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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-05-067    Date:  August 2004
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-067
Date: August 2004


Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Structures: Part 2 – Retaining Structures, Slopes, Tunnels, Culverts and Roadways

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This manual, which is comprised of two parts, represents the most current state-of-practice in assessing the vulnerability of highway structures to the effects of earthquakes, and implementing retrofit measures to improve performance. Part 1 of this manual focuses on highway bridges, and is a replacement for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publication Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Bridges which was published in 1995 as report FHWA-RD-94-052. Part 2 of this manual provides guidance on the assessment and retrofitting of other typical highway structures, including retaining walls, engineered slopes and embankments, tunnels, culverts, and pavement.

This manual is a product of the FHWA's comprehensive seismic research program for bridges and highways that was initiated in 1992 as a result of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, and continued via the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century of 1997. As the state-of-practice and knowledge regarding bridge and highway structure evaluation and retrofitting is now relatively mature, it is likely that this will be the final FHWA manual addressing retrofitting of typical highway bridges; however, there is still much to learn and demonstrate regarding assessment, evaluation and retrofitting of unique or special highway bridges such as trusses and cable-supported bridges (e.g. suspension and cable-stay bridges), structure types addressed in Part 2, and unique earthquake mitigation technologies such as bridge isolation bearings and hysteric dampers. We therefore anticipate that future FHWA publications will address updates to Part 2 and will provide new manuals for these specialty structures and earthquake mitigation approaches.

Garry L. Henderson, Director

Office of Infrastructure R&D



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