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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-142
Date: December 2005

Enhanced Night Visibility Series, Volume XI: Phase II—Cost-Benefit Analysis

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General Terms

ENV Enhanced Night Visibility
FHWA Federal Highway Administration
GES General Estimates System
GDP Gross Domestic Product
NASS National Automotive Sampling System
PDO property damage only
VDOT Virginia Department of Transportation
VTRC Virginia Transportation Research Council
VES vision enhancement system

Vision Enhancement Systems

three UV–A + HLB three UV–A headlamps together with halogen low beam
five UV–A + HLB five UV–A headlamps together with halogen low beam
HLB halogen (i.e., tungsten-halogen) low beam
Hybrid UV–A + HLB hybrid UV–A/visible output together with halogen low beam
IR–TIS infrared thermal imaging system
UV–A ultraviolet A (wavelength 315 to 400 nanometers)

Cost and Benefit Computations

b constant
CMF crash modification factor
CR crash rate
f coefficient of friction
G grade
m constant
S stopping distance
t time between perception and reaction
u velocity
x year
y forecast quantity


ft feet
km kilometers
lf linear feet
lm linear meter
m meters
mi miles


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