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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-124
Date: April 2005

Lab & Field Testing of AUT Systems for Steel Highway Bridges


  1. AASHTO/AWS D1.5M/D1.5: 2002 Bridge Welding Code, An American National Standard, American Welding Society.
  2. Jessup, T.J.; Mudge, P.J.; and Harrison, J.D., Ultrasonic Measurement of Weld Flaw Size, NCHRP Report 242, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, December 1981.
  3. Jonas, P.G. and Scharosch, D.L., Ultrasonic Inspection of Butt Welds in Highway Bridges, Report No. CA-HY-MR-6210-1-72-36, California Department of Transportation, 1972.
  4. DeNale, R. and Lebowitz, C.A., "Detection and Disposition Reliability of Ultrasonics and Radiography for Weld Inspection," Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 9, 1990.
  5. Ginzel, E.; Den Boer, P.; and Hoff, M., "Application of Mechanized Ultrasonic Inspection to Manually Welded Pipeline Girth Welds," NDT.net, Vol. 2, No. 2, May 1997.
  6. Morgan, L., "The Performance of Automated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) of Mechanized Pipeline Girth Welds," NDT.net, Vol. 8, No. 3, March 2003.
  7. Shenefelt, G.A., "Ultrasonic Testing: Requirements of the AWS 1969 Building Code and Bridge Specifications," Welding Journal, May 1971.
  8. AWS D1.1: Structural Welding Code―Steel, American Welding Society.
  9. Serabian, S., Reliability of Ultrasonic Weld Interrogation Methods, Report No. DOT-RC-92014, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1980.
  10. Thavasimuthu, M.; Hemamalini, R.; Subramanian, C.V.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; and Raj, B., "Detectability of Misoriented Defect by Ultrasonic Examinations―A Few Observations," Insight, Vol. 40, No. 11, 1998.
  11. Deutsch, W.K., "Automated Ultrasonic Inspection," Fifteenth World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Rome, Italy, 2000.
  12. Dikstra, B.J.; Farley, J.M.; and Scruton, G., "Babcock Experience of Automated Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing of PWR Pressure Vessels During Manufacture," Nuclear Energy, Vol. 29, No. 3, June 1990.
  13. ASTM E1961-98: 1998 Standard Practice for Mechanized Ultrasonic Examination of Girth Welds Using Zonal Discrimination With Focused Search Units, The ASTM Standard Test Method, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
  14. Komsky, I.N. and Achenbach, J.D., "A Computerized Imaging System for Ultrasonic Inspection of Steel Bridge Structures," Structural Materials Technology: An NDT Conference, eds. Hartbower, P.E. and Stolarski, P.J., San Diego, CA, 1996.
  15. Komsky, I.N. and Achenbach, J.D., "A Portable Dual-Line Scanner for Imaging of Steel Bridge Components," Structural Materials Technology: An NDT Conference, ed. Alampalli, S., Atlantic City, NJ, 2000.
  16. Graybeal, B.A.; Walther, R.A.; and Washer, G.A., "Ultrasonic Inspection of Bridge Hanger Pins," Transportation Research Record, No. 1697, Washington, DC, 2000, pp. 19-23.
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