, L. A., Magurno, A. B., Glover, B. L., and Wogalter, M. S. (1997). Prohibitive pictorials: Evaluations of different circle-slash negation symbols. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 22, 473-482.
Muter, P. and Mayson, C. (1986). The role of graphics in item selection for menus. Behaviour and Information Technology, 5(1), 89-95.
Neale, V. L., Dingus, T. A., Schroeder, A. D., Zellers, S., and Reinach, S. (1997). Development of human factors guidelines for advanced traveler information systems and commercial vehicle operations: Advanced traveler information system feature standardization (FHWA-RD-96-149). Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.
Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Meredith Publishing Co.
Patterson, R. D. (1982). Guidelines for auditory warnings systems on civil aircraft (Civil Aviation Authority paper 82017). London: Civil Aviation Authority.
Pomerantz, J. R. (1983). Global and local precedence: Selective attention in form and motion perceptions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112, 516-540.
Post, D. L. (1985). Effects of color on CRT symbol legibility. Society for Information Display 1985 Digest, 196-199.
Ramakrishnan, A. S., Cranston, R. L., Rosiles, A., Wagner, D., and Mital, A. (1999). Study of symbols coding in airway facilities. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 25(1), 39-50.
Rasmussen, J. (1986). Information processing and human-machine interaction: An approach to cognitive engineering. New York: North-Holland.
Reynolds, H. N. (1971). The visual effects of exposure to electroluminescent lighting. Human Factors, 13(1), 29-40.
Riley, M. W., Cochran, D. J., and Ballard, J. L. (1982). An investigation of preferred shapes for warning labels. Human Factors, 24(6), 737-742.
Rogers, Y. (1989) Icon design for the user interface. In D.J. Oborne (ed.) International Reviews of Ergonomics, 3, 129-155. London: Taylor and Francis.
Rohr, G. and Keppel, E. (1984). Iconic interfaces: Where to use and how to construct human factors in organisational design and management. The Netherlands: North-Holland.
Ross, T., Midtland, K., Fuchs, M., Pauzie, A., Engert, A., Duncan, B., Vaughan, G., Vernet, M., Peters, H., Burnett, G., and May, A. (1996). HARDIE design guidelines handbook: Human factors guidelines for information presentation by ATT systems (DRIVE II Project V2008).
Ross, T., Vaughan, G., and Nicolle, C. (1997). Design guidelines for route guidance systems: Development process and an empirical example for timing of guidance instructions. In Y. I. Noy (Ed.), Ergonomics and safety of intelligent driver interfaces (pp. 139-152). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sanders, M. S. and McCormick, E. J. (1993). Human factors in engineering and design (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Saunby, C. S., Farber, E. I., and DeMello, J. (1988). Driver understanding and recognition of automotive ISO symbols. SAE Technical Paper Series (No. 880056), Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
Schaeffer, M. S. (1987). Hologram luminance study (HAC IDC Ref. No. 061187.MSS). El Segundo, CA: Hughes Aircraft Company.
Schaeffer, M. S. (1989). Luminance control requirements for head-up and instrument panel displays (Report No. 89-27-07/G7696-002). El Segundo, CA: Hughes Aircraft Company.
Schurick, J. M., Williges, B. H., and Maynard, J. F. (1985). User feedback requirements with automatic speech recognition. Ergonomics, 28(11), 1543-1555.
Shaw, M. (1981). Recent advances in personal construct technology. New York: Academic Press.
Shurtleff, D. A. (1978). Legibility criteria in display design, selection, and evaluation. Unpublished technical document.
Shurtleff, D. A. (1980). How to make displays legible. La Mirada, CA: Human Interface Design.
Simpson, C. A., McCauley, M. E., Roland, E. F., Ruth, J. C., and Williges, B. H. (1987). Speech controls and displays. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors (pp. 549-574). New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Simpson, C. A. and Williams, D. H. (1980). Response time effects of alerting tone and semantic context for synthesized voice cockpit warnings. Human Factors, 22(3), 319-330.
Smith, M. J. and Cohen, W. J. (1997). Chapter 50: Design of computer terminal workstations. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (pp. 1637-1688). New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Smolders, J., Claes, T., Sablon, G., and Van Compernolle, D. (1994). On the importance of the microphone position for speech recognition in the car. Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Volume 1 (pp. 429-432).
Stanford, L. M., McIntyer, J. W. R., Nelson, T. M., and Hogan, J. T. (1988). Affective responses to commercial and experimental auditory alarm signals for anesthesia delivery and psychological monitoring equipment. International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 5, 111-118.
Stokes, A., Wickens, C., and Kyte, K. (1990). Display technology: Human factors concepts. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
Sumikawa, D. A. (1985). Guidelines for the integration of audio cues into computer user interfaces (UCRL 53656). Livermore, CA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Sumikawa, D. A., Blattner, M. M., Joy, K. I., and Greenberg, R. M. (1986). Guidelines for the syntactic design of audio cues in computer interfaces (UCRL-92925-REV.1). Livermore, CA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Theeuwes, J., Kramer, A. F., Hahn, S., and Irwin, D. E. (1998). Our eyes do not always go where we want them to go: Capture of the eyes by new objects. Psychological Science, 9(5), 379-385.
Torgerson, W. S. (1962). Theory and methods of scaling. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Trommelen, M. (1997). Effectiveness of explicit warnings. Safety Science, 25(1-3), 79-88.
Tufte, E. R. (1983). The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Tufte, E. R. (1990). Envisioning information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Tufte, E. E. (1997). Visual explanations: Images and quantities, evidence and narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Verwey, W. B., Alm, H., Groeger, J. A., Janssen, W. H., Kuiken, M. J., Schraagen, J. M., Schumann, J., van Winsum, W., and Wontorra, H. (1993). GIDS functions. In J. A. Michon (Ed.), Generic intelligent driver support: A comprehensive report on GIDS (pp. 113-144). London: Taylor and Francis.
Vora, P., Helander, M., Swede, H., and Wilson, J. (1991). Developing guidelines for symbol design: A comparison of evaluation methodologies. Interface '91, 6-11.
Walker, R. E., Nicolay, R. C., and Stearns, C. R. (1965). Comparative accuracy of recognizing American and international road signs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49(5), 322-375.
Wandmacher, J., and Arend, U. (1985). Superiority of global features in classification and matching. Psychological Research, 47, 143-151.
Wickens, C. D. (1987). Information processing, decision-making, and cognition. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors (pp. 549-574). New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Wickens, C. D. (1992). Engineering psychology and human performance (2nd edition). New York: Harper-Collins.
Wiedenbeck, S. (1999). The use of icons and labels in an end user application program: An empirical study of learning and retention. Behaviour & Information Technology, 18(2), 68-82.
Wierwille, W. W. (1993). Visual and manual demands of in-car controls and displays. In B. Peacock and W. Karwowski (Eds.), Automotive ergonomics (pp. 229-320). London: Taylor and Francis.
Wilson, J. R. and Corlett, E. N. (1990). Evaluation of human work. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Wogalter, M. S. and Sojourner, R. J. (1997). Comprehension and retention of safety pictorials. Ergonomics, 40(5), 532-542.
Wogalter, M. S., and Young, S. L. (1991). Behavioural compliance to voice and print warnings. Ergonomics, 34(1), 78-89.
Woodson, W. E., and Conover, D. W. (1964). Human engineering guide for equipment designers (2nd ed.) Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Young, S. I., Laughery, K. R., and Bell, A. (1992). Effects of two type density characteristics on the legibility of print. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 905-909.
Zhang, J. J. (1996). A representational analysis of relational information displays. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 45(1), 59-74.
Zhang, J. J. and Norman, D. A. (1995). A representational analysis of numeration systems. Cognition, 57(3), 271-295.
Zwaga, H. J., and Boersema, T. (1983). Evaluation of a set of graphic symbols. Applied Ergonomics, 14(1), 43-54.
Zwaga, H. and Easterby, R. S. (1984). Developing effective symbols for public information. In R. Easterby and H. Zwaga (Eds.), Information design: The design and evaluation of signs and printed material (pp. 277-297). New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Zwicker, E. and Scharf, B. (1965). A model of loudness summation. Psychological Review, 72, 3-26.