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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-96-177
Date: October 1997

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations: Definition and Prioritization of Research Studies

 

FOREWORD

This report is one of a series produced as part of a contract designed to develop precise, detailed human factors design guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO). The contractual effort consists of three phases: analytic, empirical, and integration. This report is a product of the analytic phase. Among the other analytic topics discussed in the series are ATIS and CVO system objectives and performance requirements, functional description of ATIS/CVO, comparable systems analysis, task analysis of ATIS/CVO functions, alternate systems analysis, and identification and exploration of driver acceptance.

This report documents the systematic definition and prioritization of human factors research issues related to the implementation of in–vehicle ATIS and CVO systems.

Copies of this report can be obtained through the Research and Technology Report Center, 9701 Philadelphia Court, Unit Q, Lanham, Maryland 20706, telephone: (301) 577–0818, fax: (301) 577–1421, or the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, telephone: (703) 487–4650, fax: (703) 321–8547.

A. George Ostensen, Director
Office of Safety and Traffic
Operations Research and Development

 

NOTICE

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its content or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade and manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the object of the document.

 


TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

1. Report No.

FHWA–RD–96–177

2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS GUIDELINES FOR ADVANCED TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND COMMERCIAL VEHICLE OPERATIONS: DEFINITION AND PRIORITIZATION OF RESEARCH STUDIES

5. Report Date

October 1997

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

B.H. Kantowitz, J.D. Lee, S.C. Kantowitz

8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Battelle Human Factors Transportation Center
4000 NE 41st Street
Seattle, WA 98105–0395

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

3B4C

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61–92–C–00102

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Safety and Traffic Operations R&D
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101–2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Technical Report

7/1/93 – 3/31/94

14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes

Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR): Joseph Moyer, HSR–30; Thomas Granda, SAIC

16. Abstract

The goal of the activities documented in this report was to produce a prioritized list of candidate studies and issues that would guide data acquisition in this project. This goal was accomplished in three steps. First, 91 issues were compiled from earlier research in this effort. Second, a set of 14 criteria, 9 substantive and 5 methodological, were defined. Eight experienced human factors experts completed all 2,184 cells in a rating matrix for a total of 17,472 rating entries in the data set. Third, a linear psychometric model was used to prioritize the 91 issues. The model was validated by sending the raters three short prioritized lists, one of which was (unknown to the raters) a stratified random sample of studies and issues. Raters were asked to delete unimportant and impractical research issues from these lists. They deleted significantly more items from the random list. The nine most vital studies/issues from the final prioritized list are: cognitive demands in transitioning across ATIS functions, complex interactions among ATIS functions, how ISIS and IVSAWS information influences behavior, effects of low information reliability, displaying multiple messages, features requiring standardization, single versus multiple display channels, multimodal displays, and effects of display modality and format on CVO driver workload. The key human factors issues listed here must be address to assure in–vehicle information systems are a safe and usable components of ITS.

17. Key Words

Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS), Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO), Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

81

22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION

2. METHOD

  • RATERS
  • PROCEDURE

3. RESULTS

4. DISCUSSION

  • HIGHEST PRIORITY STUDIES/ISSUES
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS OF STUDIES/ISSUES
    • A1. Examine the cognitive demands placed on the driver by the need to transition from one ATIS function to another

    • A4. Identify how complex ATIS interactions among ATIS functions might affect driver understanding and response to the system

    • B3. Identify how the information drivers need and want from road sign (ISIS) and warning systems (IVSAWS) might influence behavior

    • C4. Examine how information reliability (e.g., false alarms) influences driver adaptation and enhance the potential for an improper response to ISIS/IVSAWS

    • C5. Investigate how to display multiple ISIS and IVSAWS messages so that drivers can identify relevant information and react appropriately

    • D2. Identify features that will benefit/require standardization across many types of ATIS systems and functions

    • D4. Examine the performance differences associated with focusing all ISIS and IVSAWS information through either single or multiple display channels

    • D12. Evaluate the effectiveness of multimodality displays, such as voice in combination with text

    • D17. Identify specific concerns regarding how display formats and modality impact CVO driver workload

  • CONCLUSIONS

APPENDIX A: STUDIES/ISSUE SOURCES

  • NINE MOST VITAL STUDIES/ISSUES

APPENDIX B: STUDY/ISSUE RATING FORMS

  • INSTRUCTIONS FOR RATING ATIS/CVO STUDIES/ISSUES

  • STUDIES/ISSUES

    • Coordination of Multiple ATIS Functions

    • Driver Function and Information Requirements

    • Reliability, Timing, and Priority of Information

    • Interface Form and Modality

    • Time Sharing, Attention, and Workload

    • Effect of ATIS on Driving Performance

    • Driver Acceptance

    • Navigation and Route Selection Strategies

    • Training and Education

    • Design and Presentation of Human Factors Design Guidelines

    • Research Strategies and Methods

  • CRITERIA

    • Congestion

    • Safety

    • Mobility

    • Environment

    • Economic

    • Existing Data

    • Guidelines

    • Older Drivers

    • Younger Drivers

    • Cost

    • Time

    • Practicality

    • Generality

    • Suitability

  • STUDIES/ISSUES RATING FORM

  • VALIDATION RATING FORMS

REFERENCES

 


LIST OF FIGURES

  1. Flowchart of Task I subtasks
  2. Goodman's/Kruskal's Gamma as a function of Safety weighting
  3. Goodman's/Kruskal's Gamma for each criterion

 


LIST OF TABLES

  1. Summary of working papers
  2. Rated studies/issues
  3. Rating criteria
  4. Criterion definition
  5. Top 20 ranked issues for Congestion
  6. Top 20 ranked issues for Safety
  7. Top 20 ranked issues for Mobility
  8. Top 20 ranked issues for Environment
  9. Top 20 ranked issues for Economic
  10. Top 20 ranked issues for Existing Data
  11. Top 20 ranked issues for Guidelines
  12. Top 20 ranked issues for Older Drivers
  13. Top 20 ranked issues for Younger Drivers
  14. Studies/Issues rated 4.50 or greater on single dimensions
  15. Final weighted rankings
  16. Number of studies/issues deleted by raters by list
  17. Studies/Issues added to List A by raters
  18. Studies/Issues deleted from List A by two raters
  19. Most vital studies/issues
  20. Validation rating forms––List A
  21. Validation rating forms––List C

 


LIST OF ACRONYMS

ATIS Advanced Traveler Information Systems

CVO Commercial Vehicle Operations

FHWA Federal Highway Administration

GPS global positioning system

h hour

HUD Head–Up Display

ISIS In–Vehicle Signing Information Systems

ITS Intelligent Transportation Systems

IVSAWS In–Vehicle Safety Advisory and Warning Systems

 

FHWA-RD-96-177

 

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