Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home
Report
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-100
Date: September 2005

Safety Effects of Marked Versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations Final Report and Recommended Guidelines

PDF Version (3.21 MB)

PDF files can be viewed with the Acrobat® Reader®

APPENDIX C. PLOTS OF EXPECTED PEDESTRIAN CRASHES BASED ON THE FINAL NEGATIVE BINOMIAL PREDICTION MODEL

Figure 45. Graph. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Pedestrian Volume" from 0 to 900 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. Both the marked and unmarked series remain relatively flat at 0.10 for the number of crashes.

Figure 45. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, two lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic = 10,000.

Figure 46. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, two lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume equals 100. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Traffic (Motor Vehicle)" from 0 to 20,000 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. The marked crosswalk series ends slightly higher than the unmarked series, around 0.10 on the Y-axis rather than 0.05 for the unmarked series.

Figure 46. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, two lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume = 100.

Figure 47. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, two lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic equals 15,000. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Pedestrian Volume" from 0 to 900 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. Both the marked and unmarked series remain relatively flat, at 0.10 and 0.05, respectively, for the number of crashes.

Figure 47. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, two lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic = 15,000.

Figure 48. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, two lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic equals 2,000. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Pedestrian Volume" from 0 to 900 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. Both the marked and unmarked series remain flat at slightly under 0.10 for the number of crashes.

Figure 48. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, two lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic = 2,000.

Figure 49 Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, two lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume = 50.

Figure 50. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, two lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume equals 800. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Traffic (Motor Vehicle)" from 0 to 20,000 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. The marked crosswalk series ends slightly higher than the unmarked series, around 0.10 on the Y-axis rather than 0.05 for the unmarked series.

Figure 50. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, two lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume = 800.

Figure 51. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic equals 10,000. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Pedestrian Volume" from 0 to 300 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. Both marked and unmarked series remain flat, at 0.12 and 0.05 on the Y-axis, respectively.

Figure 51. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic = 10,000.

Figure 52. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume equals 100. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Traffic (Motor Vehicle)" from 0 to 40,000 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. In this graph, the marked series curves up to 0.6 on the Y-axis at 35,000 ADT while the unmarked series remains flat at 0.10 on the Y-axis.

Figure 52. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume = 100.

Figure 53. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic equals 15,000. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Pedestrian Volume" from 0 to 300 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. The marked crosswalk series remains flat at 0.20 on the Y-axis, and the unmarked series remains flat at 0.05.

Figure 53. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic = 15,000.

Figure 54. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume equals 150. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Traffic (Motor Vehicle)" from 0 to 40,000 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. In this graph, the marked series curves up to 0.60 on the Y-axis at 35,000 ADT while the unmarked series remains flat at 0.10 on the Y-axis.

Figure 54. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume = 150.

Figure 55. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume equals 200. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Traffic (Motor Vehicle)" from 0 to 40,000 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. In this graph, the marked series curves up to 0.65 on the Y-axis at 35,000 ADT while the unmarked series remains flat at 0.10 on the Y-axis.

Figure 55. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume = 200.

Figure 56. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume equals 50. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Traffic (Motor Vehicle)" from 0 to 40,000 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. In this graph, the marked series curves up to 0.60 on the Y-axis at 35,000 ADT while the unmarked series remains flat at 0.10 on the Y-axis.

Figure 56. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily pedestrian volume = 50.

Figure 57. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic equals 7,500. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Pedestrian Volume" from 0 to 300 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. The marked crosswalk series remains flat at 0.12 on the Y-axis, and the unmarked series remains flat at 0.08.

Figure 57. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with no median, average daily motor vehicle traffic = 7,500.

Figure 58. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily pedestrian volume equals 100. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Traffic (Motor Vehicle)" from 10,000 to 60,000 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. In this graph, the marked series curves up to 0.85 on the Y-axis at 50,000 ADT while the unmarked series remains flat at 0.04 on the Y-axis.

Figure 58. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily pedestrian volume = 100.

Figure 59. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily motor vehicle traffic equals 15,000. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Pedestrian Volume" from 0 to 300 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. The marked crosswalk series remains flat at 0.10 on the Y-axis, and the unmarked series remains flat at 0.05.

Figure 59. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily motor vehicle traffic = 15,000.

Figure 60. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily pedestrian volume equals 150. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Traffic (Motor Vehicle)" from 10,000 to 60,000 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. In this graph, the marked series curves up to 0.85 on the Y-axis at 50,000 ADT while the unmarked series remains flat at 0.04 on the Y-axis.

Figure 60. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily pedestrian volume = 150.

Figure 61. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily pedestrian volume equals 200. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Traffic (Motor Vehicle)" from 10,000 to 60,000 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. In this graph, the marked series curves up to 0.85 on the Y-axis at 50,000 ADT while the unmarked series remains flat at 0.02 on the Y-axis.

Figure 61. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily pedestrian volume = 200.

Figure 62. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily motor vehicle traffic equals 22,500. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Pedestrian Volume" from 0 to 300 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. The marked crosswalk series remains flat at 0.15 on the Y-axis, and the unmarked series remains flat at 0.02.

Figure 62. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily motor vehicle traffic = 22,500.

Figure 63. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily motor vehicle traffic equals 32,000. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Pedestrian Volume" from 0 to 300 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. The marked crosswalk series remains flat at 0.25 on the Y-axis, and the unmarked series remains flat at 0.02.

Figure 63. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily motor vehicle traffic = 32,000.

Figure 64. Graph. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily motor vehicle traffic equals 7,500. This line graph has an X-axis labeled, "Average Daily Pedestrian Volume" from 0 to 300 and a Y-axis labeled, "Number of Crashes in 5 Years" from 0.00 to 1.10. The marked crosswalk series remains flat at 0.08 on the Y-axis, and the unmarked series remains flat at 0.05.

Figure 64. Response curves with 95 percent confidence intervals based on negative binomial regression model, five lanes with median, average daily motor vehicle traffic = 7,500.

Previous | Table of Contents | Next

ResearchFHWA
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration