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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-10-073
Date: November 2010

Roadway Geometry and Inventory Trade Study for IntelliDriveSM Applications Applications

APPENDIX C. ROADWAY DATA SOURCE PROFILES

COMMERCIAL ROADWAY NETWORKS

Interviews were conducted with four of the five commercial developers of roadway networks databases that provide nationwide all-road coverage for vehicle routing, navigation, and location-based services.1 The purpose of the interviews was threefold: (1) to accurately identify what roadway geometry and inventory data items are currently included in each developer's roadway network database, (2) to learn more about developers' internal procedures for updating and enhancing their databases, and (3) to explore each developer's current business plans for creating a national roadway database to support IntelliDrive applications.

The four commercial database developers interviewed were ALK® Technologies, Inc., DeLorme, NAVTEQ™, and Tele Atlas®. Brief profiles of each firm and summaries of their responses to interview questions are presented here.

ALK® Technologies, Inc.

Web site: http://www.alk.com/

ALK® is a privately held information technology company specializing in transportation and logistics software solutions and the development of roadway map data. The company was founded in 1979 and is headquartered in Princeton, NJ.

ALK®'s PC*MILER® business solutions provide industry-standard PC*MILER® mileages, routes and maps via back-office and Web-based solutions deployment. First introduced in 1986, PC*MILER® components are used today throughout the freight transportation industry for routing, scheduling, rating, driver pay, toll and fuel calculations, and fuel tax filing and auditing purposes.

ALK®'s CoPilot® business provides GPS navigation solutions to the consumer and business markets worldwide. In 1990, ALK® launched a back-office trip-generating service for the consumer market and then expanded its consumer-related offerings with a series of desktop trip-planning products. In 1997, ALK® launched its CoPilot® GPS navigation business and in 2002 expanded into the European market with the launch of CoPilot Live® turn-by-turn navigation for Pocket PCs and Windows Mobile smartphones. Today, CoPilot Live® provides GPS navigation solutions for Android, iPhone, and iPad. ALK® provides CoPilot® solutions for a variety of onboard computers, PNDs, handheld devices, and smartphones.

ALK®'s map business has historically bundled ALK Digital Maps™ with both PC*MILER® and CoPilot® solutions. Originally optimized to function within just ALK® software solutions, ALK Digital Maps™ is now available for licensing to third parties.

1. What is the source of your roadway network?

ALK Digital Maps™ is derived from the U.S. Census TIGER/Line®, U.S. Postal Service, Statistics Canada roadway data, and Canada Post information. ALK® processes millions of GPS tracks from its consumer and commercial customers and utilizes a variety of satellite and aerial imagery for validation purposes. ALK® developed and utilizes a proprietary GIS network editing system to enhance ALK Digital Maps™ to meet the specific needs of the North American commercial trucking, transportation, and logistics industries. As such, the roadway data has been topologically connected and attributed to support turn-by-turn commercial vehicle routing (e.g., identification of one-way streets, turn restrictions, bridge height, weight, truck prohibited roads, HAZMAT restrictions, etc.).

2. How are roadway geometry and inventory data items updated?

ALK® uses a variety of public and private sources for updating its roadway database. The company has developed relationships with thousands of Federal, State, and local government agencies and combines information gathered from public sources with detailed feedback from its large base of consumer and commercial customers. ALK® has implemented an electronic GPS track collection and processing system that helps to identify and accurately position new roads, interstate on- and off-ramps, traffic patterns, real-time speeds, and travel times. Additionally, ALK® customers routinely identify map improvements by phone, fax, and email and by submitting GPS log files to ALK®.

ALK® actively works with Federal, State, and local agencies to obtain updates of roadway information (e.g., new roads, changes in attributes, etc.). Additionally, ALK® has created an ALK MapSure™ service for its CoPilot Live® (version 8) North American customers, which enables them to report missing addresses and changes in roadway attributes to ALK® and to receive a map update that incorporates these changes within 45 days.

The locational accuracy of the roadway geometry varies depending on a variety of factors including road type, data source, and whether or not GPS tracks have been submitted for a particular segment. The majority of ALK Digital Maps™ data have a positional accuracy of 3.28–9.84 ft (1–3 m).

3. How long, typically, is the lag time between when a change in a roadway feature or attribute is identified and when it becomes available to your database customers?

ALK®'s master roadway database is updated continually as corrections, enhancements, and changes are obtained from various sources. A new "snapshot" of the entire roadway database is built weekly for internal use.

ALK® releases updates of its roadway data on different schedules depending on the product and specific customer requirements. CoPilot Live® mobile navigation customers can download maintenance updates (user-reported updates) monthly and can obtain a full map update quarterly. Updates for PC*MILER® customers are handled on a case-by-case basis, depending on individual requirements. For some customers, ALK® is moving toward providing near-real-time updates. In emergency situations, like a bridge collapse, ALK® can issue map data overrides in a matter of hours.

4. Who are your principal customers for roadway data?

ALK®'s principal customers for roadway data have been its PC*MILER® and CoPilot® product customers. PC*MILER® sells primarily to the commercial trucking, transportation, and logistics industries. CoPilot® sells to general consumers, business fleets, telematics solution providers, commercial truck manufacturers, and manufacturers of smartphones and handsets.

5. Are you planning to develop a roadway database that would support IntelliDrive applications?

ALK® currently does not plan to develop roadway map databases specifically for the IntelliDrive application market. However, ALK Digital Maps™ could be extended to incorporate new roadway attributes should a supporting business case for this market materialize.

6. Do you collect and maintain roadway features that serve specialized markets, such as commercial vehicles or pedestrians?

Yes. To support ALK's PC*MILER® business solution, ALK Digital Maps™ incorporates a large number of truck-specific attributes, including bridge clearances; size and weight restrictions; designated, restricted, and prohibited truck routes; HAZMAT routes and restrictions; and toll roads and toll costs by vehicle class and direction. Truck-specific POIs, including truck stops, State weigh stations, and certified automated truck scales; major freight destinations, including military installations, intermodal terminals, and railroad freight stations; and standard point location codes for freight billing also are actively maintained.

To support ALK®'s CoPilot® GPS navigation solution, ALK Digital Maps™ are enhanced with height, weight, and bridge clearance information, scenic route designations, fuel locations, campgrounds, and other consumer-oriented POIs. For CoPilot® business customers, ALK Digital Maps™ are enhanced with depot locations and other business facilities, business-designated through roads, and branded POIs from major commercial chains, customers, and advertising partners.

7. What impact do you think that "free" navigation data such as Google Maps™ or OpenStreetMap, will have on market share and profitability of your roadway map data?

ALK® does not think that Google™'s recent development of a roadway database will impact its market share for its transportation industry customers. Among business customers, quality is paramount, and ALK® believes that with its 25-year history of serving this market, they can deliver a superior quality product. Neither Google Maps™ nor OpenStreetMap currently are able to support transportation and logistics customers, and ALK® believes that they each have a long way to go in order to become viable within that market.

In the general consumer market, the new entries may cut into ALK®'s market share, but ALK® believes that the total number of customers will increase as the overall market for GPS navigation solutions continues to expand due to a combination of growing public awareness, price reduction, and the availability of digital map products on the market. This customer growth will help ALK® to improve and update its core map data and enhance its customer offerings. ALK® also believes that there are numerous emerging options to further monetize its existing investment in map data within the consumer market.

DeLorme

Web site: http://www.delorme.com/

DeLorme is a commercial map maker founded in 1976 and headquartered in Yarmouth, ME. It produces a variety of products serving both the general public and commercial customers, including paper maps, atlases and gazetteers, GIS and navigation software, GPS receivers, and geospatial data. DeLorme produces and markets several software products for the general consumer, including Street Atlas USA®, a route planning and navigation software package for use with computers, wireless devices, and GPS receivers; Topo USA™, GPS mapping, route planning, and navigation software oriented toward offroad exploration and the outdoor recreation market with extensive information on hiking trails, campgrounds, topography, land cover, etc.; and XMap®, a full-function GIS software package.

DeLorme has developed a number of geospatial databases that can be used with its mapping, routing, and GPS navigation software. These databases are also sold separately for use with other GIS software packages. The DeLorme Base Map, World is a worldwide topographic data set with a horizontal accuracy of ±164 ft (50 m) and a consistent level of detail and resolution for all features worldwide. Transportation features, including roads and railroads, are topologically connected to support routing and navigation. Elevation data are based on the Shuttle Radar Terrain Model, which uses point elevation measurements taken at 3 arc second intervals (approximately every 196.8–295.2 ft (60–90 m), depending on latitude).

The DeLorme North America Data Set™ contains an all-roads database for the United States and Canada. The roads layer, along with other geospatial features (e.g., railroads, airports, hydrography, place names, and State, county, and urban area boundaries) are part of the Reference Base Map data set. Elevation data, along with hiking trails, land cover, public land boundaries, and more detailed hydrographic data, are included in the Topographic Data Set, which is oriented toward the offroad market. The elevation data were derived from USGS digital elevation model data, which uses point elevation measures posted every 32.8 ft (10 m). Elevation data are not explicitly integrated into the roads layer. Additional roadway attribute data, including highway functional classification, one-way streets, bridge heights on major roads, some road signage, and designation of overpasses and underpasses, are part of the Routing Data Set.

1. What is the source of your roadway network?

Most of the geospatial data in the North America Data Set™ were originally compiled from public data sources, including the Census TIGER/Line® files, USGS National Map data, Statistics Canada, and other State and local data sources. DeLorme has enhanced the locational accuracy of the source data by redigitizing the line work using "best available" orthoimagery data obtained from USGS and other publicly available State and local sources.

2. How are roadway geometry and inventory data items updated?

DeLorme relies most heavily on publicly available secondary data sources to update its roadway geometry database. The primary sources for updating are orthoimagery databases that have been collected under national programs such as the National Digital Orthoimagery Program or by State and local agencies.

DeLorme also obtains updated data from State and local agencies but does not have any formal or exclusive data-sharing agreements with specific agencies. DeLorme also provides a reporting capability, both on its Web site and with each software product, that enables users to report errors or submit revisions to its databases.

DeLorme has no external field staff or roadway inventory vehicles and therefore does not conduct its own independent verification of information received from its update sources.

3. How long, typically, is the lag time between when a change in a roadway feature or attribute is identified and when it becomes available to your database customers?

Roadway data are updated on a continuing basis, but DeLorme releases an annual update of its North America roadway data in conjunction with its Street Atlas USA® product. A small subset of commercial customers can update twice a year.

4. Who are your principal customers for roadway data?

DeLorme believes that its comparative strength and market niche is in producing maps and geospatial data for rural areas. The corporate slogan is "where the pavement ends," and its most lucrative customer markets are related to outdoor recreation (hiking, backcountry camping, hunting and fishing, offroad vehicles) and oil and gas exploration. The Topographic Data Set is specifically oriented toward these markets with geospatial layers showing elevation, natural features, and land cover, and its PND product line has been designed specifically for rugged, outdoor use.

5. Are you planning to develop a roadway database that would support IntelliDrive applications?

DeLorme currently does not plan to develop a roadway database with the additional roadway attributes and enhanced geospatial accuracy necessary to support IntelliDrive applications. Given its relatively small size and absence of a nationwide field staff, DeLorme does not believe that it can compete profitably against larger international firms like NAVTEQ™ or Tele Atlas® in serving the IntelliDrive market.

6. Do you collect and maintain roadway features that serve specialized markets, such as commercial vehicles or pedestrians?

In addition to serving the rural, offroad market, DeLorme includes some data on bridge height and weight restrictions (derived from FHWA's NBI) and on truck roadside weigh and inspection stations. However, commercial trucking does not represent a major customer for DeLorme roadway data.

7. What impact do you think that "free" navigation data such as Google Maps™ or OpenStreetMap, will have on market share and profitability of your roadway map data?

DeLorme does not see Google™'s recent development of a roadway database as a serious competitor for its customers. Street Atlas USA® operates as a stand-alone trip planner in addition to supporting its product line of GPS PNDs, and the North America Data Set™ includes many more geospatial features than Google Maps™. DeLorme believes that Google™'s widespread visibility and ease of access to mapping will increase public awareness of mapping products and could potentially enlarge the market for such products as Street Atlas and Topo USA™.

NAVTEQ™

Web site: http://www.NAVTEQ.com/

NAVTEQ™ is a major provider of digital map data for automotive in-vehicle navigation systems, mobile navigation devices, and Internet mapping applications both in North America and worldwide. The Chicago-based company was founded in 1985 and has more than 4,700 employees located in over 200 offices across 46 countries. In 2008, NAVTEQ™ was acquired by and operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia Corporation, a Finland-based company that is one of the largest cell phone manufacturers worldwide.

NAVTEQ™'s North American roadway network data are used in a variety of in-vehicle navigation systems, portable GPS navigation devices, wireless navigation applications for most cell phone manufacturers, and Internet mapping services. NAVTEQ™ has also been an ongoing participant in research related to roadway data for IntelliDrive applications.

To support current vehicle routing and navigation applications, NAVTEQ™ roadway databases are fully connected topologically and include roadway attributes needed for correct vehicle routing, including one-way streets, turn prohibitions, and restrictions on use of certain lanes (e.g., HOV/HOT lanes). NAVTEQ™ roadway data also include posted speed limits, number of lanes, bridge and tunnel locations, railroad crossings, and locations of medians. NAVTEQ™ is also collecting and incorporating detailed lane attributes at complex intersections, including location and number of turn lanes, ramp transition lanes, lane-level restrictions and temporal qualifiers (where applicable), and location of traffic control signals and signs. These enhancements currently are available for all controlled access highways and in selected North American cities. Additional cities will be added in the future.

NAVTEQ™ data are published in several formats, including GDF, two common GIS data formats—ESRI shapefiles and MapInfo Table format—and a Relational Data Format.

1. What is the source of your roadway network?

NAVTEQ™ leverages a combination of sources and technologies for both collection and verification of roadway data. While some public domain geospatial data were used as a foundation, NAVTEQ™ uses a total of 80,000 sources to build and update its roadway map data. NAVTEQ™ employs over 1,000 geographic analysts who drive the roads to validate the quality of sources and to collect over 260 attributes based on direct observation and a global specification.

NAVTEQ™'s quality control and quality assurance procedures have established a maximum locational error of 16.4–49.2 ft (5–15 m). However, NAVTEQ™ also has worked closely with industry leaders to help define new requirements for increased locational accuracy requirements for ADAS applications. NAVTEQ™ is currently upgrading accuracy standards to a maximum of 16.4 ft (5 m) absolute error and 3.28 ft (1 m) relative error and employing these standards for future roadway data updates. NAVTEQ™ has completed this enhancement for all controlled access highways and approximately 80 percent of secondary roads in North America; additional coverage will be added in the future based on input from customers developing ADAS applications.

2. How are roadway geometry and inventory data items updated?

NAVTEQ™'s primary means of updating its roadway data is through its extensive field staff. Local field staff maintain ongoing relationships with State and local transportation agencies to obtain information on roadway changes (e.g., new roads, road closings, designation of one-way streets). Additionally, NAVTEQ™'s fleet of roadway inventory vehicles resurvey roads on a regular, multiyear schedule.

NAVTEQ™ also maintains a Map Reporter page on its Web site through which users may report errors or changes in current NAVTEQ™ maps.

3. How are roadway geometry attributes that change frequently, such a horizontal curves and grades, represented in your roadway network?

Roadway curvature and slope data are stored as attributes of nodes and shape points for those roadway segments that have enhanced locational accuracy to support ADAS applications. Horizontal curvature is represented by a measure of curvature and heading at shape points along the curve. Slope is represented by both absolute elevation and gradient at shape points along the road segment where slope is present.

4. How long, typically, is the lag time between when a change in roadway feature or attribute is identified and when it becomes available to your database users?

Roadway geometry and attribute data are updated continually by NAVTEQ™, and new public releases are currently published four times a year.

5. Do you envision that the roadway database developed to support IntelliDrive applications would be a separate product from your current vehicle navigation database?

NAVTEQ™ has developed its roadway database to support a variety of customers and use cases, including ADAS. IntelliDrive applications will most likely use both basic roadway geometry and attributes currently used for navigation, as well as the increased locational accuracy and advanced attributes such as measures of roadway curvature and slope.

IntelliDrive applications would need to integrate the roadway database into a vehicle's on-board computer system. NAVTEQ™ has proposed utilizing its Map and Positioning Engine (MPE™) map, which integrates the essential roadway geometry and critical attribute data required for IntelliDrive applications. This simplified map can be updated more efficiently and installed in an MPE™ that can deliver the necessary data for a defined range ahead of the vehicle (i.e., the electronic horizon) directly to the controller-area network (CAN) bus on each vehicle. The MPE™ architecture combines GPS, dead reckoning, MPE™ map, and the electronic horizon into a single low-cost, compact device that is always on and can be installed in all vehicles whether or not they have supplemental navigation systems.

6. How would updates to roadway data be transmitted to end users?

To support IntelliDrive applications, updates to key roadway data would need to be provided more often than quarterly and would need to be provided automatically, rather than dependent on the end user to download them. One option would be to transmit updates for specific geographic areas (e.g., a 1-mi2 (2.59-km2) tile) directly to the MPE™ for vehicles entering the area using DSRC or some other wireless communications technology. The updating process would be automatic and would require no action by the driver.

7. Do you see any limitations in the type of data that can be maintained in a roadway geometry and inventory database?

Roadway map data provide important road-based information that can be combined with data provided by other sensors to support specific IntelliDrive applications. Map data provides the longer range "over the horizon" view of upcoming roadway conditions and potential hazards that cannot be detected by in-vehicle stability sensors (e.g., gyroscopes, wheel slip detectors) or near field vehicle-mounted sensors (e.g., radar, LIDAR, or video).

Additionally, roadway map data are best at providing information that stays relatively constant over time, such as roadway curvature and grades or locations of fixed roadway features such as signs, guardrails, or traffic lights. Map data are not well suited to provide information that is highly dynamic or irregular, such as the current phase of a traffic signal or railroad crossing gate or roadway weather or traffic conditions. This type of information needs to be communicated directly to the vehicle through some form of wireless technology.

8. Do you collect and maintain roadway features that serve specialized markets, such as commercial vehicles or pedestrians?

NAVTEQ™ has developed a set of roadway attributes that enable routing and guidance specific to large trucks, which it markets as a supplemental database to its core roadway data file (NAVTEQ Transport™). Additional attributes include physical restrictions such as bridge height and weight clearances, legal restrictions such as truck speed limits, turn restrictions, and signs oriented toward large vehicles such as crosswinds or steep grades.

NAVTEQ™ also has developed NAVTEQ Discover Cities™, which includes pedestrian-oriented data items such as transit (bus and rail) stops, crosswalks, pedestrian- and bicycle-only pathways, and time-of-day restrictions on access to specific POIs. Discover Cities™ is currently available for about 30 North American cities, and NAVTEQ™ plans to expand to new cities every year, focusing on the major metropolitan areas.

9. What do you see as the most significant obstacles to the commercial development and deployment of roadway map databases to serve IntelliDrive applications?

There is currently little in the way of specific guidance or standards on what roadway data will be needed to support IntelliDrive applications, so commercial roadway developers are proceeding cautiously to incorporate attributes that seem to be important but also are practical to collect given current technology.

Tele Atlas®

Web site: http://www.teleatlas.com/index.htm

Tele Atlas® is a major provider of digital map data for automotive in-vehicle navigation systems, PNDs, and Internet-based mapping applications, both in North America and worldwide. It currently provides roadway map coverage for more than 200 countries and territories and has offices in 27 countries around the world. Tele Atlas®'s North American headquarters is located in Lebanon, NH.

Tele Atlas® was founded in 1984 in the Netherlands. In 2000, it acquired ETAK, an early developer of in-vehicle navigation systems and navigation-based roadway data, and in 2004, it acquired Geographic Data Technologies, a U.S. digital mapping firm founded by Don Cooke in 1980. Through these two acquisitions, Tele Atlas® became a major competitor in the U.S. digital roadway map database market. In 2008, Tele Atlas® was acquired by TomTom, another Netherlands-based company that produces PNDs.

Tele Atlas®'s North American roadway network data are used in navigation systems installed in certain new vehicles for auto manufacturers like BMW and Ford, in products developed by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) like DENSO, for various PNDs including Blaupunkt, Navman, Pioneer, and TomTom, and for automotive traffic reporting services such as INRIX. Tele Atlas® data are also used as roadway basemaps by several State transportation and emergency management agencies, including New York and Washington.

Tele Atlas® map data are published in several formats, including GDF and ESRI shapefiles. The map data are updated on a continuous basis, with new public releases published four times per year.

1. What is the source of your roadway network?

The Tele Atlas® U.S. roadway network was originally derived from public data sources, including the Census TIGER/Line® files and USGS topographic maps. Since the early 1990s, the network has been updated and substantially enhanced through a variety of procedures, including use of high-resolution orthoimagery, GPS-equipped vehicles operated by Tele Atlas® staff, updates from State and local data sources, and through feedback from Tele Atlas® map users. With its acquisition by TomTom, Tele Atlas® gained exclusive access to vehicle-based GPS tracks collected through TomTom's MapShare program, whereby vehicles using TomTom PNDs are anonymously tracked as probes based on GPS coordinates.

Current quality control and quality assurance procedures developed for Tele Atlas® navigation applications have defined a maximum locational error of 42.6 ft (13 m). However, in anticipation of increased locational accuracy requirements for ADAS applications, Tele Atlas® is enhancing accuracy standards to a maximum of 16.4 ft (5 m) absolute error and 3.28 ft (1 m) relative error.

2. How are roadway geometry and inventory data items updated?

Tele Atlas® plans to continue to use all of the previously mentioned sources for updating and enhancing its roadway database but will substantially increase its use of "community input" or "user-generated content" as a major source for updating and enhancing its roadway geometry data. There currently are over 30 million TomTom PNDs in service worldwide. Compiling the GPS vehicle tracks recorded by all TomTom users in the United States and Canada can generate traces of roadway mileage equivalent to covering the entire North American road network once a day; in Europe it is equivalent to covering the European road network four times per day. By developing efficient procedures to process and summarize this vast amount of vehicle track data, Tele Atlas® expects to be able to extract more accurate location information on roadway lane centerlines, turning lanes, intersection stop locations, and the location of new roads (e.g., multiple tracks that seem to leave the existing roadway network).

GPS vehicle tracks can also provide information on average speeds (e.g., greater distances between successive GPS points indicate higher speeds). By developing more sophisticated data processing methods, it may be possible to create driver-based speed profiles, with both average and ranges of speed, over specific roadway segments. With this information, it may even be possible to develop IntelliDrive applications that specifically account for individual driving behavior (e.g., someone who typically drives faster than average may be able to adjust their speed or curve departure warning to activate only when their speed exceeds the 80th percentile of all drivers using that section of road).

Tele Atlas® has reduced, but not eliminated, its use of roadway inventory vehicles driven by in house staff. These vehicles will continue to be used to verify new roads and to provide updates to roadway attributes that cannot be extracted from GPS vehicle tracks.

Tele Atlas® maintains contacts with many State and local agencies to obtain updates for local roadway geometry and attribute data. However, there is considerable variation in the quality, frequency, and type of data that these agencies provide. Most often, this information is used to identify areas that need to be investigated or revisited by Tele Atlas® rather than used directly to update roadway attributes.

3. How are roadway geometry attributes that change frequently, such a horizontal curves and grades, represented in your roadway network?

The coordinates of all endpoints and intermediate shape points used to draw a roadway segment include latitude, longitude, and elevation. Measures of curves and grades are calculated from these point measures. When the calculated measure is constant over the entire segment, a single value is assigned at each endpoint. However, when the calculated measure changes more than a specified threshold amount across the segment, additional intermediate values are included based on linear distances measured from the beginning of the segment.

4. How long, typically, is the lag time between when a change in roadway feature or attribute is identified and when it becomes available to your database users?

For changes that reflect construction of new roadways, information is typically known well in advance of when the roadway is actually opened to traffic, and the new feature and attributes are already incorporated into the roadway database. However, since Tele Atlas® currently releases an update four times a year, it is possible that some changes may not appear in their published database for up to 3 months after they occur.

In preparation for future ADAS applications, Tele Atlas® has established a goal of incorporating changes into the roadway database within 48 hours of receiving and verifying the change.

5. Do you envision that the roadway database developed to support IntelliDrive applications would be a separate product from your current vehicle navigation database?

Both vehicle navigation and ADAS applications would use the same basic roadway geometry. However, the specific roadway attributes and how they are represented could be very different. For example, data for ADAS applications will need to be interpreted by in-vehicle processors and therefore must be more precise in how they are defined and in their domain values. Additionally, some attributes that are very important for routing and navigation (e.g., street name, POI) are unnecessary for ADAS applications.

The primary customers for vehicle routing and navigation data are the end users (i.e., buyers of vehicle navigation systems and PNDs). The primary customers for ADAS data are the automobile manufacturers and OEM developers. This potential market has a much smaller number of potential customers, but each product sale would be substantial (e.g., license to install data in each new vehicle).

6. How would updates to roadway data be transmitted to end users?

Tele Atlas® sees this as a critical question that needs to be resolved. Periodic releases of complete replacement databases, as is presently done for navigation data, will not meet the needs for safety-related ADAS applications. Most likely, methods to transmit updates for portions of the database based on geographic location will be used. For example, using G4/G5 wireless or DSRC technology, updates to map data for a defined geographic area could be broadcast and received by any vehicle passing within transmission range. Vehicles with updated maps would simply ignore the transmission, while those with outdated maps would read and incorporate the updates into their databases. The technology, communications protocols, and data standards needed to make this work are critical but beyond the scope of this study.

7. Do you see any limitations in the type of data that can be maintained in a roadway geometry and inventory database?

Map databases are effective in providing data that is relatively static or that changes in predictable ways over time (e.g., the directionality of reversible highway lanes by time of day). Map databases should not be expected to deliver highly dynamic data that changes on irregular schedules (e.g., traffic signal status, congestion-based tolls) or data that is dependent on several highly variable conditions (e.g., pavement coefficient of friction or passing sight distance).

Map databases are a complement to, rather than substitute for, on-board vehicle sensors and intelligent roadway infrastructure (e.g., traffic signals or traffic message signs) that use DSRC to transmit their current status.

8. Do you collect and maintain roadway features that serve specialized markets, such as commercial vehicles or pedestrians?

Tele Atlas® produces a Logistics® product, which supplements its core roadway map database with additional attributes needed to select safe and efficient routes for large trucks. Attributes included in the Tele Atlas® Logistics® database include height, weight, and length restrictions, truck-specific speed limits, designated truck routes, cargo type restrictions, etc. Current POI data also include some information on locations of truck stops, weigh stations, etc., but Tele Atlas® is planning to develop a more comprehensive database of truck-specific locations.

Tele Atlas® also is developing an Urban Maps™ enhancement product oriented toward pedestrian travel in larger urban areas. To date, most of the cities for which Tele Atlas® Urban Maps™ have been developed are located in Europe.

9. What do you see as the most significant obstacles to the commercial development and deployment of roadway map databases to serve IntelliDrive applications?

Currently, the financial risks to developing roadway map data to support IntelliDrive applications rest with the commercial map database developers. At least, the following three components of risk need to be better resolved:

  • Standards: Acceptable standards for locational accuracy, feature, and attribute content and definition need to be established. These standards must reflect both the minimal needs of IntelliDrive applications and practical expectations for data collection, maintenance, and updating. Once established, these standards need to remain stable so that database developers are not chasing a moving target.
  • Liability: The locational and temporal accuracy of specific data items cannot be guaranteed by a database developer; too many things change too often for a map database to remain perfectly accurate all the time. Map database developers need to be indemnified against liability claims that inaccurate or out-of-date map data contributed to a vehicle crash.
  • Marketability: The potential market for a roadway database to support IntelliDrive applications is likely to be limited to a few high-volume customers (e.g., auto manufacturers and OEMs). Initially, at least, the costs of collection and maintenance of ADAS data items will have to be cross-subsidized by profits from sales of navigation data. If the market for commercial navigation data is reduced due to availability of free navigation data and applications (e.g., Google Maps™ or OpenStreetMap), the price for ADAS data may have to increase significantly.

STATE DEPARTMENTS OF TRANSPORTATION

California DOT

The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) is responsible for designing, constructing, operating, and maintaining more than 50,000 mi (80,500 km) of California's State highway system, which includes freeways, highways, expressways, toll roads, and rights-of-way. Caltrans provides additional services within the State, such as intercity rail, permitting for public-use airports and special-use hospital heliports, and working with local agencies. The organization is subdivided into 12 geographic districts, each having jurisdictional responsibility for State highways within the county or group of counties encompassed within that district. In 2007–08, the Caltrans annual budget totaled $14.1 billion.

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain?

For roadway inventory, Caltrans maintains a georeferenced database on lanes, including number of lanes, lane use restrictions (limited to HOV lanes), and special lane function type (limited to bicycle accessibility). Median- and shoulder-related attributes include location, type, and width for highways only. For ramps, Caltrans maintains a georeferenced inventory of ramp location and type. Pavement condition data are maintained for highways only and are collected annually through measurement.

For intersection characteristics, Caltrans maintains data on intersection location and type, number of through lanes, left- and right-turn lane configuration, location, and channelization, and type of traffic control. These data are available for highways only.

For other geospatial features, georeferenced data are available for barrier systems on highways, including beginning and ending locations, type, and location (roadside/median). These data are updated based on construction drawings for new projects. Rail crossing data are limited to crossing locations on highways. Data for bridges/tunnels includes beginning location, structure length (from which ending location could be determined), vertical under clearance if over a highway or railroad, design load, and bridge unique identifier. Georeferenced data on commercial vehicle facilities includes location of major truck-stop plazas and commercial vehicle enforcement facilities. These data were derived from a database of National Association of Truck Stop Operators member truck stops and from the California Highway Patrol report, 1997 Weigh Station Inventory of Needs. Data are updated as needed to reflect the current status of these facilities. Coverage areas for roadway and traffic condition monitoring could be obtained from geocoded point data for existing and proposed detection stations, dynamic message signs (DMS), closed-circuit television (CCTV), highway advisory radio, and road weather information systems.

Caltrans does not maintain an inventory of roadway geometry data.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

Caltrans maintains a roadway basemap representing State highway routes, highway ramps, and functionally classified roads. The basemap is referenced based on the Caltrans postmile system (for linkage to other Caltrans databases) and a section identifier (for linkage to the HPMS database).

3. Does your agency have any specific data sharing agreements or contracts with commercial roadway database vendors (e.g., providing regular updates to NAVTEQ™ or Tele Atlas®)?

Caltrans previously had a contract in place with Tele Atlas® to provide street and highway layer updates, but the contract is no longer in place.

4. How often is the data updated, and how are these updates collected?

The roadway basemap is updated annually with postmile updates or other significant changes. The updates are digitized based on the Caltrans County Map Series. The accuracy is sub 32.8 ft (10 m).

5. For any data that currently is not maintained by the agency, are there any plans to begin collecting these data in the next 5 years?

For roadway inventory, Caltrans is considering collecting data on sidewalk location and number of lanes on ramps. There are no plans to collect other attributes.

6. What are the primary reasons that would cause your agency to initiate a new data collection activity (e.g., new Federal requirement, internal staff request, State mandate)?

Caltrans indicated new data collection activities could be initiated by a Federal requirement attached to funding, a new State law, or direction from the governor's office.

7. What do you see as the most significant obstacles in terms of providing data to support the development and deployment of IntelliDrive?

Caltrans cited the following as potential obstacles in providing data to support IntelliDrive: liability, accuracy limitations, cost, scope (local roads as well as highways), and the time deltas for collecting and disseminating data revisions as the built environment changes.

Florida DOT

The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) is a decentralized agency responsible for designing, constructing, maintaining, and regulating public transportation in the State of Florida. Florida has 12,093 centerline miles of roads in its State highway system, representing approximately 10 percent of the 121,387 public roadway centerline miles. The majority of these other roads (92,136 mi (148,338 km)) are local streets.

FDOT is organized into seven geographic districts plus Florida's Turnpike Enterprise. In 2009–10, FDOT's annual budget totaled $6.5 billion.

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain?

FDOT maintains a Roadway Characteristics Inventory (RCI), which is a database of inventory information related to the State highway system and other Federal aid roads. Data collection to support RCI is the responsibility of the District Planning and Maintenance Offices. Many of the roadway features and attributes that support IntelliDrive applications are available in RCI.

FDOT maintains limited data on roadway geometry, primarily to support HPMS reporting. Attributes related to horizontal alignment include horizontal curve central angle (delta), horizontal degree of curvature, and horizontal point of intersection. Data on sight distance is defined for two-lane rural roads as the percent of an HPMS sample segment with a passing sight distance of 1,500 ft (457.5 m) or more. Grade on HPMS samples is defined as the total roadway length within each sample that falls into each grade classification ranging from A through F, depending on percent of grade.

For roadway inventory, FDOT maintains the following attributes related to lanes: number of lanes, total travel surface width, lane use restrictions, and auxiliary lane function type. Median attributes in RCI include median type and width. The location of the median relative to a vehicle could be inferred from the RCI data. FDOT collects all of the attributes related to shoulders: location, type, width, and special shoulder function type. Lane, median, and shoulder data are collected for all functionally classified roads on the State highway system. Sidewalk width and offset distance are collected for all nonlimited access urban State highways up to 1 mi (1.6 km) outside designated urban boundaries. The maximum posted speed limit is also collected for State roads and non-State HPMS samples. For pavement condition data, FDOT collects international roughness index (IRI) data on State and NHS roads as well as on non-State HPMS samples on principal arterials and rural minor arterials, which are maintained in the RCI database and updated annually after March 15. HPMS now requires IRI (including bridges), cracking, and faulting data, but they are only required for the HPMS submittal and will not be included in RCI.

For intersection characteristics, FDOT maintains limited data on intersection locations for all roads on the State highway system and for major crossroads on other HPMS samples. The number of exclusive left- and right-turn lanes on the State highway system could be inferred from a count of auxiliary lanes adjacent to intersections.

For other geospatial features, FDOT maintains railroad crossing location and National Railroad Grade Crossing Numbers for all at-grade crossings on all Federal-aid roads. The crossing location is defined as the point where the centerline of the roadway crosses the center of the railroad crossing. Guardrail and bridge inventory data are collected and maintained by the Maintenance Office. FDOT does not collect data on transit-stop locations, although bus bays are coded as a type of auxiliary lane in RCI. FDOT also collects data on the type and location of permanent and nonpermanent traffic monitoring sites with embedded loops.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

FDOT maintains an RCI/GIS basemap, which was developed in-house. The basemap includes the State highway system, other roads functionally classified above local, NHS and Strategic Intermodal System roads, and local roads that are important to FDOT. RCI data are linked to the basemap through an LRS that includes a roadway ID and beginning and ending mile points. The locational accuracy is in compliance with national mapping standards (sub 6.56 ft (2 m) for 95 percent of all roads).

FDOT has recently entered into a 3-year agreement with NAVTEQ™ for a roadway basemap, and all public agencies in the State have access to it. FDOT also has an agreement with Florida's Department of Revenue to collect, share, and maintain aerial imagery (public record and public domain).

3. How often is the data updated, and how are these updates collected?

Maintenance of the RCI/GIS basemap is continuous. The basemap coordinator works with appropriate staff from district offices to make corrections to the basemap and to ensure compatibility between the RCI and basemap roadway ID lengths and alignments is maintained. Updates to the basemap are obtained from FDOT/Department of Revenue submeter aerial photos.

For the RCI database itself, most data are maintained by the Planning Office, although some attributes are collected and maintained by the Maintenance Office and the Traffic Engineering and Operations Office.

4. For any data that currently is not maintained by the agency, are there any plans to begin collecting these data in the next 5 years?

The State Materials Office wants to change the road conditions survey from windshield-based to mobile mapping. Videologs are still collected by the Planning Office every 2 years. Within the current economy, FDOT does not expect to initiate any new data collection programs.

5. What are the primary reasons that would cause your agency to initiate a new data collection activity (e.g., new Federal requirement, internal staff request, State mandate)?

FDOT indicated that a new data collection activity would be initiated only if the benefit-to-cost ratio made sense. Other reasons would be new Federal requirement or State mandate.

Michigan DOT

The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) is responsible for overseeing and maintaining more than 9,700 mi (15,617 km) of State highway system as well as administering other State transportation programs, including airports, intercity passenger services, rail freight, local public transit services, and nonmotorized transportation. The State highway system comprises approximately 8 percent of Michigan's 121,667 total roadway centerline miles. The State DOT is divided into seven geographic regions (Metro, Grand, University, Bay, Southwest, North, and Superior), with several Transportation Service Centers located in each region. As part of their asset management program, MDOT has developed an integrated decision support tool called the Transportation Management System, which is an enterprise database management system with the following components: bridge, congestion, intermodal, pavement, public transportation, and safety. MDOT's budget for fiscal year 2010 totaled $3.3 billion.

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain?

MDOT maintains limited data on roadway geometry, with the exception of sight distance. It has a comprehensive inventory of passing sight distance for all roadways on the State highway system.

For roadway inventory, MDOT maintains an inventory of number of lanes for all Federal aid roads and lane widths for all roadways on the State highway system. MDOT maintains data on shoulder location, type, width, and special shoulder function type. For ramps, inventory data includes location, type, number of lanes, merge feature, and special lane function type. Speed zone data are limited to the predominant speed within a section. Pavement condition data are collected only for new projects. Pavement marking data (location and type of longitudinal markings) are maintained as part of operational project files but are generally not shared. With the exception of project-related data (pavement condition and pavement markings), most roadway inventory data are updated annually through windshield surveys or aerial photography.

With regards to intersection characteristics, MDOT has a comprehensive inventory of intersection locations for all roads included in the State highway system. Officials indicated that data on intersection geometry, lane configuration, and pavement markings could be obtained from construction plans for each intersection but that the data has not been geocoded.

With regards to other geospatial features, MDOT has a comprehensive guardrail inventory that includes data on guardrail beginning/ending locations, type of guardrail, and type of end treatment. For rail crossings, MDOT has an inventory of railroad crossing locations and National Railroad Grade Crossing Numbers. MDOT collects data on more than 12,500 bridges through its Bridge Management System. The bridge inventory is organized into the following types of data: (1) inventory data such as location, dimensions, material, design, capacity, route, etc.; (2) inspection data such as examination date, bridge condition findings, extent and severity of bridge element deterioration, etc.; and (3) maintenance history. MDOT does not maintain a statewide database on transit facilities, but it does have an inventory of State-owned rest areas and roadside inspection/weigh station locations. Real-time traffic monitoring is limited to urban areas with intelligent transportation systems (ITS) coverage, although MDOT is collecting some probe data through NAVTEQ™.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

The Michigan Geographic Framework is a statewide basemap that includes features such as roads, rivers, lakes, streams, railroads, political jurisdiction boundaries, power lines, pipelines, and other features. The Framework has an accuracy of better than 6.56 ft (2 m). The roadway network is referenced based on an enhanced LRS that was derived from the Michigan Accident Location Index. The LRS consists of a physical reference number, beginning mile point, and ending mile point.

MDOT also has a 3-year software and imagery licensing agreement with Microsoft Bing Maps for Enterprise to collect, share, and maintain aerial photography. The aerial images will be collected at a 12-inch (304.8-mm) resolution covering one-fifth of the State each year for the next 3 years, for a total of approximately 34,000 mi2 (88,060 km2).

3. How often is the data updated, and how are these updates collected?

Maintenance of the Michigan Geographic Framework is the responsibility of the Center for Shared Solutions and Technology Partnerships, which maintains the actual basemap, works to incorporate GIS updates from agency partners, and serves as a clearinghouse for GIS shapefiles, metadata, documentation, training, and support. Updates are the responsibility of agency partners, who provide updated map and attribute information via their business applications, which then signal changes that need to be made to the map.

4. For any data that currently is not maintained by the agency, are there any plans to begin collecting these data in the next 5 years?

MDOT indicated that there is an interest in collecting more detailed roadway inventory data, although no specific plans are in place.

5. What are the primary reasons that would cause your agency to initiate a new data collection activity (e.g., new Federal requirement, internal staff request, State mandate)?

MDOT has initiated new data collection activities based on Federal mandate and internal staff requests. These activities include collection of data on Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) ramps, guardrail inventory, retroreflectivity, and roadway features needed to support the SafetyAnalyst software tool. The department is in the process of incorporating GPS into the maintenance system in order to better track the condition of assets such as culverts and roadways.

6. What do you see as the most significant obstacles in terms of providing data to support the development and deployment of IntelliDrive?

MDOT did not provide input on significant obstacles in terms of providing data to support IntelliDrive.

Virginia DOT

There are approximately 74,000 mi (119,140 km) of public roads in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) is responsible for the administration and maintenance of about 58,000 mi (93,380 km), or 78 percent, of these roads, including local roads within most counties and incorporated cities.

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain?

Most of VDOT's roadway data are maintained centrally in the Highway Traffic Records Information System (HTRIS), a mainframe-based system written in ADABase. VDOT is in the process of converting to a new Oracle-based roadway database management system. VDOT anticipates that migration to the new system will be completed by the end of 2011. Some progress has already been made; pavement data has been fully migrated to the new system. Specific IntelliDrive data items collected and maintained by VDOT include the following:

  • Roadway Geometry: VDOT is not currently collecting data on horizontal or vertical curvature or grade, although there has been some discussion about collecting these data for higher functional class roadways. VDOT currently has a contract with Fugro Roadware to collect videologs and pavement condition on primary State highways (interstates, U.S. primary, and State signed routes classified as principal arterials). VDOT is hoping to expand this contract to begin collecting data on secondary roads (State and county signed routes designed as minor arterials). Some roadway geometry data could be extracted by additional postprocessing of the videolog data, but this is not currently part of the contract. No data are collected on roadway elevation, cross slopes, or clear zones.
  • Roadway Inventory: VDOT collects and maintains data on the number of lanes, overall roadway width, lane use restrictions (e.g., HOV), locations of freeway ramps, medians, and (paved) shoulders. Additional information on roadbed characteristics may be maintained by VDOT's pavement division. Most of VDOT's roadway inventory data are collected and maintained only for primary State highways. Data needed to satisfy more detailed HPMS sample data requirements are typically collected only for specified sample sections. VDOT tries to identify whether roadway sections have a sidewalk but does not specifically identify the beginning or end of each sidewalk.

    In Virginia, speed limits are set by default at 55 mi/h for primary highways and 25 mi/h for secondary and local roads. Local governments must request waivers from the Transportation Commissioner to change the posted speed limits to any other speeds. However, there is no automatic process for recording approved waivers, so the accuracy of speed zone data is unknown.

    Data on pavement markings, guardrails, and signs are maintained by individual residencies. (VDOT maintenance activities are distributed among approximately 40 geographic areas known as residencies.) There are no central repository or standards for these data; each residency collects and maintains whatever data it needs to accomplish its work.
  • Intersection Characteristics: VDOT maintains minimal data on urban intersections or pedestrian features such as crosswalks. VDOT does not currently have a complete statewide inventory of traffic signal locations, although there has been some discussion about creating one. VDOT's ITS Office does maintain a statewide database of ITS devices (e.g., variable message signs, ramp meters, traffic cameras, etc.)
  • Other Features: VDOT maintains data on railroad crossings, including sign and signal type, in support of the U.S. DOT's HRIC. Likewise, VDOT maintains data on highway bridges and tunnels in support of FHWA's NBI. Locations of truck weigh stations are only maintained along interstate routes. VDOT does not maintain data on public transit stops. This information may be maintained by the Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation.

    VDOT maintains a public Web site (www.511virginia.org) that provides information on road conditions, weather, traffic incidents, and work zones throughout the State. Information on this site is updated continuously in near-real time.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

VDOT's State geospatial roadway database was digitized from high-resolution orthoimagery that was coordinated through the Virginia Geographic Information Network (VGIN) and covers the entire State. This orthoimagery serves as the foundation for virtually all of Virginia's geospatial data layers. The roadway database includes all 58,000 mi (93,380 km) of roadways for which VDOT has administrative and maintenance responsibility. The only roads for which VDOT does not have administrative and maintenance responsibility are roads located on Federal facilities (e.g., military installations, national parks) and local roads in certain counties (Arlington and Henrico counties) or incorporated cities (e.g., City of Alexandria) that have elected to maintain these roads themselves.

The roadway database geometry is updated and maintained by VGIN and VDOT under a Memorandum of Understanding. Updates come from various sources including counties, local jurisdictions, and E911 agencies.

HTRIS inventory data are linked to the roadway network database through an LRS that is maintained by VDOT staff. The LRS supports data in both directions along a roadway, even if the roadway is represented by only one centerline in the database.

3. Does your agency have any specific data sharing agreements or contracts with commercial roadway database vendors (e.g., providing regular updates to NAVTEQ™ or Tele Atlas®)?

VDOT reports that some local municipalities share data with commercial roadway vendors. However, the status of these agreements was unclear. VDOT referred the inquiry to VGIN for further information.

4. For any data that currently is not maintained by the agency, are there any plans to begin collecting these data in the next 5 years?

A committee has recently been established within VDOT to explore the feasibility and cost of collecting additional inventory data statewide. Several years ago, VDOT conducted a research project to inventory all roadway features (signs, culverts, curbs, drainage basins, etc.) in three counties. However, the large number of data items and high cost to collect and maintain these data precluded VDOT from expanding the effort statewide.

5. What are the primary reasons that would cause your agency to initiate a new data collection activity (e.g., new Federal requirement, internal staff request, State mandate)?

VDOT reports that the initiation of new data collection activities is dependent on items required to address VDOT needs. VDOT specifically mentioned pavement issues.

VDOT also noted that there is a perception that a centralized collection of data items (e.g., guardrail locations) leads to an increasing efficiency. Although officials did not know if this would realistically help with the day-to-day operations, it may help with the analysis of data and statistics, leading to better budgeting and tracking and a greater justification for maintenance. Thus, in general, there is a greater call for more sophisticated statistical data. However, like many State DOTs, VDOT currently is unable to initiate additional data collection due to budget constraints.

6. How likely is it that your agency would be willing or able to collect new or additional data to support IntelliDrive applications (e.g., collect cross slope or expand collection of horizontal curvature to all public roads)?

VDOT focuses on the maintenance of current infrastructure and the safety of its motoring public. To the extent that IntelliDrive applications support these two overarching goals, there is the opportunity for policy to support IntelliDrive. Policy begets funding, and with sufficient funding, VDOT would be willing to collect additional data to support IntelliDrive applications.

Washington State DOT

There are approximately 83,500 mi (134,435 km) of roads in the State of Washington, of which about 19,000 mi (30,590 km) are Federal-aid roads. However, the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) is administratively responsible for a State highway system comprising only about 7,000 mi (11,270 km) (8.4 percent) of State and U.S. signed routes.

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain?

Most of WSDOT's business databases currently are stored on a mainframe computer and are not spatially enabled. There currently are at least 14 mainframe databases covering everything from accounting records to highway construction and roadway inventory. The Transportation Information Planning Support (TRIPS) database stores roadway inventory, traffic, and collision data. Information from this database is sent once a year to WSDOT's GIS group in order to build spatial data layers. These layers are made available through WSDOT's GIS workbench, an internal GIS application.

In 2009, WSDOT conducted a critical assessment of all mainframe systems in order to develop justification for replacing these systems. The TRIPS database received high priority for migrating or replacing with a spatially enabled database. However, given current budget constraints, all database migration has been deferred.

Specific IntelliDrive data items collected and maintained by WSDOT are as follows:

  • Roadway Geometry: WSDOT derives horizontal and vertical alignment and grade from construction drawings on a project-by-project basis. Coverage is relatively complete for all mainline routes on the State highway system. However, data are only reported on the increasing milepost direction of travel. Superelevation is available for some but not all routes. WSDOT does not collect or maintain data on roadway cross slope, clear zone width, or roadway elevation.
  • Roadway Inventory: The TRIPS system maintains data on number of lanes, special lane types, total roadway width, medians, (paved) shoulders, and ramps. The WSDOT Traffic Office maintains an inventory of signs and signals, including speed limits and stop signs.

    WSDOT's GIS and Roadway Data Office has also begun collecting an inventory of fixed objects (signs, guardrails, culverts, etc.) located along the roadway and clear zone. The inventory is being done manually by WSDOT crews walking the shoulder of each State highway with a survey-grade GPS unit. At the time of this report, crews have inventoried about 40 percent of the 7,000 mi (11,270 km) of State highway, collecting information on approximately 425,000 features.

    WSDOT does not maintain statewide inventory data on pavement markings, sidewalk locations, or pavement coefficients of friction. Sidewalk data may have been collected for selected ADA projects in smaller urban areas, but the data are very limited and not linked spatially to WSDOT's roadway inventory data. Pavement markings are the responsibility of WSDOT's maintenance areas, and the data have not been consolidated. WSDOT is currently conducting a test project to survey pavement edge location using survey-grade GPS technology installed on pavement striping vehicles.
  • Intersection Characteristics: Intersection location and type can be derived from WSDOT's geospatial roadway network. Turn lanes at intersections can also be inferred from the total roadway width and the number of identified through lanes, but data on lane channelization and pavement markings are not readily available. Data are maintained on the location of traffic signals but not on signal characteristics.
  • Other Geospatial Features: WSDOT collects and maintains information on railroad crossing locations and FRA crossing number. Bridge locations, structure types, and identifiers are maintained in the TRIPS database. Additional data on height and weight restrictions are maintained separately by WSDOT's Bridge Office. Locations of official State truck weigh and inspection stations are also maintained. WSDOT does not collect information on transit facilities.

    WSDOT maintains a public Web site (www.wsdot.wa.gov) containing information on weather conditions, status of mountain passes, roadway construction and maintenance, traffic congestion and incidents, and roadway traffic cameras. This information is updated regularly through the day.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

WSDOT currently uses a geospatial roadway network basemap that includes the 7,000 centerline miles of State highways. The basemap was originally digitized from 1:24,000 scale orthoimagery. Several years ago, WSDOT funded a project to obtain GPS measurements along all State highways and used this to improve both the spatial accuracy of the base map and the LRS that links roadway data to the base map. The current locational accuracy of the WSDOT roadway basemap is 3.28–9.84 ft (1–3 m).

TRIPS and other roadway data can be displayed on the WSDOT roadway basemap using WSDOT's 24K LRS. The LRS measure was derived by converting engineering station measurements on construction drawings into accumulated route measures using State route mileposts. WSDOT also has created a more accurate LRS based on its GPS measurement, but that LRS is not currently used with mainframe databases because the mainframe data are referenced to a single (inventory) direction, whereas the GPS LRS includes bidirectional measurements.

WSDOT also has a project underway to create an all-roads geospatial data layer that will serve as the transportation framework for the entire State, including county and local governments and E911 agencies. The Washington Transportation Framework Project (WaTrans) database is being developed by assembling the "best available" data from each county and stitching it together to create as seamless statewide road network. This project has been ongoing for several years, and by October 2010, only 16 of 39 counties will be completed. In order to meet FHWA's 2010 HPMS requirements for a roadway network covering all Federal-aid roads (approximately 28,000 centerline miles), WSDOT is attempting to fill the gaps in county data by converting WSDOT's CAD data into geospatial road layers and adding LRS measures to the new data.

3. Does your agency have any specific data sharing agreements or contracts with commercial roadway database vendors (e.g., providing regular updates to NAVTEQ™ or Tele Atlas®)?

WSDOT currently has a data sharing agreement with Tele Atlas® to provide roadway geometry and geocoding for those counties where local roadway data are not available. In addition, the Washington State Patrol purchased a Tele Atlas® road network for Statewide use in the E911 program for routing applications. That contract ran through August 2010, but WSDOT expected to renew the contract to provide an interim roadway network until WaTrans is fully operational.

4. For any data that currently is not maintained by the agency, are there any plans to begin collecting these data in the next 5 years?

Data collection for the Roadside Features Inventory Program is currently about 40 percent complete. The initial data collection effort should be finished within the next 5 years.

5. What are the primary reasons that would cause your agency to initiate a new data collection activity (e.g., new Federal requirement, internal staff request, State mandate)?

A major goal of WSDOT is to increase safety while controlling costs. WSDOT has been working with the University of California Davis to investigate the costs and efficiencies of using mobile LIDAR for collecting and updating roadway inventory and geometry information. However, no decision has been made on actual deployment. The research project is scheduled to be completed by September 2011.

6. How likely is it that your agency would be willing or able to collect new or additional data to support IntelliDrive applications (e.g., collect cross slope or expand collection of horizontal curvature to all public roads)?

At the current time, WSDOT does not see any way to support IntelliDrive applications with the available personnel and budget. In order to do this, WSDOT would need financial incentives. WSDOT sees costs and people as the largest barriers to the expansion of data collection efforts. The department already feels a great deal of pressure to consolidate the workforce and complete current tasks with reduced budgets.

LOCAL TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES

Two local transportation agencies and one TMC were interviewed as part of the trade study to identify what, if any, roadway geometry and inventory data they collect, maintain, or use in support of their current transit operations.

The agencies interviewed were Broward and Palm Beach counties, both in south Florida, and TranStar, the TMC serving the Houston metropolitan area. Brief profiles of each agency and summaries of their responses to interview questions are presented in this section.

Broward County

Broward County is responsible for providing government services at the county level in South Florida. As one of three counties that comprise the South Florida metropolitan area, Broward County is the second most populated county in the State, with a resident population of more than 1.7 million. The major metropolitan area is Fort Lauderdale. As a home-rule government, Broward County provides a broad range of services, including property assessments, tax collections, law enforcement and fire rescue protection, maintenance of streets, highways, bridges, and traffic signals, parks, libraries, airports, a seaport, a convention center, water and sewer systems, transportation, environmental protection, urban planning, economic development, and other community and human services.

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain?

Broward County's Engineering Department surveying group is currently conducting a GPS inventory of all signalized intersections in the county. The inventory is 95 percent complete and currently in the quality assurance and quality control phase. The inventory is limited to within 100 ft (30.5 m) for each direction of the intersection, and the locational accuracy ranges from sub 1 ft (0.305 m) to sub 3.28 ft (1 m).

As part of the GPS inventory, Broward County is developing a geospatial database of intersection characteristics and selected attributes. Current attributes include intersection location, identification number, and location of physical assets such as traffic signal poles, pedestrian signal poles, street light poles, regulatory signs, school zone flashers, signal controller cabinets, service points, pull boxes, interconnect, fiber optic cable, and Florida Power and Light connection feeds. Only the location and type of physical assets are being inventoried; attributes such as intersection configuration and pavement marking data are not included. Type of traffic control is inventoried only if an electronic field device is present (e.g., traffic signal, flashing signal, etc.). Attributes such as turn prohibitions, posted speed limit, or school zone speed limits within the vicinity of the intersection are captured as part of the sign inventory, although sign type is coded based on general descriptions rather than specific Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices codes.

Broward County does not maintain data on roadway geometry. For roadway inventory, Broward County maintains a limited inventory of sidewalk locations, posted speed limits, and special speed zones. For other geospatial features, Broward County Transit maintains a GIS inventory of bus-stop locations.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

Intersection characteristics are maintained in a geospatial database with locations referenced in the State Plane Florida East coordinate system. The County is currently maintaining its own street data but is beginning to move towards a commercial roadway database (NAVTEQ™) that has been purchased by FDOT and is available through a multiagency use agreement. The NAVTEQ™ database provides locationally accurate and attributed street-level data, and participating agencies agree to provide updates such as new streets or changes in traffic regulations to NAVTEQ™. FDOT will support the contract for a 3 year period, and Broward County Sheriff's Office has committed to using E911 funds to cover the costs of the NAVTEQ™ updates if the State chooses not to continue the contract.

3. How often is the data updated, and how are these updates collected?

Broward County updates the intersection characteristics data as needed on a quarterly basis (e.g., when new mast arms are installed). Updates are collected using Trimble GPS with an external antenna that collects data for 30–40 s.

4. For any data that currently is not maintained by the agency, are there any plans to begin collecting these data in the next 5 years?

Broward County plans to collect data for ongoing maintenance purposes only and does not have plans to collect additional attributes.

5. What are the primary reasons that would cause your agency to initiate a new data collection activity (e.g., new Federal requirement, internal staff request, State mandate)?

Broward County indicated that new data collection activities could be initiated based on internal staff requests. Commonly requested maps and GIS data sets are maintained on the County's Web site (www.broward.org). In terms of data collection to support IntelliDrive applications, Broward County indicated that new Federal or State mandates would be required.

Palm Beach County

Palm Beach County is responsible for providing government services at the county level in South Florida. Palm Beach is the third most populated county in the State, with a resident population of over 1.3 million. Palm Beach is one of three counties that comprise the South Florida metropolitan area, with major cities including West Palm Beach and Boca Raton. The county government provides a broad range of services, including property assessments, tax collections, law enforcement and fire rescue protection, maintenance of streets, highways, bridges, and traffic signals, parks, libraries, airports, a seaport, a convention center, water and sewer systems, transportation, environmental protection, urban planning, economic development, and other community and human services.

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain?

Palm Beach County does not maintain data on roadway geometry. It is possible to obtain this information from design/CAD files available for the last 20 years, but the data have not been inventoried or coded into a geospatial database.

Palm Beach County maintains a roadway inventory of public roads that are maintained by the county. It does not include city- or State-maintained roadways. The database includes centerline location, posted speed limit, and number of lanes. The county mandates standard lane widths of 11–12 ft (3.35–3.66 m), depending on roadway classification. For lane use restrictions, the county indicated that some portions of I 95 have truck restrictions in place and that FDOT may maintain a detailed inventory of these locations. The county has a listing of bridges and other locations with weight limits in place, but the information has not been geocoded. The county has the information for special lane function type, but it has not been geocoded. A bike consultant is currently conducting an inventory of the locations of bicycle lanes. The county has a limited inventory of sidewalk locations. In terms of ramp-based attributes, the county has identified and geocoded the ramp locations, but the database is incomplete. However, officials indicated that a geospatial database could be easily developed based on aerials. The county indicated that speed zone location information could be derived based on the segmentation in the roadway inventory (i.e., segment breaks are typically based on changes in speed limit). School zone locations with flashers have been identified as part of the county's signal inventory, but detailed information on the posted speed limit and hours of operation has not been recorded. Palm Beach County has not conducted a detailed sign inventory, although equipment is available to the county to measure the retroreflectivity of signs, if needed.

For intersection characteristics, Palm Beach County maintains an inventory of intersection locations, but the attribute is defined as the intersection of two roadway centerlines (i.e., the location of the center of the intersection is not survey accurate). The type of intersection could be extrapolated based on the number of segments coming into the node. Data on lane configuration and pavement markings could be developed based on design/CAD drawings for county-maintained roads.

Palm Beach County is conducting a signal inventory of all locations with an electronic device of any type (traffic signal, flashing light, school zone locations equipped with flashers, fire station signal, etc.). The inventory is 80–90 percent complete. The inventory is being conducted for fire/rescue routing purposes and includes location attributes only. No other physical assets are included. For traffic signal phasing/timing plan and status, the county has an advanced traffic management system (ATMS) in development. ATMS will include 1,000 signals, more than 600 of which will be connected to a central office. Rather than having traffic signal preemption between the emergency vehicle and a transmitter at the intersection, preemption will be coordinated from the central office through ATMS.

For other geospatial features, Palm Beach County indicated that it does do not have a geospatial database of rail crossing locations and type, but that such an inventory could be developed easily based on aerials. This information will likely be inventoried soon for fire/rescue routing purposes. The County has a point layer of bridge locations. Other bridge attributes are available but are not inventoried in GIS. In terms of structure type, Palm Beach County suggested that drawbridges be considered an additional type. Drawbridge status could impact routing for both private vehicles and fire/rescue. In terms of transit data, the county maintains a GIS inventory of bus-stop locations (including school buses), route served, type of stop, and bus-stop shelter type/shelter assets. Boundaries of road condition monitoring coverage may be available through the countywide emergency operations center.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

Roadway data that has been geocoded is maintained in a geospatial database with locations referenced in the State Plane Florida East coordinate system. Many of the attributes required for IntelliDrive could be developed based on aerial photographs/parcel maps available through the property appraisal office. Maps are available for the last 10 years and are tied into survey control points, making them accurate to within six inches.

The county currently maintains its own street data but is beginning to move toward a commercial roadway database (NAVTEQ™) that has been purchased by FDOT and is available through a multiagency use agreement. The NAVTEQ™ database provides locationally accurate and attributed street-level data, and participating agencies agree to provide updates, such as new streets or changes in traffic regulations, to NAVTEQ™.

3. How often is the data updated, and how are these updates collected?

Data updates are conducted as needed.

4. For any data that currently is not maintained by the agency, are there any plans to begin collecting these data in the next 5 years?

Data such as railroad location and type of crossing will likely be inventoried soon for fire/rescue routing purposes. However, there are no plans to begin collecting additional data unless it is specifically requested or could be used for fire/rescue routing.

5. What are the primary reasons that would cause your agency to initiate a new data collection activity (e.g., new Federal requirement, internal staff request, State mandate)?

Significant effort is required to initiate, collect, and maintain new data. New data collection would likely require a mandate, unless such activity is seen as beneficial and cost effective to the county. For example, the signal inventory was initiated to support more efficient routing of fire/rescue vehicles because of the significant public safety benefits associated with having these data.

6. What do you see as the most significant obstacles in terms of providing data to support the development and deployment of IntelliDrive?

Palm Beach County suggested that vehicle-to-infrastructure communications would be difficult at the local level due to data limitations and quality of available data. Vehicle-to-vehicle communications might be better in this regard.

Houston TranStar

Houston TranStar is a partnership of four government agencies that provide transportation management and emergency management services for the greater Houston, TX, area. TranStar partner agencies include the Texas DOT, Harris County, the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County (METRO), and the City of Houston. Transportation management capabilities include more than 600 regional CCTV cameras, toll tag readers, DMS, synchronized traffic signals, highway advisory radio, ramp meters, and smart sensor technology.

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain?

For roadway inventory, data on roadway centerlines, number of lanes, special lane function type, ramp locations, and posted speed limits are available as part of the region's basemap. The City of Houston maintains a georeferenced database that contains data on sidewalks and pavement conditions; however, it is not available for public use.

For intersection characteristics, the City of Houston maintains a georeferenced database on intersection location and type of traffic control.

For other geospatial features, TranStar indicated that METRO maintains a GIS shapefile of transit stop locations, including Park and Ride, transit centers, bus stops, and light rail stations. TranStar maintains a number of real-time condition maps on its Web site (www.houstontranstar.org), including real-time traffic conditions; incidents/road closures; road flood warning system, which includes 40 sensors to detect flooded roadways, stream flow, wind, and ice; Doppler radar imagery and satellite weather maps; current ozone levels; Galveston Island Port Bolivar Ferry information, including current wait times and CCTV images; and a new real-time Web-based hurricane evacuation status map, which is based on smart sensor technology to monitor traffic flow from evacuation zones and during contraflow operations.

Real-time traffic conditions are monitored using toll tag reader locations, which collect vehicle probe data for estimating travel times and speeds. The toll tag reader locations are geocoded, and current speeds are displayed on the map in real time. For incident locations, coverage currently is limited to freeways and locations are geocoded based on the nearest cross street. TranStar has a project in progress to expand real-time coverage to major arterials in the region.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

The Southeast Texas Addressing and Referencing Map (STAR*Map) is a digital basemap and database that is maintained by the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Geographic Data Committee, of which TranStar is an active participant. STAR*Map contains all of the roads for 13 counties in the Houston area, including Harris, Fort Bend, Colorado, Matagorda, Walker, Brazoria, Waller, Montgomery, Wharton, Galveston, Liberty, Austin, and Chambers counties. The basemap includes more than 1.7 million parcel addresses, roadway centerlines, block address information, street names, street types, census geography, and other feature attributes.

3. How often is the data updated, and how are these updates collected?

Updates to STAR*Map are conducted every three months based on data received from Centerpoint Energy, Fort Bend Engineers Office, Alterra Technology, and 911 systems in each county.

4. For any data that currently is not maintained by the agency, are there any plans to begin collecting these data in the next 5 years?

There are many projects that would require additional data collection that TranStar is interested in initiating, but TranStar has been limited by budgetary restraints.

5. What are the primary reasons that would cause your agency to initiate a new data collection activity (e.g., new Federal requirement, internal staff request, State mandate)?

The availability of Federal funding would enable TranStar to initiate a new data collection activity.

6. What do you see as the most significant obstacles in terms of providing data to support the development and deployment of IntelliDrive?

TranStar noted staffing and maintenance of data as primary obstacles in providing data to support IntelliDrive.

PUBLIC TRANSIT OPERATORS

Three public transit agencies were interviewed as part of the trade study to identify what, if any, roadway geometry and inventory data they collect, maintain, or use in support of their current transit operations, as well as what specific IntelliDrive applications they considered to be most beneficial for transit in the near future. Each of the three interviewed transit agencies is an active participant in the IntelliDrive for Transit working group, and the three were selected in coordination with FHWA and Federal Transit Administration staff based on the agencies' knowledge and experience with IntelliDrive activities.

The three agencies interviewed were LYNX Transit, serving Orlando, FL; LTD, serving Lane County and the cities of Eugene and Springfield, OR; and NYCT, the primary public transit operator for New York City, NY. Brief profiles of each transit agency and summaries of their responses to interview questions are presented in this section.

LYNX Transit

LYNX (officially known as the Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority) is responsible for coordinating public transportation services for a three-county region that includes Orange, Osceola, and Seminole counties and the city of Orlando, FL, serving a resident population of over 1.8 million. Some LNYX bus routes also extend into neighboring Polk, Volusia, and Lake counties.

LYNX directly operates a fleet of over 238 buses on 65 fixed routes. In 2008, it provided over 26 million bus trips and over 166 million revenue passenger miles. Its annual operating budget was nearly $109 million, with approximately 20 percent covered from fare-box revenues. Its 2008 capital budget was nearly $26 million.(10)

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain yourself?

LYNX maintains a geospatial database of transit-stop locations and selected attributes. Current attributes include stop amenities (e.g., bus shelter), routes served, and other notable characteristics (e.g., pulloff lane). Future attributes may include information on ADA accessibility (e.g., curb cuts, warning signals for visually impaired), but these attributes have not yet been finalized. The locational accuracy of the stop information is 3.28 ft (1 m) or better, as measured at the transit-stop sign. Both NAVTEQ™ and Google™ have made inquiries about incorporating LYNX transit-stop locations in their databases, but currently neither database developer has actually done so.

LYNX also maintains two separate databases on transit routes—one for use with their proprietary scheduling software and one for use in displaying and mapping using GIS software. The routes are built on an existing commercial roadway basemap (NAVTEQ™) and are supplemented with some additional digitized road segments where routes cross private property (e.g., through shopping malls).

LYNX has also compiled a regional database of transit and emergency facility locations (e.g., shelters, schools, fire and police stations, hospitals) for the six-county area. Basic location and attribute information has been standardized, and this database is available to counties and emergency management agencies that require multicounty data.

LYNX does not maintain or utilize data on sidewalk locations, crosswalks, traffic signal locations, etc. There is currently no signal priority for transit vehicles in the LYNX service area. LYNX staff believe that data on signal locations, sidewalks, etc., are probably maintained either by individual counties or by FDOT.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

LYNX uses a commercial roadway database (NAVTEQ™) that has been purchased by FDOT and is available through a multiagency use agreement. The NAVTEQ™ database provides locationally accurate and attributed street-level data, and participating agencies agree to provide updates, such as new streets or changes in traffic regulations, to NAVTEQ™.

3. Does your agency currently use any other roadway features or attributes that are developed and maintained by another agency or commercial source?

LYNX does not routinely use any other geospatial roadway features or attributes beyond what is available in the NAVTEQ™ roadway database.

4. What specific IntelliDrive for Transit applications do you foresee being developed and deployed in the next 5 years?

LYNX sees itself primarily as a provider of IntelliDrive information rather than as an early user. The potential safety benefits associated with IntelliDrive seem less relevant for transit because of low vehicle speeds and urban environments. Most of the transit-related benefits would be in vehicle-to-vehicle applications where transit vehicles could serve as regular probes for traffic and weather conditions or where a transit vehicle would broadcast its location and upcoming maneuver (e.g., left turn) to other nearby vehicles.

One potential long-term transit use might be in dynamic routing for paratransit or route diversion services to avoid congestion.

5. What do you see as the most significant obstacles to the development and deployment of IntelliDrive for Transit applications?

The major barriers are likely to be uncertainty of funding, both for implementing and maintaining IntelliDrive applications, and the "chicken and egg" dilemma, in which no agency wants to spend scarce resources to purchase equipment unless they know there is (or will be) a critical mass of similarly equipped vehicles that are able to share data and communicate with one another.

Another concern, especially to transit maintenance, is the increasing amount of on-board, single-purpose electronic equipment, which takes up space, drains vehicle power, and increases vehicle maintenance costs and downtime. There is a need for applications that can utilize existing on-board equipment or can share resources with other applications. (e.g., multiple communications requirements, GPS, DSRC, 3G).

LTD

LTD is the public transportation provider for Lane County, OR, which includes the cities of Eugene and Springfield. It provides fixed-route bus and demand-response service to a resident population of approximately 272,000.

LTD directly operates a fleet of 96 buses on 43 fixed routes. In fiscal year 2008–09, it provided over 11.7 million bus trips and over 4.7 million revenue passenger miles. Its annual operating budget was $33.1 million, with approximately 23 percent covered from fare-box revenues. Its 2008 capital budget was $11.4 million.(10)

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain yourself?

LTD maintains a geospatial database of bus-stop locations and selected attributes. Current attributes include stop amenities (e.g., bus shelter) and pedestrian accessibility (e.g., sidewalks, curb cuts) in the vicinity of each bus stop. The locational accuracy is consistent with that of the underlying roadway network database, which appears to be in the range of 3.28 to 9.84 ft (1 to 5 m) absolute accuracy.

LTD does not maintain its own databases on sidewalk or signal locations. However, the City of Eugene maintains a database of traffic signal locations and selected attributes (e.g., signals with priority overrides, pedestrian crossing phases). Other databases of signal locations also may be maintained by the City of Springfield and Oregon DOT.

LTD also maintains a geospatial database of transit routes, built on the roadway basemap database maintained for Lane County. LTD has implemented an automated vehicle location system, which allows it to track the location of its bus fleet in real time.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

LTD uses a roadway network database that was developed and is maintained by the Lane Council of Governments, which serves as the geospatial roadway basemap for the entire county.

3. Does your agency currently use any other roadway features or attributes that are developed and maintained by another agency or commercial source?

LTD does not routinely use any other geospatial roadway features or attributes for its transit operations. Updates to some bus-stop attributes may utilize data collected by individual jurisdictions.

4. What specific IntelliDrive for Transit applications do you foresee being developed and deployed in the next 5 years?

The primary IntelliDrive application that LTD sees as useful is TSP on specific routes such as bus rapid transit (BRT). However, implementation of TSP requires negotiation and cooperation between the transit agency and the local jurisdiction that has responsibility for managing the traffic signals on issues such as the length of time a signal can be extended to allow a bus to pass through the intersection.

LTD sees applications such as curve departure warning being generally of lower priority for transit but believes there may be some benefit for this application on its more rural routes.

5. What do you see as the most significant obstacles to the development and deployment of IntelliDrive for Transit applications?

The current primary barrier is cost. LTD currently is planning a 20 percent cut in service due to existing budget constraints, and there is no funding available to purchase necessary in-vehicle equipment to support new applications such as IntelliDrive. Hopefully, this is only a short-term problem.

For any sort of new, innovative application, there needs to be a minimum number of early adopters who can demonstrate the benefits of the application to encourage more widespread adoption. The key is to minimize the risk for these early adopters.

MTA NYCT

NYCT is a division of New York City's MTA and is responsible for operating a majority of the surface public transit buses and heavy rail (subway) within the five boroughs comprising metropolitan New York City.2 The NYCT service area covers over 300 mi2 (777 km2) and has a resident population of more than 8 million, making NYCT the largest transit operator in the United States.

NCYT runs a fleet of nearly 4,600 buses operating on 320 fixed routes and nearly 6,200 rail vehicles operating on 26 lines. In 2008, it provided over 3.3 billion passenger trips and nearly 505 million revenue passenger miles. Its annual operating budget was nearly $6.2 billion, with approximately 54 percent covered from fare-box revenues. Its 2008 capital budget was $2.5 billion.(10)

1. What roadway features and attributes does your agency collect and maintain yourself?

NYCT maintains a geospatial database of bus stops and subway entrances. The data are maintained and available in Google™'s transit feed specification (GTFS) format. The bus-stop data includes the location, name, and whether the feature is a bus stop or station entrance. This database is also included in Google Transit™.(11)

NYCT also maintains geospatial databases of bus and subway routes, which are available in GTFS format. Both the bus route and the subway information is updated regularly. The bus routes are built on a roadway basemap, NYC Map, which is maintained by the New York City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications.(12) The routes are also stored in NYCT's routing and scheduling software.

NYCT has developed and maintains a detailed geospatial database of fixed guideway transit infrastructure, including track centerlines, station layouts, switches, signals, power stations, etc. This database is primarily used for internal system maintenance and emergency planning and operations.

NYCT does not maintain or utilize data on sidewalk locations, crosswalks, or traffic signal locations. There are currently very few traffic signals with transit priority within the NYCT service area (one BRT route in the Bronx and one on Staten Island). However, future plans for additional BRT routes would most likely involve TSP.

2. Does your agency currently use a geospatial roadway network to display the data items that it maintains?

NYCT uses the NYC Map as its roadway network basemap. The NYC Map includes all roads in the five-borough New York City area and has an absolute horizontal accuracy of 1 ft (0.305 m) or better. It was developed from digital orthoimagery with 6-inch (152.4-mm) pixel resolution.

3. Does your agency currently use any other roadway features or attributes that are developed and maintained by another agency or commercial source?

NYCT does not routinely use any other geospatial roadway features or attributes for its transit operations.

4. What specific IntelliDrive for Transit applications do you foresee being developed and deployed in the next 5 years?

Any IntelliDrive application that could make bus transit more attractive to choice customers, such as BRT service, which utilizes TSP to give buses a competitive advantage over other vehicles using the same roadway, would be the most beneficial applications. This would require a database of traffic signal locations and information about which signals allowed transit priority. These data are currently maintained by the New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT). NYCT would have to negotiate with NYCDOT to provide TSP on a route-by-route basis.

Other potential applications, such as utilizing vehicle-to-vehicle communications to inform bus drivers where other buses are located, could help address the problem of bus bunching. If drivers along a route knew that another bus serving the same route was immediately ahead of them, they potentially could skip a stop to get back on schedule.

NYCT is not likely to be an early adopter of IntelliDrive applications unless they were integral to deployment of BRT services.

5. What do you see as the most significant obstacles to the development and deployment of IntelliDrive for Transit applications?

NYCT is a large, complex agency that requires substantial time and effort to introduce new, innovative technologies. Additionally, most of the potential IntelliDrive applications would require changes to roadway infrastructure that is under the control of NYCDOT, not NYCT.

INNOVATIVE DATA COLLECTION TECHNOLOGIES

Intermap Technologies

Web site: http://www.intermap.com/

Intermap Technologies produces digital elevation data from IFSAR mounted on aircraft. It claims data accuracy of 3.28 ft (1 m). Coverage is extensive—currently 90 percent of the data for CONUS have been processed, with completion due by the second quarter of 2010. In addition, 17 Western European countries are covered. Intermap products are data sets that can be used in a large variety of common map applications, including transportation.

1. What business are you in and who are your clients?

Intermap does not see itself as a competitor to NAVTEQ™ or Tele Atlas®. Intermap's strength is in radar-based maps such as elevation models and imagery and in keeping an inventory of accurate 3-D road geometry. Its data can be used to add value to commercial mapping products. The mission is to accurately map all roads in each country where Intermap works. The company intends to license to tier-one suppliers in support of OEM safety and energy management applications, as appropriate. The intent is to insert themselves into the supply chain by providing the mapping products that meet the needs of ADAS and energy management applications such as adaptive headlights, eco-drive, etc. Intermap is not yet a supplier to industry but is close to having commercial terms.

Intermap can follow and see the trend in the world of telematics and connectivity in both vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure technology, but the company is unclear how it is going to play out. Currently, the company sees a lot of emphasis on infotainment. Intermap believes that map data needs to be imbedded in the vehicle to support autonomous applications. It is the map in the vehicle that will be used by these various applications, and that is where officials see the market. Intermap is aware of how IntelliDrive is coming together by making better use of infrastructure and believes that road geometry is a principal component of interest.

2. What services do you provide for these clients?

Geometry is captured every 11.48 ft (3.5 m) along the roadway centerline. It is stored as a point. Parameters such as curvature, slope, and line of sight are developed by algorithms using this point data. Measures of confidence in the accuracies also are provided. The product is basic roadway geometry with some additional information on bridge and tunnel locations. The database does not contain a lot of attributes. For example, Intermap cannot provide cross slope of the road.

Data are collected by radar on the plane, which is integrated with inertial navigation systems plus GPS to produce strip maps in 3-D. Then, cross strips are used to tie the data to the ground. Intermap sells a series of derivative products. Applications/markets include the following:

  • Flood models and data for insurance companies.
  • Visualizations for portable wireless applications, including the iPhone.
  • Products for engineering visualizations and design, including line of sight.
  • Data in support of consumer products (e.g., Microsoft Flight Simulator™).

Intermap also does a lot of work in the area it describes as the science and art of data conflation. Data conflation is a process where information from different sources is combined. The company overlays other company's attributes onto its road geometry to provide solutions that are customized for each client.

3. What technologies and trends do you see shaping the future of your business?

Intermap hopes to work with other roadway database developers, including Tele Atlas® and NAVTEQ™, on a project-specific basis in support of automotive ADAS and energy management applications. With regard to the future, the principal focus is the commercial automotive market. This is strongly influenced by the Government—for example in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards that generate applications to reduce energy consumption.

Intermap sees significant benefits to society if the current technologies can be brought together to help reduce the over 40,000 annual deaths on U.S. highways. Of the five road classes defined by NAVTEQ™ and Tele Atlas®, 75 percent of roads are in class 5, most of which is not digitized at the levels of accuracy needed for IntelliDrive applications. Intermap believes that changes are coming quicker than people think. Sweden is an active example of how these technologies can be brought together. Intermap does not intend to develop their own roadway basemap.

4. What can you share about the data you collect in terms of attributes and accuracy?

The original data are point-by-point, which can be converted to splines or clothoids, or the raw data can be calculated on the fly and then manipulated by the CAN bus applications. Each client wants the data in different formats, so data are processed to meet client-specific functions. An example process may work as follows: the vehicle know where it is from GPS; it then queries the database in the vehicle and uses a concept called the electronic horizon (eHorizon), which looks ahead for a distance, depending on the application. The eHorizon can feed information into different applications, such as engine management or adaptive headlights.

Intermap's AccuRoad™ Geometric Accuracy Standards for Driver Assistance Systems states, "The goal of this document is to define the geometric accuracy of the primary map database by providing standard specifications, definitions, and validation of the geometry." The document defines specifications for Intermap's centerline model with definitions of the various geometric attributes accuracy requirements and validation procedures.

Mandli Communications, Inc.

Web site: http://www.mandli.com/

Mandli provides both equipment and mapping services. Mobile LIDAR equipment installed on roadway inventory vehicles is the principle product. This equipment uses multiple spinning lasers that scan the road and its surrounding geometry and use the reflections to provide a profile of the street and nearby objects. Mandli also provides road imaging systems from various camera-based devices that can be used to collect highway inventory data and a laser-based rut measurement system. In addition, the company provides software products that can be used to view and analyze the data collected with its devices.

1. What business are you in and who are your clients?

Mandli provides mobile data collection services primarily for State DOTs. It also does some work with the commercial roadway map developers. About 90 percent of its business is for State DOTs and 10 percent for private mapping companies. Mandli principally provides map data to the States. The data types are referred to as identifiable assets and are listed later in this section.

Mandli has worked in over 30 States but recently conducted major projects in Texas, Tennessee, Nevada, Hawaii, and Indiana. In addition, it does work associated with various accident investigations.

Mandli also sells mobile data collection equipment, but most of the current work involves data collection services using mobile LIDAR.

2. What services do you provide for these clients?

Mandli principally provides the measurement of geometric data. The vehicle travels in the outermost right lane, and the LIDAR unit scans the road geometry. With regard to the possible use for IntelliDrive applications (if needed in the future) LIDAR can be used to measure the paint striping and, hence, deduce the number of lanes. LIDAR produces about one million points per second on one pass and provides 0.394-inch (10-mm) accuracy relative to the vehicle. Most mobile projects are for State DOTs that typically specify 3.28-ft (1-m) positioning accuracy.

The services Mandli provides are divided into asset mapping and survey mapping. Asset mapping is less accurate and often involves a contract for the whole State. When survey mapping is used, base stations are added to get very accurate measurements. Mandli's work is driven by the project and customer requirements.

For example, in Tennessee, Mandli measured 27,000 lane miles with an accuracy of 3.28 ft (1 m). The data were used for HPMS reporting. In some circumstances, data are used in combination with other data sets. For example, a pavement management application may create a shapefile that is then snapped to the Mandli centerline. Another example is when a State DOT using Intergraph wants to use an existing basemap. The data Mandli collects are snapped to the map that is specified by the client.

3. What technologies and trends do you see shaping the future of your business?

Historically, pavement data was king. However, with technology changes, it is not just width that is being collected but a variety of data types. Mandli believes that mobile LIDAR is the future preferred technology. Clients are moving toward wanting 3-D representations, and this will result in more demand for LIDAR and airborne radar.

Mandli also uses videologs for collecting some roadway inventory data but has to manually code the sign type into the database. Mandli does not use character recognition to read sign types.

4. What can you share about the data you collect in terms of attributes and accuracy?

The data provide a combination of forward images at 500 pictures per mile together with LIDAR and is time- and distance-based. The set of identifiable assets include the following:

  • Shoulder width and lane width.
  • Sign location and size.
  • Passing areas and acceleration and deceleration lanes.
  • Acres of landscape, wildflowers, and mowing limits areas.
  • Miles and type of access control fence.
  • Height, width, and length of attenuators.
  • Number of delineators.
  • Width of each tunnel.
  • Width and length of ramp lanes and shoulders, with pavement type of each identified.
  • Line miles, type, and color of pavement markings. Widths of pavement-marking lines are measured.
  • Specialty marking square footage; the specific type of specialty marking and any legend is identified.
  • Length of curb and gutter segments.
  • Length and height of guardrail and guardrail terminus and type of guardrail terminus.
  • Height of concrete barrier walls.
  • Distance of trees, nonbreakaway poles, and walls.
  • Curve, grade, and superelevation.

With regard to road geometry, the available output fields for curve calculation are as follows:

  • Starting distance.
  • Ending distance.
  • Total distance.
  • Curve degree.
  • Curve class.
  • Curve radius.
  • Latitude start.
  • Latitude stop.
  • Longitude start.
  • Longitude stop.

Curves can be calculated using a chord or an arc length as set by the user. The curve class is fully customizable, so the user can set value ranges and names for each range and set to output in HPMS format. Using the curve class customization, it is possible to exclude certain values (such as straightaways of degree less than 1.0) from the report.

The available output fields for grade are as follows:

  • Starting distance.
  • Ending distance.
  • Total distance.
  • Grade.
  • Grade class.
  • Latitude start.
  • Latitude stop.
  • Longitude start.
  • Longitude stop.

Grade values are output as percentages. (Vertical curve calculations are not currently available.) The grade class is fully customizable so the user can set value ranges and names for each range and set to output HPMS format. Using the grade class customization, it is possible to exclude certain values (for instance, flat segments less than 1.0 percent) from the report.

Fugro Roadware

Web site: http://www.roadware.com/

Roadware provides both data collection equipment and services. It develops and markets a range of vehicle equipment that can take a wide variety of road surface measures, including friction, pavement distress, photogrammetric data, rutting, roughness, and road profile. It also has software that gathers and reports on the data from its devices, including such features as automated crack detection.

1. What business are you in and who are your clients?

Roadware provides mapping equipment and services to State DOTs, departments of public works, and MPOs throughout North America. The vast majority of the work is for State DOTs.

2. What services do you provide for these clients?

The company uses its equipment to collect data for the States. Data are often fed into the HPMS system, providing intelligence in terms of signing and curvature. Roadware collects data based on customer specifications. The company does not make maps of any sort. Typically, a client will ask for data, video, or images to suit requirements and will provide or specify an existing map. Roadware will then set up vehicles accordingly and gather the data needed at the resolution requested by the customer's specifications.

Roadware also sells Automatic Road Analyzer products, which include a range of devices that equip vehicles to provide the following services:

  • Pavement assessment.
  • HPMS data collection.
  • Road geometry.
  • Video logging.
  • Asset inventory.
  • Mobile mapping.

Users also include Federal agencies such as FHWA and the U.S. Park Service. In addition, Roadware sells equipment globally with a substantial market in China. The vehicle itself is a minor part of the company's sales. Mostly, Roadware configures a series of subsystems for the client on some vehicle platform.

The level of data provided depends on the application. Generally, Roadware works at the network level (i.e., a statewide contract has lower resolution but a lot more miles). Videologs that could be used to obtain some of the IntelliDrive data are taken. The entire State roadway network is driven in the primary travel lane, which is typically the one with the worst roadway condition and where there are the most problems. Most data collection is motivated either by pavement or asset management needs.

Data collection is often more than roadway geometry. There is typically a variety of data attributes collected, based on end-user needs. Geometry is measured, but the client looks for the data they want, for example, inadequate road profile, poor curves, or ponding.

Roadware does not create roadway maps, but customers can turn the data into maps. What Roadware provides is a database. The customers take the data and apply it to their own structures. This structure could be a map, an LRS, or some State-specific format.

3. What technologies and trends do you see shaping the future of your business?

The company does not think the market is changing rapidly. However, one definite trend is that resolution is increasing. There is possibly a trend toward 3-D profiles of the road. Currently, Roadware makes a longitudinal path and takes two-dimensional measurements. Needing a 3-D mesh for the data seems to be coming. With regard to IntelliDrive data needs by lane, Roadware does not measure data in all lanes; it gathers data for the lane the equipment is in unless the data are for paint striping measurements. Then, Roadware equipment views the state of the paint in all lanes from the lane it is in. Although measurements are taken in the travel lane, some clients can get shoulder width from the videolog.

Retroreflectivity off the paint strip is another attribute. Roadware usually collects multiple data types when passing by. Customers define the data types. These customers can be different departments within one DOT (e.g., planning and maintenance).

Roadware is not familiar with IntelliDrive, but the company is aware of a lot of safety research with cameras in the vehicles. It would be possible to take all the State data and put it together in a Federal database, but Roadware does not own the data it collects. Data are the property of the customer who paid for them, so the legal issues would need to be addressed. From Roadware's perspective, the customers would need to change their priorities in order for Roadware to change the data it collects.

4. What can you share about the data you collect in terms of attributes and accuracy?

Roadware uses GPS equipment plus inertial navigation, a combination of subsystems that also measures pitch and roll. The information is collected in a database, and customers turn it into a map. Frequency of collection and required attributes are defined by the customer. Frequency varies from 1 ft (0.305 m) up to about 15 ft (4.57 m). Data are rolled up into summary files every 0.1 mi (0.16 km) or 0.01 mi (0.016 km), but raw data are provided as well. The data collected most, in order, is as follows:

  1. Roughness—IRI.
  2. Rutting.
  3. Imagery.
  4. Pavement distress (cracking).

FHWA DHMS

1. What is the primary objective of FHWA's DHMS project?

The principal objectives of DHMS and all the research conducted at FHWA's Digital Highway Measurement Laboratory (DHML), are as follows:

  • To support FHWA's strategic commitment to data-driven decisions by developing and demonstrating technologies for the high-speed, high-accuracy collection and processing of roadway data.
  • To work with States to demonstrate and refine particular data collection methods through field deployment of prototype technologies.

The DHMS is one output of DHML at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA. Research at DHML directly supports FHWA strategic objectives to improve the quantity and quality of data available to safety and asset management programs. However, for such increasing demands for data to be economically met, new high-speed, high-accuracy data collection technologies are needed.

Since the late 1990s, researchers at DHML have developed and applied advanced technologies for the automated collection of information about the roadway and its environment. Measurement systems developed in DHML include DHMS, the Ultra-Light Inertial Profiler (ULIP), and the Advanced Pavement Evaluation (APE) system.

DHMS is a prototype instrumented vehicle which combines LIDAR, high-accuracy NDGPS and an aviation-quality inertial navigation unit. As it drives along, DHMS accurately measures roadway geometry and builds 3-D maps of features of interest on, over, or beside the road. DHMS was put into use in 2003. ULIP is a Segway-mounted system to collect and map profile and texture information on sidewalks and other narrow paths. APE is a separate vehicle designed to create 3-D subsurface maps using step-frequency ground penetrating radar (SFGPR) in order to measure pavement thickness, locate subsurface objects such as rebar or utilities, and detect and classify pavement distress such as delamination, voids, and fractures.

The FHWA commitment to data-driven decisions goes beyond sensor systems. Other related efforts include the following:

  • Model Inventory of Roadway Elements (MIRE): Standard definitions and coding for over 200 roadway data elements. Data that are consistent across jurisdictional lines will enable investigation of safety questions that could not be answered based on narrower data sets. MIRE is a voluntary standard, but FHWA hopes that it will be widely adopted as a de facto roadway data dictionary. For more information, see http://www.mireinfo.org/.
  • SafetyAnalyst: A software package for safety analysis on a network level; an implementation of Part B of the Highway Safety Manual.
  • Interactive Highway Design Model: A software package for safety analysis on a project level; an implementation of Part C of the Highway Safety Manual.

One vision for mobile digital roadway data measurement systems in general is that they will eventually be capable of collecting most of the data elements needed by these tools and will deliver that data to the analytical tools in a common format. MIRE is the prototype of a common set of roadway element definitions. Mobile roadway data collection systems such as DHMS also offer the possibility of reducing the cost of collecting and delivering HPMS data each year.

Another role for FHWA and DHML is to advocate for and support development of roadway data collection standards. At present, States are on their own when planning for data collection. Each vendor specifies its equipment and services differently. Well-crafted standards, particularly technology-neutral performance standards, would simplify contracting for data collection services by the States and would make it easier for new technologies to be accepted.

2. Does this program work directly with State DOTs? If so what is the nature of their involvement?

Researchers work directly with State DOTs during field trials and demonstrations of data collection technologies. In some instances, the State DOT is interested in collecting data for its own purposes, for which one of the DHML vehicles may be uniquely equipped. At other times, the State is willing to make available a section of their road system so that FHWA researchers can collect data in support of DHML objectives.

3. Does this program work directly with commercial roadway data collection services such as Mandli or Roadware? If so, what is the nature of their involvement?

The only formal interaction between DHML and manufacturers was an FHWA-hosted meeting in 2007, which approximately 35 industry representatives attended. The purpose of the meeting was to update the industry on DHMS progress. FHWA also participates in conferences focused on roadway data collection and related topics.

The Federal Lands Highway Division of FHWA has directly hired mobile roadway data collection vendors and owns at least one data collection van.

4. What new roadway data collection technologies are you testing/evaluating/demonstrating at this time?

At present, the primary focus of the DHML is the application of SFGPR to highway safety and infrastructure applications.

The following are broader long-term objectives subject to funding:

  • The fusion or integration of data from multiple sources: The goal is for all data collection processes to be accessible through one user interface. This effort includes research on improved visualization of the output. In industry today, different data types are typically gathered as distinct applications, with integration taking place during postprocessing.
  • Real-time data processing: Currently, for most roadway applications, it takes much more time to process data than to collect it. Real-time output would necessarily reduce processing costs, probably significantly. Near-real-time data processing also makes the output potentially more relevant to ITS/IntelliDrive applications, though that is not a focus of any DHML project at this point.
  • Automated identification of residual capacity in roadside hardware: For example, damage to guardrail installations can already be seen in LIDAR data and optical images. A major improvement would be for the data collection system to automatically determine whether the dent in the guardrail is severe enough to need repairs.

5. For each new data collection technology identified, what specific roadway data items or attributes are the technology designed to collect and what benefit does the new technology have over previous data collection methods (e.g., increased accuracy, lower processing cost, data could not be collected before)?

Data fusion and improved visualization of information make it more likely that a practitioner will clearly understand that information and will therefore be able to make better decisions in the field. Near-real-time output of data collection offers lower costs by reducing the amount and complexity of postprocessing activities.

6. Are any of the State DOTs currently using any of the innovative technologies for collecting their roadway inventory or geometry data?

Most State uses of cutting edge technology for roadway data collection is indirect, through contracts with private sector service providers and equipment manufacturers, though there are a few States, including Virginia, Minnesota, Washington, Texas, and California, that conduct at least some research on their own initiative.

Some of these active State DOTs and their respective areas of focus relative to pavement nondestructive evaluation are as follows:

  • Texas has developed a certification procedure for pavement roughness equipment.
  • Minnesota is working on several pavement condition measurements through its MnROAD program, including the use of infrared, lasers, and nondestructive evaluation methods.
  • Penn State University's Pennsylvania Transportation Institute is doing work on measuring pavement friction.
  • The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute is working on a variety of data collection methods for pavement evaluation.
  • Caltrans has a location near San Diego that the agency uses to check the calibration of data collection equipment.

Other State DOTs not included in the list participate in pooled fund studies related to the development of innovative technologies for collecting roadway inventory data.

7. Is it difficult to get State DOTs to adopt new data collection technologies or to collect new roadway data items?

The process is slow due in part to a combination of budgetary concerns and the current lack of any standard yardstick for performance. Particularly when a State does not already use a given data element in its own operations, allocating time and funds to collecting that additional data element is a tough sell.

8. What are the most effective incentives for getting State DOTs to utilize new data collection technologies? (e.g., will States adopt new data collection technologies without either a Federal mandate or some funding incentive?)

There should be a mandate or financial incentive. Most States collect the HPMS-mandated data elements only because it is required. Only a handful of States have research programs that consider data collection and analysis independent of legislative or regulatory mandates.

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United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration