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Road Pricing

Road pricing involves direct charges for use of roads. They include flat tolls, vehicle miles traveled (VMT) fees, and congestion pricing.

Tolls are any type of fee charged for use of roads that are based on use of a specific facility.

VMT fees are charges that are ubiquitous and not generally based on use of specific facilities. They may vary by time of day, facility type, geographic area, or emissions class, fuel efficiency, weight, number of axles, or axle-weight of the vehicle.

Congestion pricing includes toll or non-toll strategies (e.g., parking pricing) to affect travel demand and reduce congestion. Tolls may be pre-scheduled, and vary by time of day (to address congestion) or by emissions class (to address emissions).

Value pricing is another term for congestion pricing. It is a term used in TEA-21 legislation which changed the name of the Congestion Pricing Pilot Program to Value Pricing Pilot Program.

Dynamic pricing is one way to implement congestion or value pricing. It involves variable tolls that change in real time, as often as every 3 minutes in practice, to moderate demand. Drivers must have an alternative that they can choose at short notice for this to work.

Depending on your interest, please select one or more of the links below:

  1. Revenue generation:
    1. Road pricing, financing and public-private partnerships
    2. Section 129 toll agreements
    3. Interstate toll pilot programs:
      1. Reconstruction
      2. Construction
    4. Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) fee demonstration

  2. Congestion management:
    1. Value pricing pilot program
    2. Pricing of High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) facilities
    3. Express lanes
    4. Freight and port pricing
    5. Urban Partnership Agreements program
    6. Congestion Reduction Demonstration program
Photo of 91 Express Lanes sign
Photo of automated toll collection facility

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