U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

Skip to content
Facebook iconYouTube iconTwitter iconFlickr iconLinkedInInstagram

Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-01-051
Date: May 2001

Guidelines And Recommendations To Accommodate Older Drivers and Pedestrians

PDF Version (471 KB)

PDF files can be viewed with the Acrobat® Reader®



Alexander, G.J. and Lunenfeld, H. (1986). Driver Expectancy in Highway Design and Traffic Operations. Publication No. FHWA–TO–86–1. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (1994). A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, D.C.

American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety. (1995). Safety Effects Resulting From Approval of the National Highway System. Bellomo–McGee, Inc., Vienna, VA.

Avolio, B.J., Kroeck, K.G., and Panek, P.E. (1985). "Individual Differences in Information–Processing Ability as a Predictor of Motor Vehicle Accidents." Human Factors, 27, pp. 577–587.

Ball, K. and Owsley, C. (1991). "Identifying Correlates of Accident Involvement for the Older Driver." Human Factors, 33(5), pp. 583–595.

Ball, K., Owsley, C., Sloane, M., Roenker, D., and Bruni, J. (1993). "Visual Attention Problems as a Predictor of Vehicle Crashes Among Older Drivers." Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 34.

Benekohal, R.F., Resende, P., Shim, E., Michaels, R.M., and Weeks, B. (1992). Highway Operations Problems of Elderly Drivers in Illinois. Publication No. FHWA–IL–92–023, Illinois Department of Transportation, Springfield, IL.

Brainin, P.A. (1980). Safety and Mobility Issues in Licensing and Education of Older Drivers. Publication No. DOT–HS–805–492. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, D.C.

Bridwell, N., Alicandri, E., Fischer, D., and Kloeppel, E. (1993). A Preliminary Laboratory Investigation of Passive Railroad Crossing Signs. Publication No. FHWA–RD–93–153. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

Brouwer, W.H., Ickenroth, J.G., Ponds, R.W., and van Wolffelaar, P.C. (1990). "Divided Attention in Old Age." In: European Perspectives in Psychology, Volume 2. Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Brouwer, W.H., Waterink, W., van Wolffelaar, P.C., and Rothengatter, T. (1991). "Divided Attention in Experienced Young and Old Drivers: Lane Tracking and Visual Analysis in a Dynamic Driving Simulator." Human Factors, 33(5), pp. 573–582.

Burg, A. (1967). The Relationship Between Vision Test Scores and Driving Record: General Findings. Report 67–24. Department of Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles.

Campbell, K.L. (1993). "Recent Research in Developing Accident Typologies." Proceedings of Human Factors Research in Highway Safety. Transportation Research Record, Circular 414.

Council, F.M. and Zegeer, C.V. (1992). Accident Analysis of Older Drivers and Pedestrians at Intersections––Task B Working Paper. Contract No. DTFH61–91–C–00033. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Decina, L.E. and Staplin, L. (1993). "Retrospective Evaluation of Alternative Vision Screening Criteria for Older and Younger Drivers." Accident Analysis and Prevention, 25(3), pp. 267–275.

Department of Health and Human Services. (1994). Vital and Human Statistics. Washington, D.C.

Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. (2000). Florida Driver's Handbook. Publication No. HSMV 71902.

Eckhardt, P.K. and Flanagan, J.C. (1956). "Role of Roadway Elements in Pennsylvania Turnpike Accidents." Highway Research Board Bulletin.

Fambro, D.B., Fitzpatrick, K., and Koppa, R.J. (1997). Determination of Stopping Sight Distances. Publication No. 400. National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

Fambro, D.B., Schull, L.A., Noyce, D.A., and Rahman, K.M.A. (1997). Enhanced Traffic Control Devices and Railroad Operations for Highway–Railroad Grade Crossings: Second Year Activities. Publication No. FHWA/TX–98/1469–2. Texas Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration.

Federal Highway Administration. (1978). Roadway Lighting Handbook. Implementation Package 78–15. Reprinted April 1984. Washington, D.C.

Federal Highway Administration. (1983). Roadway Lighting Handbook, Addendum to Chapter Six: Designing the Lighting System Using Pavement Luminance. Addendum to Implementation Package 78–15. Washington, D.C.

Federal Highway Administration. (1986). Rail–Highway Grade Crossing Handbook. Publication No. TS–86–215. Washington, D.C.

Federal Highway Administration. (1988). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. Washington, D.C.

Federal Highway Administration. (1997). FHWA Study Tour for Road Safety Audits. Washington, D.C.

Federal Highway Administration. (2000). Roundabouts: An Informational Guide. Publication No. FHWA–RD–00–067. Washington, D.C.

Federal Highway Administration. ( 2000). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. Washington, D.C.

Federal Railroad Administration. (1999). Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 1998. Washington, D.C.

Fields and Valtinson. (1998). "Assessment of Older Drivers: Neuropsychological Predictors and State Laws." The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 12, 270–71 (abstract). Table 5: State License Renewal Requirements, Passenger Car Drivers, United States Reported 1998. Paper presented at the 1998 meeting of the APA, San Francisco, CA.

Fisk, A.D., McGee, N.D., and Giambra, L.M. (1988). "The Influences of Age on Consistent and Varied Semantic–Category Search Performance." Psychology and Aging, 3, pp. 323–333.

Garber, N.J. and Woo, T.H. (1990). Accident Characteristics at Construction and Maintenance Zones in Urban Areas. Report No. VTRC90–R12. Virginia Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, VA.

Glennon, J.C., Neuman, T.R., and Leisch, J.E. (1985). Safety and Operational Considerations for Design of Rural Highway Curves. Publication No. FHWA–RD–86–035. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Glennon, J.C. and Weaver, G.D. (1971). The Relationship of Vehicle Paths to Highway Curve Design. Texas Highway Department and the Federal Highway Administration.

Goggin, N.L. and Stelmach, G.E. (1990). "Age–Related Differences in the Kinematic Analysis of Precued Movements." Canadian Journal of Psychology, 9, pp. 371–385.

Goggin, N.L., Stelmach, G.E., and Amrhein, P.C. (1989). "Effects of Age on Motor Preparation and Restructuring." Bulletin of the Psychonomics Society, 27, pp. 199–202.

Good, M.C. (1978). "A Review of Empirical Studies of Driver–Vehicle Behavior on Road Curves." Road Curve Geometry and Driver Behavior. Special Report 15, pp. 75–92.

Gordon, D.A., McGee, H.W., and Hooper, K.G. (1984). "Driver Characteristics Impacting on Highway Design and Operations." Public Roads, June, pp. 12–16.

Graham, J.L., Paulsen, R.J., and Glennon, J.C. (1977). Accidents and Speed Studies in Construction Zones. Publication No. FHWA–RD–77–080. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Harkey, D.L., Huang, H., and Zegeer, C.V. (1996). Examination of Older Driver Problems on Freeways Using the Highway Safety Information System. Submitted to the Transportation Research Board for Presentation and Publication, August 1995.

Hauer, E. (1988). "The Safety of Older Persons at Intersections." In: Transportation in an Aging Society, Volumes 1 and 2. Special Report 218. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

Hawkins, H.G., Kacir, K.C., and Ogden, M.A. (1992). Traffic Control Guidelines for Urban Arterial Work Zones, Volume 2. Publication No. FHWA–TX–91–1161–5. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Hoyer, W.J. and Familant, M.E. (1987). "Adult Age Differences in the Rate of Processing Expectancy Information." Cognitive Development, 2, pp. 59–70.

Hunter–Zaworski, K. (1990). "T–Intersection Simulator Performance of Drivers With Physical Limitations." Transportation Research Record, 1281, pp. 11–15.

Institute of Transportation Engineers. (1995). "Road Safety Audit: A New Tool for Accident Prevention." ITE Journal, 65(2).

Institute of Transportation Engineers. (1999). Traffic Engineering Handbook, Fifth Edition, James L. Pline (Ed.). Washington, D.C.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). (2000). "Elderly." In: IIHS Fatality Facts. Washington, D.C.

Insurance Institute for Traffic Safety. (2000). "U.S. Driver Licensing Renewal Procedures for Older Drivers as of October 25, 1999."Web site: http://www.hwysafety.org/safety_facts/state_laws/older_drivers.htm

Janke, M. (1994). Age–Related Disabilities That May Impair Driving and Their Assessment. Cooperative agreement between U.S. DOT/NHTSA and the California Department of Motor Vehicles, Contract No. DTNH22–93–Y–5330. CA DMV Publication No. RSS–94–156. Sacramento, California.

Johnston, I.R. (1982). "Modifying Driver Behaviour on Rural Road Curves––A Review of Recent Research." Proceedings of the Eleventh Australian Road Research Board Conference. University of Melbourne, Australia.

Juergens, W.R. (1972). Construction Zone, Detour, and Temporary Connection Accidents. California Division of Highways and the Federal Highway Administration.

Kinnan, J.P. (1993). "Grade–Crossing Safety: Safety Improvements and Awareness Help Motorists Cross Tracks With Care." Traffic Safety, 93(2), pp. 10–13.

Klein, T., Morgan, T., and Weiner, A. (1994). Rail–Highway Crossing Safety Fatal Crash and Demographic Descriptors. Publication No. DOT–HS–808–196. U.S. DOT/NHTSA.

Knoblauch, R., Nitzburg, M., and Seifert, R. (1997). An Investigation of Older Driver Freeway Needs and Capabilities. Publication No. FHWA–RD–95–194. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Lerner, N.D. and Ratté, D.J. (1991). "Problems in Freeway Use as Seen by Older Drivers." Transportation Research Record, 1325, pp. 3–7.

Lerner, N.D. and Sedney, C.A. (1988). "Some Observations on Older Driver Behavior." Paper presented at the January 1988 Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

Lisle, F.N. (1978). "Evaluation of Timber Barricades and Precast Concrete Traffic Barriers for Use in Highway Construction Areas." Transportation Research Record, 693, pp. 18–25.

Lunenfeld, H. (1993). "Human Factors Associated With Interchange Design Features." Transportation Research Record, 1385, pp. 84–89.

Lyles, R.W., Kane, M.R., Vanosdall, F., and McKelvey, F.X. (1997). Improved Traffic Control Device Design and Placement to Aid the Older Driver. National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Project No. 3–44.Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

Mace, D.J. (1988). "Sign Legibility and Conspicuity." In: Transportation in an Aging Society. Special Report 218, pp. 270–290. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

Malfetti, J.L. and Winter, D.J. (1987). Safe and Unsafe Performance of Older Drivers: A Descriptive Study. American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety, Falls Church, VA.

Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration. (2001). "Driver's License Requirements." Web site: http://mva.state.md.us/VisionScreen/Driver.htm.

McDonald, L.B. and Ellis, N.C. (1975). "Driver Work Load for Various Turn Radii and Speeds." Transportation Research Record, 530.

McFarland, R.A., Domey, R.C., Warren, A.B., and Ward, D.C. (1960). "Dark Adaptation as a Function of Age: A Statistical Analysis." Journals of Gerontology, 15, pp. 149–154.

McKnight, A.J. and Stewart, M.A. (1990). Development of a Competency–Based Driver's License Testing System. National Public Services Research Institute and the California Department of Motor Vehicles.

Mercier, C.R., Goodspeed, C., Simmons, C.J., and Paniati, J.F. (1995). "Evaluation of Proposed Minimum Retroreflectivity Requirements for Traffic Signs." Transportation Research Record, 1495, pp. 57–67. Transportation Research Board: Washington, D.C.

Messer, C.J., Mounce, J.M., and Brackett, R.Q. (1981). Highway Geometric Design Consistency Related to Driver Expectancy. Publication No. FHWA–RD–81–035, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Migletz, J., Fish, J., and Graham, J. (1994). Roadway Delineation Practices Handbook. Publication No. FHWA–SA–93–001. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Mihal, W.L. and Barrett, G.V. (1976). "Individual Differences in Perceptual Information Processing and Their Relation to Automobile Accident Involvement." Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, pp. 229–233.

National Transportation Safety Board. (1992). Safety Study: Highway Work Zone Safety. Publication No. NTSA–SS–92–02, Notation 5734. Washington, D.C.

National Transportation Safety Board. (1998). Safety Study: Safety at Passive Grade Crossings, Volume 1: Analysis. Publication No. NTSB/SS–98/02; PB98–917004, Notation 7036. Washington, D.C.

Nemeth, Z.A. and Migletz, D. (1978). "Accident Characteristics Before, During, and After Safety Upgrading Projects on Ohio's Rural Interstate System." Transportation Research Record, 672.

Neuman, T.R. (1985). Intersection Channelization Design Guide. Report No. 279. Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Washington, D.C.

Neuman, T.R. (1989). "New Approach to Design for Stopping Sight Distance." Transportation Research Record, 1208, pp. 14–22.

Neuman, T.R. (1992). "Chapter 6: Roadway Geometric Design." In: Traffic Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, Pline, J.L. (Ed.). Institute of Transportation Engineers, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Olson, P.L. (1988). "Problems of Nighttime Visibility and Glare for Older Drivers." In: Effects of Aging on Driver Performance, SP–76, pp. 53–60. Society of Automotive Engineers.

Ostrow, A.C., Shaffron, P., and McPherson, K. (1992). "The Effects of a Joint Range–of–Motion Physical Fitness Training Program on the Automobile Driving Skills of Older Adults." Journal of Safety Research, 23, pp. 207–219.

Owsley, C., Sekuler, R., and Siemsen, D. (1983). "Contrast Sensitivity Throughout Adulthood." Vision Research, 23(7), pp. 689–699.

Paulsen, R.J., Harwood, D.W., and Glennon, J.C. (1978). "Status of Traffic Safety in Highway Construction Zones." Transportation Research Record, 693.

Petrucelli, E. and Malinowski, M. (1992). Status of Medical Review in Driver Licensing: Policies, Programs, and Standards. NHTSA (DOT HS 807 892).

Pigman, J.G. and Agent, K.R. (1990). "Highway Accidents in Construction and Maintenance Zones." Transportation Research Record, 1270, pp. 12–21.

Pitts, D.G. (1982). "The Effects of Aging on Selected Visual Functions: Dark Adaptation, Visual Acuity, Stereopsis, and Brightness Contrast." In: Aging and Human Visual Function, Sekuler, R., Kline, D., and Dismukes, K. (Eds.). Liss, New York.

Plude, D.J. and Hoyer, W.J. (1985). "Attention and Performance: Identifying and Localizing Age Deficits." In: Aging and Human Performance, Charness, N. (Ed.), pp. 47–99. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Chichester, England.

Ponds, R.W., Brouwer, W.H., and Van Wolffelaar, P.C. (1988). "Age Differences in Divided Attention in a Simulated Driving Task." Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Science, 43, pp. 151–156.

Raslear, T.G. (1995). "Driver Behavior at Rail–Highway Grade Crossings: A Signal Detection Theory Analysis," In: Safety of Highway–Railroad Grade Crossings, Research Needs Workshop, Volume II–– Appendices, Caroll, A.A. and Helser, J.L. (Eds.). Report No. DOT/FRA/ORD/14.2, DOT–VNTSC–FRA–95–12.2, pp. F9–F56. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C

Richards, O.W. (1972). "Some Seeing Problems: Spectacles, Color Driving and Decline From Age and Poor Lighting." American Journal of Optometry, Archives of the American Academy of Optometry, 49.

Sekuler, R., Kline, D., and Dismukes, K. (1982). Aging and Human Visual Function. Liss, New York, NY.

Shuldiner, R. J. (2001). "Vision and Driving: State Rules/Regulations/Policies." Web site: http://www.lowvisioncare.com/visionlaws.htm

Smith, B.H. and Sethi, P.K. (1975). "Aging and the Nervous System." Geriatrics, 30, pp. 109–115.

Staplin, L. and Fisk, A. (1991). "A Cognitive Engineering Approach to Improving Signalized Left–Turn Intersections." Human Factors, 33(5), pp. 559–571.

Staplin, L., Harkey, D., Lococo, K., and Tarawneh, M. (1997). Intersection Geometric Design and Operational Guidelines for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Volume I: Final Report. Publication No. FHWA–RD–96–132. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Staplin, L., Lococo, K., and Sim, J. (1990). Traffic Control Design Elements for Accommodating Drivers With Diminished Capacity. Publication No. FHWA–RD–90–055. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Staplin, L. and Lyles, R.W. (1991). "Age Differences in Motion Perception and Specific Traffic Maneuver Problems." Transportation Research Record, 1325, pp. 23–33.

Stelmach, G.E., Goggin, N.L., and Amrhein, P.C. (1988). "Aging and Reprogramming: The Restructuring of Planned Movements." Psychology and Aging, 3, pp. 151–157.

Taylor, J.I. and McGee, H.W. (1973). Improving Traffic Operations and Safety at Exit Gore Areas. Publication No. 145. National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

Transportation Research Board. (1999). Highway Capacity Manual. Special Report 209. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Weymouth, F.W. (1960). "Effects of Age on Visual Acuity." In: Vision of the Aging Patient, Hirsch, M.I. and Wick, R.E. (Eds.). Chilton, Philadelphia.

Wisconsin Department of Transportation. (2001). "Vision Standards Needed to Obtain a Wisconsin Driver's License." Web site: www.dot.state.wi.us/dmv/vision.html.

Wood, J.A. and Troutbeck, R.J. (1994). "Effect of Age and Visual Impairment on Driving and Vision Performance." Transportation Research Record, 1438, pp. 84–90.

Zegeer, C.V., Stewart, R., Reinfurt, D., Council, F.M., Neuman, T., Hamilton, E., Miller, T., and Hunter, W. (1990). Cost–Effective Geometric Improvements for Safety Upgrading of Horizontal Curves. Publication No. FHWA–RD–90–021. University of North Carolina, Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC.

Ziskind, D., Mace, D., Staplin, L., Sim, J., and Lococo, K. (1991). Minimum Visibility Requirements for Traffic Control Devices. Publication No. FHWA–RD–91–074. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

Zwahlen, H.T. and Schnell, T. (1999). "Visibility of Road Markings as a Function of Age and Retroreflectivity Under Low–Beam and High–Beam Illumination at Night." Transportation Research Record, 1692, pp. 152–163.



Previous | Table of Contents

Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000
Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center | 6300 Georgetown Pike | McLean, VA | 22101