U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-99-078
Injuries to Pedestrians and Bicyclists: An Analysis Based on Hospital Emergency Department Data
Data Collection Guidelines for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Injury Study
In identifying cases for this study, it is important to remember that we are interested in pedestrians and bicyclists injured in both motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle collisions or falls, occurring either on the roadway, in other public areas open to vehicular traffic (parking lots, service stations, sidewalk, etc.), or, in some cases, on private property (driveways, yards, etc.). The following case definitions should apply:
Bicyclist: Any person riding or being carried on a bicycle or other two- or three-wheeled vehicle operated solely by pedals.
If a person is walking or pushing a bicycle at the time of the injury event, or standing or kneeling beside a bicycle (e.g., repairing a flat tire), the individual should be coded as a pedestrian rather than a bicyclist.
Examples of bicyclist injury cases that should be included in the database include the following:
Example 1. A 22-year-old college student is injured when struck by a motor vehicle while riding his bicycle to campus.
Example 2. A 3-year-old riding a "big wheel" is injured when her mother runs over her while backing a car out of the driveway of her house.
Example 3. A 9-year-old boy falls from his bike and breaks his arm while riding on a dirt path behind his house.
Example 4. A 50-year-old bicyclist swerves and loses his balance trying to avoid a vehicle that has turned in front of him at an intersection. The vehicle leaves the scene of the accident without stopping.
Example 5. A 15-year-old girl is injured when the bike she is riding collides with a car in the parking lot of the neighborhood grocery store.
Example 6. A 12-year-old boy loses his balance and falls practicing "wheelies" in the road in front of his house.
Example 7. A bike racer is injured when struck by a truck's side mirror as it passes him on the left.
Example 8. A 5-year-old is practicing riding his new two-wheel bike on the sidewalk, and crashes into a mailbox.
Example 9. A cyclist competing in a race on an off-road course is injured when he crashes into another cyclist.
Examples of injury cases that should not be included in the bicycle database are:
Example 1. A person struck by a car while walking a bicycle across a busy intersection. (This would be coded as a pedestrian and not a bicycle case.)
Example 2. Someone injured while riding a moped. (A moped is motor driven.)
Example 3. Individuals injured while riding, or otherwise in contact with, a bicycle inside a residence or building.
Example 4. Persons injured while repairing, carrying, loading onto a vehicle, or otherwise handling a bicycle, but not actually riding it at the time of the injury.
Pedestrian: Any person traveling from one location to another, not in or upon a motor vehicle or other road vehicle. Also includes persons working or playing in roadways or other areas generally open to vehicular traffic.
(1) all persons injured as a result of being struck by a motor vehicle, regardless of where the collision took place.
(2) other persons injured as the result of a fall or other mishap while walking, running, standing, working, playing, lying, etc. on a public street or highway or in a public vehicular area (PVA). A PVA is any area that is generally open to and used by the public for vehicular traffic, including entrances to public buildings, parking lots and garages, service stations, stores, restaurants, businesses, etc.
(3) persons injured on other public transportation-related pathways not generally open to vehicular traffic, including, but not limited to, public walkways, alleyways, multi-purpose trails, etc.
(1) persons injured on private property unless a motor vehicle is involved.
(2) persons injured on public property not serving a transportation function (playgrounds, ballfields, parks, etc.), unless a motor vehicle is involved.
(3) any injury incurred while inside a building, residence, or other structure, with the exception of parking garages and like facilities.
Examples of pedestrian injury cases that should be included in the database are:
Example 1. A 6-year-old darts out into the street and is struck by a passing motorist.
Example 2. A child playing in the driveway to his house is run over by a backing vehicle.
Example 3. A 60-year-old trips on a curb and falls while crossing the street.
Example 4. A 22-year-old jogger is struck by a bicyclist on a multi-use path.
Example 5. A woman pushing a grocery cart in the parking lot of a grocery store is struck by a motor vehicle exiting a parking space.
Example 6. A rollerblader loses control and falls while exercising on a greenway trail.
Example 7. A shopper trips on a curb while walking to her car parked in the mall parking lot.
Example 8. A child is struck by an ice cream truck that has pulled into a ballfield.
Examples of cases that should not be included in the pedestrian database are:
Example 1. An elderly woman trips and falls in her driveway while walking to her mailbox. (The injury event has occurred on private property and no motor vehicle is involved.)
Example 2. A child is injured playing on a school playground. (The event has occurred on property not serving a transportation function, and no motor vehicle is involved.)
Example 3. A jogger sprains an ankle while running on a track at the local park. (The event has occurred on property not serving a transportation function, and no motor vehicle is involved.)
Example 4. A man shoveling snow slips and falls on the sidewalk in front of his house. (The man is not a pedestrian traveling from one location to another, and his injury is not roadway-related.)
Example 5. A worker repairing a pothole in the road is injured using a piece of heavy equipment. (The person's injury is not roadway-related.)