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Surface Transportation Efficiency Analysis Model (STEAM)User Manual

Appendix A.  Sources of Default Parameter Values

The following is list of sources for the default parameter values used in STEAM 2.0:

Value of Time -

Cost Per Gallon of Fuel -

Fuel Consumption Rates -

Emission Rates:

HC - EPA's, Mobile 5a model results.
CO - EPA's, Mobile 5a model results.
NOx - EPA's, Mobile 5a model results.
PM10 - EPA's, PART5 model results.

Cost Per Ton of Emissions -

Emissions Per Cold Start - HC, CO, and NOx are from EPA's Mobile 5a model results.

Cold Starts Per Trip -

Greenhouse Gas Emissions - FTA, New Starts Criteria Report, 1997.

Cost Per Accident - The Urban Institute, The Cost of Highway Crashes, Final Report.

Accident Rates:

Fatality Rates - FHWA, Highway Safety Performance - 1992, January 1995.
Injury Rates - FHWA, Highway Safety Performance - 1992, January 1995.
PDO Crash Rates - NHTSA, Traffic Safety Facts, 1993.

Noise Costs - FHWA, Federal Highway Cost Allocation Study; Appendix E, 1997.

Discount Rate -

Risk Ranges - Research team judgement.

Federal and State Fuel Tax Rates - FHWA, Highway Statistics - 1995, Table MF-121T.

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