A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the United States and Abroad
Annotated Bibliography on Traffic Calming Measures
Several sources exist with extensive text, illustrations, etc. Some are listed here:
- Traffic Calming: State of the Practice, FHWA, Report RD-99-135, August, 1999, Ewing, R.H.
This report looks at the design, impact, and other considerations surrounding traffic-calming measures in the U.S. and Canada. It covers information on traffic-calming in different contexts from urban residential areas to areas where high-speed rural highways transition into rural communities. The report is based on detailed information collected on traffic-calming programs in 20
featured communities, another 30 communities surveyed less extensively, and a
parallel Canadian effort by the Canadian ITE (CITE) and the Transportation
Association of Canada (TAC).
- Traffic Calming in Practice, County Surveyors Society, Landor Publishing Limited, Quadrant House, London, SE11 5RD, November, 1994.
With a considerable list of references and lavishly illustrated, this report claims to be "an authoritative source book with 85 case studies." Among the 85 case studies are 18 different types of interventions. Each case study is laid out in a two-page spread with photos, schematics, speed and crash data, etc. In 72 of the 85 cases, before- and after-crash data are presented, and in 69 of the 72, crashes are lower in the after period than they were before. However, this is not a research document; what might be the nature or strength of the study designs cannot readily be ascertained from the
- Towards Traffic Calming: A Practitioner's Manual, Hawkey, L., Henson C., Hulse, A., and Brindle, R., Federal Office of Road Safety, Canberra, Australia, August, 1992.
This manual shows numerous methods of slowing down vehicular traffic, the presumed beneficiaries being pedestrians and bicyclists, and cites the need for evaluation of effectiveness and lack thereof. It contains good visuals and descriptions: humps, narrowing, mini-roundabouts. There is a section on international references.
- National Bicycle and Walking Study: Case Study 19: Traffic Calming, FHWA, Report PD-93-028, January, 1994, Clarke, A. And Dornfield, M.
This report contains a discussion of pros and cons of the "Woonerven" (the Netherlands) Several efforts produced good results: less speed, fewer crashes, lower volume (though of course less speed and volume are good for some and bad for others). This report also addresses U.S. traffic-calming initiatives: speed humps, mini-roundabouts, chicanes, bike boulevards, channelization changes, slow streets, traffic diverters, and corner treatments.
- FHWA Study Tour for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety in England, Germany, and the Netherlands, October 1994, FHWA, DOT, Zegeer, C., Cynecki, M., Fegan, J., Gilleran, B., Lagerway, P., Tan, C, and Works, B.
Countermeasures discussed include:
England: chicanes, narrowing, humps, roundabouts (humps are sometimes designed to allow wide trucks, buses, or emergency vehicles to pass unimpeded. City dwellers like the restrictions, and country people want to retain the diminished access.
Netherlands: low speed limits, diverters, narrowing, block through-access
Germany: self-enforcing speed control, road narrowing
- "Traffic Calming, 1995," Traffic Engineering Committee Workshop, Proceedings from 21 papers, Ontario Traffic Conference, 20 Carlton Street, Toronto, M5B 2H5, November, 1995.
This compilation of papers describes a number of traffic-calming initiatives installed in various cities and towns in Canada. The nature of the interventions is described and, in a number of instances, before-and after-data are presented. Drawings and photographs illustrate the installations.
- "Traditional Neighborhood Development Street Design Guidelines," Prepared by ITE Transportation Planning Council Committee 5P-8, A Proposed Recommended Practice of the ITE, 525 School St. NW, Suite 140, Washington, DC, June 1997.
This document presents a discussion of the concepts of traditional neighborhood development, also referred to as "The New Urbanism," as they relate to the role of streets in traditional neighborhood development communities. The document also includes a discussion of community design guidelines, specific guidance on geometric street design, and an appendix that summarizes some of the recent findings on the relationship between urban design and traveldemand.
- "Guidelines for the Design and Application of Speed Humps, A Recommended Practice of the
Institute of Traffic Engineers," ITE Traffic Engineering Council Speed Humps Task Force TENC-5TF-01, Douglas W. Wiersig, Chair, 525 School St. NW, Suite 140, Washington, DC, 1997.
This document provides information on the recommended practice for the guidelines for using speed humps, community relations and administrative procedures, design and construction considerations, monitoring and evaluation of speed humps over time, and other considerations, such as liability, aesthetics, maintenance and enforcement needs. An extensive listing of source materials is also included.