Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home
Report
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-03-042
Date: November 2003

A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the United States and Abroad

 

References

AAA Pedestrian Safety Report or Special Survey on Pedestrian Deaths and Injuries for Ages 0 through 29. American Automobile Association, No. 7, February, 1984. Also 1977 edition.

AAA Special Study of School Child Pedestrian Accidents. AAA Pedestrian Safety Report, American Automobile Association, June 1968.

Accident Facts. 1988 Edition, National Safety Council, (and earlier editions), 1988.

Accident Facts. 1994 Edition, National Safety Council, Chicago, IL, 1994

Accident Facts. 1995 Edition, National Safety Council, Chicago, IL, 1995.

Accident Facts. 1996 Edition, National Safety Council, Chicago, IL, 1996.

Accident Facts. 1997 Edition, National Safety Council, Chicago, IL, 1997.

Accident Prevention Effects of Road Safety Devices - Annual Report. Japan Road Association, 1969.

Alcohol Fatality Facts 1990, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, July 1990.

Allen, M.J., R.D. Hazlett, H.L. Tacker, and B.V. Graham. "Actual Pedestrian Visibility and the Pedestrian's Estimate of His Own Visibility," Conference Proceedings, American Association for Automotive Medicine, October 1969.

Antonakos, C.L. Nonmotor Vehicle Travel in the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, Transportation Research Record 1502: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, p. 75, 1995.

Atkins, C. and M. Coleman. "The Influence of Traffic Calming on Emergency Response Times," ITE Journal, August 1997, pp. 42-46.

Axelson, P.W., D.A. Chesney, D.V. Galvan, J.B. Kirschbaum, P.E. Longmuir, C. Lyons, and K.M. Wong. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part I of II: Review of Existing Guidelines and Practices, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA HEP-99-006, July 1999.

Bartholomew, W.M. "Pedestrian Accidents in Service Areas of Selected City Recreation Facilities," Traffic Safety Research Review, Vol. II, No. 4, December 1967.

Berger, W.G. Urban Pedestrian Accident Countermeasures Experimental Evaluation Studies. Vol. I--Behavioral Evaluation Studies. Vol. II-Accident Studies. Vol. III -Appendix A, Report Nos. DOT-HS-801-346, 347, and 348, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, February 1975.

Blomberg, R.D. and D.F. Preusser. Identification and Test of Pedestrian Safety Messages for Public Education Programs, Report No. ED-74-3, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, April 1975.

Blomberg, R.D., D.F. Preusser, A. Hale, and W.A. Leaf. Experimental Field Test of Proposed Pedestrian Safety Messages, NHTSA, Nov. 1983.

Blomberg, R.D., A. Hale, and D.F. Preusser. Conspicuity for Pedestrians and Bicyclists: Definition of the Problem. Development and Test of Countermeasures, NHTSA, April, 1984.

Bowman, B.L., J.J. Fruin, and C.V. Zegeer. Handbook on Planning, Design, and Maintenance of Pedestrian Facilities, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA IP-88-019, March 1989.

Bowman, B.L. and R.L. Vecellio. "Effects of Urban and Suburban Median Types on Both Vehicular and Pedestrian Safety," Transportation Research Record 1445: Cross Section and Alignment Design Issues, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, p.169, 1994A.

Bowman, B.L. and R.L. Vecellio. "Assessment of Current Practice in Selection and Design of Urban Medians to Benefit Pedestrians," Transportation Research Record 1445: Cross Section and Alignment Design Issues, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, p. 180, 1994b.

Braaksma, J.P. A Survey of Special Crosswalks in Canada, Report No. TP981 CR7708, Canadian Department of Transportation, The Directorate of Road and Motor Vehicle Traffic Safety, September 1976.

Brindle, R. "Traffic Calming in Australia: More than Neighborhood Traffic Management," ITE Journal, July 1997, pp. 26-33.

Britt, J.W., A.B. Bergman and J. Moffatt. "Law Enforcement, Pedestrian Safety, and Driver Compliance with Crosswalk Laws: Evaluation of a Four-year Campaign in Seattle," Transportation Research Record 1485: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1995.

Brownfield, D.J. "Environmental Areas-Interim Report on a Before-After Accident Study," Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 21, No. 5, May 1980.

Burritt, B.E., R.C. Buchanan, and E.I. Kalidova. "School Zone Flashers-Do They Really Slow Traffic?" ITE Manual, pp. 29-31, January 1990.

Cagley, C. "The Urban Setting of Juvenile Pedestrian Injuries: a Study of Behavioral Ecology and Social Disadvantage," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 673-678, 1992.

Campbell, B.J. Unpublished tabulation of North Carolina accident data prepared for this report, 1996.

Chalis, L.A. and Associates, Pty., Ltd. "Development of an Audio Tactile Signal to Assist the Blind at Pedestrian Crossings," Melbourne, Australia, 1976.

Choueiri, E.M., R. Lamm, G.M. Choueiri, and B.M. Choueiri. "Pedestrian Accidents: A 15-year survey from the United States and Western Europe," ITE Journal, July, 1993, pp. 36-42.

Christoffel, K.K., M. Donovan, J. Schofer, K. Wills, and J.V. Lavinnge, Psychosocial Factors in Childhood Pedestrian Injury: A Matched Case-Control Study. Pediatrics, Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 33-42, Jan. 1996.

Clark, K.L., J.E. Hummer, and N. Dutt. "Field Evaluation of Fluorescent Strong Yellow-green Pedestrian Warning Signs," Transportation Research Record 1538, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, p. 39, 1996.

Clarke, A. and M.J. Dornfeld. Traffic Calming, Auto-Restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management Techniques - Their Effects on Bicycling and Pedestrians, Case Study No. 19, National Bicycling and Walking Study, Publication No. FHWA-PD-93-028, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, January 1994.

Clarke, A. and M. Dornfield., National Bicycle and Walking Study: Case Study No. 19: Traffic Calming, FHWA, Report PD-93-028, January, 1994.

Cline, E. "Design of Speed Humps...Or 'The Kinder, Gentler Speed Hump," Presented at the 45th California Symposium on Transportation Issues, May 12-14, 1993.

Compton, R.P. and E.V. Milton. "Safety Impact of Permitting Right-Turn-On-Red: a Report to Congress by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,"US DOT, December 1994.

Cove, L. "Pedestrian Accident Characteristics," Federal Highway Administration, 1990.

Crook, A.D. "Effect on Accidents of Area Traffic Control in West London," Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 12, No. 1, May 1970.

Cynecki, M.J. Personal communication, April 1998.

Cynecki, M.J., J.W. Sparks, and J.L. Grote. "Rumble Strips and Pedestrian Safety," ITE Journal, August, 1993, p. 18.

Cynecki, M.J. "Development of a Conflicts' Analysis Technique for Pedestrian Crossings," Transportation Research Board, Record No. 743, TRB, 1980.

Davis, R.A. and D.F. Huelke. "Pedestrian Fatalities," Highway Safety Research Institute, University of Michigan, 1969.

Davis, S.E., H.D. Robertson, and L.E. King. "Pedestrian/Vehicle Conflicts: An Accident Prediction Model," Transportation Publication Report No. 6, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 1989.

Development of Model Regulations for Pedestrian Safety. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC, Report No. DOT-HS-801-287, Nov. 1974.

Dickman, F.B. and W.S. Cope. "Drug Related Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crash Injuries," Transportation Research Circular 397, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, May 1992.

Dunne, R.G., K.N. Asher, and F.P. Rivara. "Behavior and Parental Expectations of Child Pedestrians," Pediatrics, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 486-490, March 1992.

Earnhart, G. and L. Simon. Accessibility for Elderly and Handicapped Pedestrians-A Manual for Cities, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1987.

Edminster, R. and D. Koffman. Streets for Pedestrians and Transit: An Evaluation of Three Transit Malls in the United States, Report No. UMTA-MA-06-00049-79-1, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, February 1979.

Ekman, L. Fotgargares risker pa markerat overgangsstalle jamfort med andra korsningspunkter. Bulletin 76. University of Lund, Lund, Sweden, 1988.

"Enforcement-Policing Pedestrian Protection," Traffic Safety Magazine, National Safety Council, Vol. 88, No. 1, Jan./Feb., 1988.

Engel, U. and Lars K. Thomsen. "Safety Effects of Speed Reducing Measures in Danish Residential Area," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 24, No. 1, February 1992, pp. 17-28.

Evans. L. "Factors Influencing Pedestrian and Motorcyclist Fatality Risk," Journal of Traffic Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1991.

Ewing, R.H. Traffic Calming: State of the Practice, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA RD-99-135, August 1999.

Ewing, R. and C. Kooshian. "U.S. Experience with Traffic Calming," ITE Journal, August 1997, pp. 28- 33.

Fatal Accident Reporting System 1989 - A Decade of Progress. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1990.

Ferguson, S.A., A.K. Lund, P.L. Zador, and R.G. Ulmer. "Daylight Saving Time and Motor Vehicle Crashes: the Reduction of Pedestrian and Vehicle Occupant Fatalities," American Journal of Public Health, January 1995.

Firth, D.E. Roads and Road Safety: Descriptions Given by Four Hundred Children, Report SR 138 UC, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England, 1975.

Fleig, P.H. and D.G. Duffy. "A Study of Pedestrian Safety Behavior Using Activity Sampling," Traffic Safety Research Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, December 1967.

Frederick, M. "Yoeman's Road" in "Traffic Calming, 1995," Traffic Engineering Committee Workshop, Proceedings from 21 papers, Ontario Traffic Conference, 20 Carlton Street, Toronto, M5B 2H5, November 1995.

Freedman, M., M.S. Janoff, B.W. Koth, and W. McCunney. Fixed Illumination for Pedestrian Protection, Report No. FHWA-RD-76-8, Federal Highway Administration, December 1975.

Fruin, J.J. "Pedestrian Accident Characteristics in a One-Way Grid," Highway Research Record 436, Highway Research Board, 1973.

Gallon, C., P. Oxley, and B. Simms. "Tactile footway surfaces for the blind," Transport Research Laboratory (report 257), Crowthorne, England, 1991.

Gallon, C., "Tactile surfaces in the pedestrian environment: Experiments in Wolverhampton," Transport Research Laboratory (report 317), Crowthorne, England, 1992.

General Estimates System 1989-A Review of Information On Police-Reported Traffic Crashes in the United States, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1990.

Gibby, A.R., J.L. Stites, G.S. Thurgood, and T.C. Ferrara. "Evaluation of Marked and Unmarked Crosswalks at Intersections in California," Chico State University, Report Number FHWA/CA/TO-94/1, June 1994.

Goodwin, P.W. and T.P. Hutchinson. "The Risk of Walking," Transportation (The Netherlands), Vol. 6, No. 3, September 1977.

Gurnett, G. "Marked Crosswalk Removal Before and After Study," Los Angeles County Road Department, November 1974.

Habib, P.A. "Pedestrians Safety: The Hazards of Left-Turning Vehicles," ITE Journal, Institute of Transportation Engineers, April 1980.

Harrell, W.A. "Driver Response to a Disabled Pedestrian Using a Dangerous Crosswalk," Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol.12, pp. 345-354, 1992.

Hauck, J. "Well-Marked Crosswalks are a Pedestrian's Best Friend," Rural and Urban Roads, Vol. 17, No. 3, March 1979.

Hawkey, L., C. Henson, A. Hulse, and R. Brindle. "Towards Traffic Calming: a Practitioners Manual," Federal Office of Road Safety, Canberra, Australia, August 1992.

Hawkins, A.F. Priority Accessible Network for the Elderly and Handicapped Pedestrians in New Orleans, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA-TS-84-206, June 1984.

Hawley, L., Colin Henson, Andrew Hulse, and Ray Brindle. Towards Traffic Calming: A Practitioners' Manual of Implemented Local Area Traffic Management and Blackspot Devices, Publication No. CR 126, Federal Office of Road Safety, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, August 1992.

Hazlett, R.D. and M.J. Allen. "The Ability to See A Pedestrian at Night: The Effects of Clothing Reflectorization, and Driver Intoxication," American Journal of Optometry, Vol. 45, No. 4, April 1968.

Herget, H. "Willowbrook Road Traffic Calming Project," Frederick, M., in "Traffic Calming, 1995," Traffic Engineering Committee Workshop, Proceedings from 21 papers, Ontario Traffic Conference, 20 Carlton Street, Toronto, M5B 2H5, November 1995.

Herms, B. "Pedestrian Crosswalk Study: Accidents in Painted and Unpainted Crosswalks," City of San Diego Traffic Engineering Study, Project pp-69-2-001, 1970.

Herms, B. "Pedestrian Crosswalk Study: Accidents in Painted and Unpainted Crosswalks," Highway Research Record Number 406 Pedestrian Protection, Highway Research Board, pp. 1-13, Washington DC, 1972.

Herms, B., et al. "Guidestrips for Visually Handicapped Pedestrians," Proceedings, Seminar on Planning, Design, and Implementation of Bicycle/Pedestrian Facilities, Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, University of California, May 1975.

Huang, H. and C. Zegeer. "An Evaluation of Pedestrian Countdown Signals," Report No. FHWA DTFH61-92-R-00138. University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC, 1999.

Huang, H. An Evaluation of Illuminated Pedestrian Push Buttons, Report No. FHWA DTFH61-92-R-00138, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC, 1999.

Huang, H.F. and C.V. Zegeer, "An Evaluation of Illuminated Pedestrian Push Buttons in Windsor, Ontario," Report No. FHWA-RD-00-102, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC, August 2000.

Huang, H.F. and M.J. Cynecki. "The Effects of Traffic Calming Measures on Pedestrian and Motorist Behavior," Report No. FHWA-RD-00-104, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC & City of Phoenix, Street Transportation Dept., Phoenix, AZ, August 2000.

Huang, H., C. Zegeer, R. Nassi, and B. Fairfax. "The Effects of Innovative Pedestrian Signs at Unsignalized Locations: A Tale of Three Treatments," Report No. FHWA-RD-00-098, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC & City of Tucson, Department of Transport, Tucson, AZ, August 2000.

Hughes, R., H. Huang, M. Cynecki, and C. Zegeer. "Automated Pedestrian Detection Used in Conjunction with Standard Pedestrian Push Buttons at Signalized Intersections," Report No. FHWA DTFH61-92-R-00138, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC, March 1999.

Hughes, R., H. Huang, C. Zegeer, and M. Cynecki, "Evaluation of Automated Pedestrian Detection at Signalized Intersections." Report No. FHWA-RD-00-097, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC & City of Phoenix, Street Transportation Dept., Phoenix, AZ, August 2000.

Hulscher, F.R. "Traffic Signal Facilities for Blind Pedestrians," Preliminary Report, New South Wales Department of Motor Transport, Australia, January 1975.

Hunter, W., J. Stutts, W. Pein, and C. Cox. "Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990s," February 1995, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Contract number FHWA-RD 95-163, 1996.

Husband, P. and I. Sobey. Factors Contributing to Pedestrian Involvement in Road Crashes, Joint ARRB/DOT Pedestrian Conference, Australian Road Research Board, 1978.

ITE Technical Council Task Force on Speed Humps. Guidelines for the Design and Application of Speed Humps, ITE Journal, Vol. 63, No. 5, May 1993, pp. 11-17.

Jacobs, G.D. "Pedestrian Behavior on a Length of Road Containing Guard Rails," Traffic Engineering and Control, January 1966.

Jacobs, G.D., S.J. Older, and D.G. Wilson. A Comparison of Road User Behavior at X-Way and Other Pedestrian Crossings; Report TRRL 145, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England, 1968A.

Jacobs, G.D. The Effect of Vehicle Lighting on Pedestrian Movement in Well-Lighted Streets, Report 214, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England, 1968B.

Katz, A., D. Zaidel, and A. Elgrishi. "An Experimental Study of Driver and Pedestrian Interaction During the Crossing Conflict," Human Factors, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 514-527, 1975.

Katz, A. Designing Safety and Comfort into the Environment, Joint ARRB/DOT Pedestrian Safety Conference, Australian Road Research Board, Sydney, Australia, November 1978.

Kemper, B. and P. Fernandez. "Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities," ITE Technical Committee 5A-5, December 1994.

Kirschbaum, J.B., P.W. Axelson, P.E. Longmuir, K.M. Mispagel, J.A. Stein, and D.A. Yamada. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Best Practices Design Guide, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA EP-01-027, September 2001.

Klik, M. and Ardeshir Faghri. "A Comparative Evaluation of Speed Humps and Deviations," Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 47, No. 3, July 1993, pp. 457-469.

Kloeckner, J.H., R. Lamm, E.M. Choueiri, and T. Mailaender. "Traffic Accidents Involving Accompanied and Unaccompanied Children in the Federal Republic of Germany," Transportation Research Record 1210, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1989.

Knoblauch, R.L., "Urban Pedestrian Accident Countermeasures Experimental Evaluation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT-HS-801-347, February 1975.

Knoblauch, R., "The Effect of Crosswalk markings on Vehicle Speeds in Maryland, Virginia, and Arizona", Center for Applied Research, Inc., Great falls, VA, FHWA Contract DTFH61-92-C-00138, July 1998.

Knoblauch, R.L, M.T. Pietrucha, and M. Nitzburg. "Field Studies of Pedestrian Walking Speed and Start-Up Time," Transportation Research Record 1538: Pedestrian and Bicycle Research, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, p. 27, 1996.

Knoblauch, R.L. Causative Factors and Countermeasures for Rural and Suburban Pedestrian Accidents: Accident Data Collection and Analysis, Report No. DOT-HS-802-266, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, June 1977.

Knoblauch, R.L., W. Moore, Jr., and P.R. Schmitz. Pedestrian Accidents Occurring on Freeways: An Investigation of Causative Factors. Accident Data Collection and Analysis, Report Nos. FHWA-RD-78-169/171, Federal Highway Administration, 1978.

Knoblauch, R., M. Nitzburg, and R. Seifert. "Pedestrian Crosswalk Case Studies: Sacramento, California; Richmond, Virginia; Buffalo, New York, Stillwater, Minnesota," Center for Applied Research, Inc., Great falls, VA, FHWA Contract DTFH61-92-C-00138, March 1999.

Knoblauch, R.L., B.H. Tustin, S.A. Smith, and M.T. Pietrucha. Investigation of Exposure Based Pedestrian Accident Areas: Crosswalks. Sidewalks. Local Streets and Major Arterials, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA/RD-87-038, February 1987.

Knoblauch, R.L. and P.D. Raymond, "The Effect of Crosswalk Markings on Vehicle Speeds in Maryland, Virginia, and Arizona," Report No. FHWA-RD-00-101, Center for Applied Research, Inc., Great Falls, VA, August 2000.

Knoblauch, R.L., M. Nitzburg, and R.F. Seifurt. "Pedestrian Crosswalk Case Studies: Sacramento, California; Richmond, Virginia; Buffalo, New York; Stillwater, Minnesota," Report No. FHWA-RD-00-103, Center for Applied Research, Inc., Great Falls, VA, August 2000.

Koenig, D.J. and Z. Wu. "The Impact of a Media Campaign in the Reduction of Risk-Taking Behavior on the Part of Drivers," Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 26, pp. 625-633, 1994.

Kraay, J.H. "Strategies in Pedestrian Road Safety Research," Reprinted in Voice of the Pedestrian, International Federation of Pedestrians, Autumn 1976.

Lalani, N. "Road Safety at Pedestrian Refuges," Transportation Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 9, September 1976.

Larsen, C.A. Priority Accessible Network for the Elderly and Handicapped in Seattle, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA-TS-84-205, June 1984.

Lea, N.D. and Associates. A Study of Measures to Improve Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety, Report No. TP 1004, Canadian Department of Transport, 1978.

Leonard, J. and J. Davis. "Urban Traffic Calming Treatments: Performance Measures and Design Conformance," ITE Journal, August 1997, pp. 34-39.

Lockwood, I. "ITE traffic calming definition," ITE Journal, July 1997, pp. 22-24.

Lord, D. "Analysis of Pedestrian Conflicts with Left Turning Traffic," Transportation Research Record 1538: Pedestrian and Bicycle Research, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, p. 61, 1996.

Los Angeles County Road Department. "Marked Crosswalks at Non-Signalized Intersections," Traffic and Lighting Division, July 1967.

Lovemark, O. "Pedestrians in Town Centers-A Summary of Some Research Project," Pedestrian Safety Project Report No. 27, North American Treaty Organization Committee on the Challenge of Modern Society, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, March 1974.

Macbeth, A. "Balliol Street," in Traffic Calming, 1995, Traffic Engineering Committee Workshop, Proceedings from 21 papers, Ontario Traffic Conference, 20 Carlton Street, Toronto, M5B 2H5, November 1995.

Mackie, A.M. and S.J. Older. "Study of Pedestrian Risk in Crossing Busy Roads in London Inner Suburbs," Traffic Engineering and Control, October 1965.

Malefant, L. and R. Van Houten. "Increasing the Percentage of Drivers Yielding to Pedestrians in Three Canadian Cities with a Multifaceted Safety Program," Health Education Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 275-279, 1989.

Malo, A.F., A. Freed, D.E. Cleveland, J.V. Arthungal, and C. Jorgenson. An Innovative Pedestrian Crosswalk Safety Device Demonstration, Report TRS-8, Highway Safety Research Institute, 1971.

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. Federal Highway Administration, 1988.

Matthias, J.S., and A. Stonex. Pedestrian Accidents in Arizona: An Investigation of Causative Factors and Recommendations for Safety Improvements. Report No. FHWA/AZ-84/210. Arizona Department of Transportation, 1985.

McDonald, P.E., and J.R. Jarvis. The Use of Road Humps on Residential Streets in the Shire of Corio, ARRB Internal Report, AIR 335-2, Australian Road Research Board, 1981.

McMahon, P.J., A.J. Khattak, C. Duncan, J.R. Stewart, & C.V. Zegeer. "An Analysis of Factors Contributing to "Walking Along Roadway" Crashes: Research Study and Guidelines for Sidewalks and Walkways." Report No. FHWA-RD-01-101. University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC, November 2000.

Miles-Doan, R. "Alcohol Use Among Pedestrians and the Odds of Surviving an Injury: Evidence From Florida Law Enforcement Data," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 23-31, 1996.

Model Pedestrian Safety Program. User's Manual Report No. FHWA-IP-78-6, Federal Highway Administration, 1977 and 1987 editions.

Model Ice Cream Truck Ordinance, U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Report No. DOT-HS-804829, August 1979.

Moore, R.L. and S.J. Older. "Pedestrians and Motor Vehicles are Compatible in Today's World," Traffic Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 12, Sept. 1965.

Morrall, J.F., L.L. Ratnayake, and P.N. Seneviratne. "Comparison of CBD Pedestrian Characteristics in Canada and Sri Lanka," Transportation Research Record 1294: Non-Motorized transportation, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1991.

Mortimer, R.G. "Behavioral Evaluation of Pedestrian Signals," Traffic Engineering, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1973.

National Safety Council. Walk Alert - National Pedestrian Safety Program 1988 Program Guide, National Safety Council, Chicago, Illinois, 1988.

Nitzbgurg, M. and R. L. Knoblaugh, "An Evaluation of High Visibility Crosswalk Treatments," Report No. FHWA DTFH61-92-R-00138, Center for Applied Research, Great Falls, VA, 1999.

Nitzburg, M. and R.L. Knoblauch. "An Evaluation of High-Visibility Crosswalk Treatment - Clearwater, Florida," Report No. FHWA-RD-00-105, Center for Applied Research, Inc., Great Falls, VA, August 2000.

Nizlek, M.C. "Pedestrian Traffic Accident Characteristics, Tucson, Arizona," 23rd Annual Arizona Conference on Roads and Streets, April 18, 1984.

North Carolina Traffic Accident Facts - 1989. Division of Motor Vehicles, North Carolina DOT, 1990.

Owens, D.A. and R.J. Antonoff. "Biological Motion and Nighttime Pedestrian Conspicuity," Human Factors, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 718-732, 1994.

O'Leary, A.A., P.B. Lockwood, and R.V. Taylor. "Evaluation of Detectable Warning Surfaces for Sidewalk Curb Ramps," Transportation Research Record 1538, Pedestrian and Bicycle Research, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, p. 47, 1996.

Palamarthy, S., H.S. Mahmassani, and R.B. Machemehl. "Models of Pedestrian Crossing Behavior at Signalized Intersections," Report 1296-1, Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas at Austin, January 1994.

Parent, A. "Heritage Drive" in "Traffic Calming, 1995," Traffic Engineering Committee Workshop, Proceedings from 21 papers, Ontario Traffic Conference, 20 Carlton Street, Toronto, M5B 2H5, November 1995.

Pegrum, B.V. "The Application of Certain Traffic Management Techniques and Their Effect on Road Safety," National Road Safety Symposium, March 1972.

Petzold, R.G. Urban Intersection Improvements for Pedestrian Safety. Vol. I-Executive Summary, Report No. FHWA-RD-77-142, Federal Highway Administration, December 1977.

Pfefer, R.C., A. Sorton, J. Fegan, and M.J. Rosenbaum. "Pedestrian Ways-Chapter 16, Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Traffic Control and Roadway Elements," Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, December 1982.

Planning Community Pedestrian Safety Programs - An Agenda for Action. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Report No. DOT-HS-807-578, June 1980.

Pless, I.B. , H.G. Taylor, and L. Arsenault. "The Relationship Between Vigilance Deficits and Traffic Injuries Involving Children," Pediatrics, Vol. 95, No. 2, pp. 219-224, February 1995.

Polus, A. and A. Katz. "An Analysis of Nighttime Pedestrian Accidents at Specially Illuminated Crosswalks," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 10, No. 3, September 1978.

Preusser, D. "Education: Training Walkers to Watch," Traffic Safety Magazine, National Safety Council, Vol. 88, No. 1, Jan./Feb. 1988.

Preusser, D.F. and A.K. Lund. "And Keep on Looking: A Film to Reduce Pedestrian Crashes Among 9 to 12 Year Olds," Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 19, 1988.

Preusser, D.F., W.A. Leaf, K.B. Debartla, and R.D. Blomberg. The Effects of Right-Turn-On-Red on Pedestrians and Bicycle Accidents, NHTSA-DOT/HS-806/182, Dunlap and Associates, Inc., Darien, CT, October 1981.

Public Works. "To Paint or Not to Paint," April 1969, pp. 70-72.

Reading, J.B. "Pedestrian Protection Through Behavior Modification," Traffic Engineering, Vol. 43, No. 10, July 1973.

Reclaiming Our Streets: A Community Action Plan, Portland Bureau of Traffic Management, Portland, Oregon, February 1993.

Rehabilitation Alcohol Test, Evaluation, and Retrieval System - 1989 Annual Report. North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Motor Vehicle, Drivers License Section, 1990.

Reiss, M. School Trip Safety and Play Areas. Vol. I-Executive Summary, Report No. FHWA-RD-75-104, Federal Highway Administration, November 1975A.

Reiss, M. Guidelines for the Location and Operation of Urban Play Streets, Vol. VII, Report No. FHWA-RD-75-ll0, Federal Highway Administration, November 1975B.

Replogle, M. Bicycle and Pedestrian Policies and Programs in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Case Study 17, National Bicycling and Walking Study. Report No. FHWA-PD-93-016. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, April 1992.

Retting, R.A., B.N. Persaud, P.E. Garder, and D. Lord. "Crash and injury reduction following installation of roundabouts in the United States," American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 91, 2001, pp. 628-31.

Richardson, E., and J.R. Jarvis. The Use of Road Humps on Residential Streets in the City of Stirling, Western Australia. ARRB Internal Report, AIR 335-3, Australian Road Research Board, 1981.

Road Safety Division. "Fact Sheet - Road Humps," Department of Transport, London, United Kingdom, August 1993.

Roberts, D.C. "Pedestrian Needs: Insights From a Pilot Survey of Blind and Deaf Individuals," Highway Research Record 403, Highway Research Board, 1972.

Robertson, H.D. and E.C. Carter. "The Safety, Operational, and Cost Impacts of Pedestrian Indications at Signalized Intersections," Record No. 959, TRB, 1984.

Rumar, K. "Night Driving: Visibility of Pedestrians," Seventh International Road Safety Congress, London, England, September 1966.

San Diego Association of Governments. Evaluation of Audible Pedestrian Traffic Signals, December 1988.

Sandels, S. Children in Traffic. Paul Elek, London, 1975.

Sandels, S. "The Skandia Report III, Unprotected Road Users, A Behavioral Study," Skandia Insurance Co., 1979.

Sargent, K.J. and D. Sheppard, The Development of the Green Cross Code, Report LR 605, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England, 1974.

Sarker, S. "Evaluation of Different Types of Pedestrian-vehicle Separations," Transportation Research Record 1502: Bicycle and Pedestrian Research, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, p. 83, 1995.

Sarker, S., J. Nederveen, and A. Pols. "Role of Traffic Calming in Improving Pedestrian Safety," August 1996, unpublished.

Schalbbach, K. "Traffic calming in Europe," ITE Journal, July 1997, pp. 38-40.

Skene, M., G. Chartier, D. Erickson, G. Mack, and R. Drdul, "Developing a Canadian Guide to Traffic Calming," ITE Journal, July 1997, pp. 34-36.

Smeed, R.J. "Some Aspects of Pedestrian Safety," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Vol. 2, No. 3, September 1968.

Smith, S.A., et al. Planning and Implementing Pedestrian Facilities in Suburban and Developing Rural Areas, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 294A, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, June 1987.

Snyder, M.B. and R.L. Knoblauch. Pedestrian Safety: The Identification of Precipitating Factors and Possible Countermeasures, Report No. DOT-HS-800-403, 2 Vols., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, January 1971.

Solnick, S.J. and D. Hemenway. "The Hit and run in Fatal Pedestrian Accidents: Victims, Circumstances, and Drivers," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 643-649, 1995.

"Speed Control Humps." Traffic Advisory Leaflet 2/90, Department of Transport, London, United Kingdom, October 1990.

Spielberg, P. "Traffic Engineering for Neotraditional Neighborhood Design," ITE Technical Committee, 5P-8, February 1994, ITE, Washington, DC

Sterling, C.F. "An Analysis of Pedestrian Reaction to the Flashing WALK Indication," Traffic Engineering, Vol. 44, No. 14, November 1974.

Swan, S. "Treatments of Overpasses and Undercrossing for the Disabled: Early Report on the State-of-the Art," Transportation Research Record 683, Transportation Research Board, 1978.

Szplett, D. And L. Sale. "Some Challenges in Developing Neotraditional Neighborhood Designs," ITE Journal, July 1997, pp. 42-45.

Tan, C.H. and C.Z. Zegeer. "European Practices and Innovations for Pedestrian Crossings," ITE Journal, pp. 24-31, November 1995.

Tanaboriboon., Y. and J.A. Guyano. "Analysis of Pedestrian Movements in Bangkok," Transportation Research Record 1294: Non-Motorized Transportation, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1991.

Templer, J., et al. Development of Priority Accessible Networks - An Implementation Manual - Provisions for the Elderly and Handicapped Pedestrians, Report No. FHWA/IP-80/8, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC., 1980.

Templer, J. Provisions for Elderly and Handicapped Pedestrians, Report Nos. FHWA-RD-79-l, 2, and 3, Federal Highway Administration, January 1979.

Tidwell, J.E. and D.P. Doyle. "Driver and Pedestrian Comprehension of Pedestrian Law and Traffic Control Devices," Transportation Research Record 1502, Title, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, p. 119, 1995.

Tobey, H.N., E.M. Shunamen, and R.L. Knoblauch. Pedestrian Trip Making Characteristics and Exposure Measures, DTFH61-81-C-00020, Federal Highway Administration, 1983.

"Traffic Calming in Practice," County Surveyors Society, Landor Publishing Limited, Quadrant House, London, SE11 5RD, November 1994.

Traffic Safety Facts; 1994. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the US Department of Transportation, August 1995.

Traffic Safety Facts, 1997. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, US Department of Transportation, November 1998 (http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/ncsa/index.html).

Transportation in an Aging Society: Improving Mobility and Safety for Older Pedestrians, Special Report No. 218, Vol.1, Transportation Research Board, 1988.

"Uniform Vehicle Code and Model Traffic Ordinance, Revised 1992," National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances, Evanston, IL 60201.

Vallette, G.R. and J.A. McDivitt. Pedestrian Safety Programs - A Review of the Literature and Operational Experience, Report No. FHWA/RD-80/190, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, January 1981.

Van Houten, R. "The Influence of Signs Prompting Motorists to Yield Before Marked Crosswalks on Motor Vehicle-pedestrian Conflicts at Crosswalks with Flashing Amber," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 217-225, 1992.

Van der Does, V.1. "Crossing the Road in Japan," Reprinted in Voice of the Pedestrian, International Federation of Pedestrians, Autumn 1976.

Varhelyi, A. "Driver's Speed Behavior at a Zebra Crossing," Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1996.

Walter, E. "Suburban Residential Traffic Calming," ITE Journal, Vol. 65, No. 9, pp. 44-48, September 1995.

West, J. and A. Lowe. "Integration of Transportation and Land Use Planning Through Residential Street Design," ITE Journal, August 1997, pp. 48-51.

Whitlock and Weinberger Transportation, "Evaluation of an In-Pavement Flashing Lights Crosswalk Warning System," Report No. FHWA DTFH61-92-R-00138, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, March 1999.

Williams, A.F. and A.K. Lund. "Alcohol Impaired Driving and Crashes Involving Alcohol in the United States During the 1970s and 1980s," Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, Chicago, Illinois, National Safety Council, 1990.

Work Zone Traffic Management Synthesis: Work Zone Pedestrian Protection, Federal Highway Administration, 1989.

Yagar, S. "Safety Impacts of Installing Pedestrian Crosswalks," Proceedings of the Conference Effectiveness of Highway Safety Improvements, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, March 1985.

Zaidel, D., A.S. Hakkert, and A.H. Pistiner. "The Use of Road Humps for Moderating Speeds on Urban Streets," Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 24, No. 1, February 1992, pp. 45-56.

Zaidel, D.M. and I. Hocherman. "Safety of Pedestrian Crossings at Signalized Intersections," Record No. 1141, Transportation Research Board, 1987.

Zegeer, C., P.A. Lagerwey, M. Cynecki, A. Ross, and M. Ronkin. "Providing Places for Pedestrians to Walk Along Streets and Highways," Report No. FHWA DTFH61-92-R-00138, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, 1999.

Zegeer, C., M. Cynecki, J. Fegan, B. Gilleran, P. Lagerway, C. Tan, and B. Works. "FHWA Study Tour for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety in England, Germany, and the Netherlands," FHWA, DOT, October 1994.

Zegeer, C.V. Synthesis of Safety Research: Pedestrians, Report No. FHWA-SA-91-034, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, August 1991.

Zegeer, C., J. Stutts, H. Huang, M. Zhou, and E. Rodgman. "Analysis of Elderly Pedestrian Crashes and Recommended Countermeasures," Transportation Research Board, January 1993.

Zegeer, C.V. and S.F. Zegeer. "Providing Safer Urban Streets for Elderly and Handicapped Pedestrians," Paper Presented at the Fifth International Conference on "Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Handicapped Pedestrians," Stockholm, Sweden, May 1989.

Zegeer, C.V. and M.J. Cynecki. Methods of Increasing Pedestrian Safety at Right-Turn-On-Red Intersections, Final Report, Report No. FHWA/IP-86/l0, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1986.

Zegeer, C.V. and S.F. Zegeer. Pedestrians and Traffic Control Measures. Synthesis of Current Practice, Synthesis Report No. 139. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1988.

Zegeer, C. and R. Deen. "Speed Reductions in School Zones," Transportation Research Record 597, Transportation Research Board, 1978.

Zegeer, C.V., D.A. Randolph, M.A. Flak, and R.K. Bhatacharya. "Use of Pedestrian Conflict Analyses for Hazard Assessment in School Zones," Record No. 743, Transportation Research Board, 1980.

Zegeer, C.V., K.S. Opiela, and M.J. Cynecki. "Effect of Pedestrian Signals and Signal Timing on Pedestrian Accidents," in Transportation Research Record 847, Analysis of Highway Accidents. Pedestrian Behavior and Bicycle Program Implementation, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1982, pp. 62-72.

Zegeer, C.V., K.S. Opiela, and M.J. Cynecki. Pedestrian Signalization Alternatives, Report No. FHWA/RD-83/102, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1983.

Zegeer, C.V., J.R. Stewart, and H. Huang. "Safety Effects of Marked vs. Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: Analysis of Pedestrian Crashes in 30 Cities." University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC. Submitted to Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, November 2000.

 

FHWA-RD-03-042

Previous | Table of Contents | Next

ResearchFHWA
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration