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Transportation Performance Management

 

State Highway Safety Report (2018) - Massachusetts

The following provides a summary of the Highway Safety Improvement Program’s (HSIP) safety performance measures and State safety performance targets. As per the Safety PM Final Rule, States are required to set annual safety targets in the HSIP annual report for the number of fatalities, rate of fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT), number of serious injuries, rate of serious injures per 100 million VMT, and number of non-motorized fatalities and serious injuries. The safety performance targets are based on 5-year rolling averages. States have the flexibility to use the methodology they deem most appropriate. The agency encourages States to review data sets and trends and consider factors that may affect targets. The safety performance targets should be data-driven, realistic, and attainable and should align with the performance management framework and legislative intent.

A State Department of Transportation (DOT) has met or made significant progress towards meeting its safety performance targets when at least four of the five safety performance targets established under 23 CFR 490.209(a) have been met or the actual outcome is better than the baseline performance. The baseline performance is the 5-year average ending with the year prior to the establishment of the target.

The Basis for Target and Additional Comments are provided by the State in their HSIP Annual Report and have not been edited by FHWA. Any questions about individual State reports should be directed to the respective State DOT. For additional information about each State's HSIP, the complete reports are available at https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/reports/.

  • Number of Fatalities

  • Number of Fatalities 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
    Annual 383 351 354 344 387 347 360
    5-Year Average 363.8 356.6 358.4
    Target (5-Year Average) 352.0 353.0 347.0
  • Basis for Number of Fatalities Target

    FHWA guidance is to start with a trend line then consider external factors and planned implementation in order to set targets. Based on the trend line, the predicted number of fatalities for 2014-2018 yearly average would be 352.0 per year, down from 361 for 2011-2015 yearly average. There are certainly external factors, some specific to Massachusetts and others that are applicable nation-wide, that will impact the trend line (positively and negatively). Examples include: a recent State recreational marijuana law (in the process of implementation), a reduction in the prima facie speed limit law for thickly settled areas , anticipated changes in other roadway safety laws in the near future, increasing trend of distraction by all road users, advent of new vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-infrastructure safety-related technology with more common every-day use, and others. Meanwhile, MassDOT has been implementing strategies and countermeasures identified in the SHSP. An evaluation of specific HSIP-funded projects completed prior to 2013 indicated that fatal and injury crashes have been reduced by 36 percent compared to what was to be expected had the safety improvements not been implemented. While an evaluation of all HSIP projects is not yet possible, this shows that implementation of safety countermeasures does have a significant impact on the number of fatalities. As the countermeasures evolve and become more efficient, effective and better integrated, the fatalities are expected to further decrease. Therefore, the external factors and countermeasure implementation will impact the trend line. However, for this first effort at safety performance target setting, Massachusetts will stick with the trend line as a prediction of 352.0 annual fatalities per year for 2014-2018. Through coordinated processes with our Annual Performance Report (Tracker) and the update of our SHSP (to be completed in 2018), we anticipate proposing future targets that take external factors into account. Moreover, it should be noted that our goal is towards zero deaths and we will continue to work towards that goal.
    Per FHWA guidance, our target setting process began with a trend line projection based on the most recent available data. The number of fatalities in Massachusetts has been relatively stable for 2013, 2014, and 2015. In 2016 there was a marked increase in these numbers (up from about 345 to 395). However, based on preliminary 2017 draft FARS statistics, the 2016 fatalities appear to be an anomaly. Therefore, rather than following the trend of increasing numbers starting in 2016, we predict 2017 and 2018 will return to numbers seen in 2015. Further, the 2019 fatalities should be down because of the strategies being advanced and implemented as part of the soon-to-be released 2018 Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP). The strategies to be adopted through the SHSP include a mix of engineering, enforcement, education, awareness and emergency response strategies, as well as data enhancements to better track the information. With these considerations and initiatives, we anticipate the 5 year average fatalities for 2015-2019 will be 353, a nearly 4% drop from the 2012-2016 5 year rolling average of 367. This target was developed in coordination with the Executive Office of Public Safety and Security – Highway Safety Division (EOPSS/HS) (required to submit targets to NHTSA), the MassDOT Office of Transportation Planning (OTP) working closely with the MPOs, and the Office of Performance Management and Innovation (OPMI, which produces an annual performance report called Tracker that serves the public and State Legislature). Moreover, it should be noted that our overarching goal is towards zero deaths and we will continue to work towards that goal by implementing SHSP strategies. Our interim goal for 2018-2022 five year average for fatalities is 320 which reflects a nearly 13% drop from the 2012-2016 five year fatality average of 367.
    Per FHWA guidance, our target setting process began with a trend line projection based on the most recent available data. Based on 5 year rolling averages, the number of fatalities in Massachusetts over the last 7 years, (2012 – 2018), has been relatively stable fluctuating less than 1 percent (between 358.4 and 361.6) with the exception of 2016, when the 5 year average reached 363.8. In December 2018, the SHSP was signed by the which includes some proposed legislation that could have a marked improvement in highway safety, such as primary seat belt law and hands-free only use of electronic devices while driving. The SHSP also contains strategies that include a mix of engineering, enforcement, education, awareness and emergency response strategies, as well as data enhancements to better track highway safety. These external factors, along with continued construction of HSIP and other safety projects and continued education and enforcement programs may have an impact on the number of fatalities and serious injuries on the roadways in Massachusetts With these considerations and initiatives, we anticipate the 5 year average fatalities for 2016-2020 will be 347, a nearly 3% drop from the 2014-2018 5 year rolling average of 358.4. This target was developed in coordination with the Executive Office of Public Safety and Security – Highway Safety Division (EOPSS/HS) (required to submit targets to NHTSA), the MassDOT Office of Transportation Planning (OTP) working closely with the MPOs, and the Office of Performance Management and Innovation (OPMI, which produces an annual performance report called Tracker that serves the public and State Legislature). Moreover, it should be noted that our overarching goal is towards zero deaths and we will continue to work towards that goal by implementing SHSP strategies.

  • Data Sources:
    Fatalities: 2012-2017 Final FARS, 2018 FARS Annual Report File
    Targets: 2017-2019 Massachusetts HSIP Annual Reports

  • Fatality Rate (per 100 million VMT)

  • Fatality Rate
    (per 100 million VMT)
    2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
    Annual 0.68 0.62 0.62 0.58 0.63 0.55 0.54
    5-Year Average 0.626 0.600 0.584
    Target (5-Year Average) 0.610 0.580 0.560
  • Basis for Fatality Rate Target

    Similar to the process for simply using the trend line as our target for fatalities in Massachusetts, our first target setting for annual fatality rate (fatalities per 100 million vehicles miles traveled) for 2014-2018 data, will simply use the trend line although that is not our goal. Our goal continues to be towards zero deaths. The predicted fatality rate for 2014-2018 yearly average would be 0.610 per year, down from 0.641 for 2011-2015 yearly average. As mentioned for the previous measures, there are external factors and implementation of safety countermeasures that will impact the rate change, but for the first target stetting we are simply showing the trend line projections. In the coming year we will work to refine this target and coordinate it based on related efforts (e.g. our Annual Performance Report and the SHSP update).
    Fatality Rate: The fatality rate is calculated using the goal of fatalities and the projected vehicle miles traveled (VMT) to obtain the 2015-2019 fatality rate. MassDOT Planning projects a 0.3% annual increase in VMTs. Therefore, the fatality rate from 2012-2016 of 0.64 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled will drop to 0.58 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled in 2015-2019 which reflects a 8.7% drop. The interim goal for fatality rate in 2018-2022 is 0.52 which reflects a drop of approximately 18% since 2012-2016. The long term goal is towards zero deaths, so the long term fatality rate target is 0.0 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled.
    The fatality rate is calculated using the 5 year target for fatalities and the projected vehicle miles traveled (VMT) to obtain the 2016-2020 fatality rate. MassDOT Planning projects a linear 0.3% annual increase in VMTs every year. Therefore, the fatality rate from 2014-2018 of 0.58 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled will decrease to 0.56 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled in 2016-2020 which reflects a 4% reduction. The long term goal is towards zero deaths, so the long term fatality rate target is 0.0 fatalities per 100 million VMTs.

  • Data Sources:
    Fatalities: 2012-2017 Final FARS, 2018 FARS Annual Report File
    VMT: 2012-2018 FHWA Highway Statistics Series, VM-2 Table
    Targets: 2017-2019 Massachusetts HSIP Annual Reports

  • Number of Serious Injuries

  • Number of Serious Injuries 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
    Annual 3,587 3,197 3,031 2,931 2,983 2,575 2,529
    5-Year Average 3,145.8 2,943.4 2,809.8
    Target (5-Year Average) 2,896.0 2,801.0 2,689.0
  • Basis for Number of Serious Injuries Target

    FHWA guidance is to start with a trend line then consider external factors and planned implementation in order to set targets. Based on the trend line, the predicted number of serious injuries for 2014-2018 yearly average would be 2896.0 per year, down from 3251.8 for 2011-2015 yearly average. There are certainly external factors, some specific to Massachusetts and others that are applicable nation-wide, that will impact the trend line (positively and negatively). Examples include: a required change in reporting and definition of serious injuries on the crash report, a recent State recreational marijuana law (in the process of implementation), a reduction in the prima facie speed limit law for thickly settled areas, anticipated changes in other roadway safety laws in the near future, increasing trend of distraction by all road users, advent of new vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-infrastructure safety-related technology with more common every-day use and others. Meanwhile, MassDOT has been implementing strategies and countermeasures identified in the SHSP. An evaluation of specific HSIP-funded projects completed prior to 2013 indicated that fatal and injury crashes have been reduced by 36 percent compared to what was to be expected had the safety improvements not been implemented. While an evaluation of all HSIP projects is not yet possible, this shows that implementation of safety countermeasures does have a significant impact on the number of serious injuries. Therefore, the external factors and countermeasure implementation will impact the trend line. However, for this first effort at safety performance target setting, Massachusetts will stick with the trend line as a prediction of 2895.9 annual serious injuries per year for 2014-2018. Through coordinated processes with our Annual Performance Report (Tracker) and the update of our SHSP (to be completed in 2018), we anticipate proposing future targets that take external factors into account. Moreover, it should be noted that our goal is towards zero deaths and we will continue to work towards that goal.
    FHWA guidance, we began with the trend line then considered external factors and planned implementation to inform the targets. Based on the trend line, the predicted number of serious injuries for 2015-2019 five year rolling average would be 2801 per year, down from 3132 for 2012-2016 yearly average, a 10.6% drop. Please note that in the Massachusetts crash system, the injury severity is based on “incapacitating injuries” not “serious injuries.” This will change in 2019 based on the Federal rule for defining suspected serious injuries. There are external factors, some specific to Massachusetts and others that are applicable nationwide, that will impact the trend line (positively and negatively) although we do not yet know enough to know how these will impact the trends. Examples include: a required change in reporting and definition of serious injuries on the crash report, a recent State recreational marijuana law (in the process of implementation), a proposed hands-free law and anticipated changes in other roadway safety laws in the near future. Meanwhile, MassDOT will begin implementing strategies and countermeasures that are being developed in the updated 2018 Strategic Highway Safety Plan. This target was developed in coordination with EOPSS/HSD(required to submit targets to NHTSA), the MassDOT OTP working closely with the MPOs, and the Office of Performance Management and Innovation (OPMI, which produces an annual performance report called Tracker that serves the public and State Legislature). Moreover, it should be noted that our overarching goal is towards zero deaths and serious injuries, and we will continue to work towards that goal. Our interim goal for 2018-2022 five year rolling average for serious injuries is 2467 which reflects a nearly 21% drop from the 2012-2016 serious injury five year rolling average of 3132.
    FHWA guidance, we began with a trend line and considered external factors and planned implementation projects to inform the targets. Based on this, the predicted number of serious injuries for 2016-2020 five year rolling average would be 2,689 per year, down from 2,809.8 for 2014-2018 yearly average and equal to a 4 percent reduction. The external factors, described in the fatalities section, also apply to injuries, and will impact the number of serious injuries on our roadways. Furthermore, there is also a data issue which may impact reporting levels On January 1, 2019, our statewide crash system changed the data attributes to describe the injury severity. The term used to be “incapacitating injury” now the term is “suspect serious injury” and there are definitions provided to police agencies for a suspected serious injury that would make it easier and more objective to report on injury severity. It is unclear how this will impact the trends. As a result, the 4 percent decrease in serious injuries was selected as it generally follows the trendline. This target was developed in coordination with EOPSS/HSD (required to submit targets to NHTSA), the MassDOT OTP working closely with the MPOs, and OPMI (which produces an annual performance report called Tracker that serves the public and State Legislature). Moreover, it should be noted that our overarching goal is towards zero deaths and serious injuries, and we will continue to work towards that goal.

  • Data Sources:
    Serious Injuries: 2019 Massachusetts HSIP Annual Report
    Targets: 2017-2019 Massachusetts HSIP Annual Reports

  • Rate of Serious Injuries (per 100 million VMT)

  • Rate of Serious Injuries
    (per 100 million VMT)
    2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
    Annual 6.41 5.68 5.27 4.95 4.82 4.11 3.79
    5-Year Average 5.426 4.966 4.588
    Target (5-Year Average) 5.010 4.370 4.300
  • Basis for Serious Injury Rate Target

    FHWA guidance is to start with a trend line then consider external factors and planned implementation in order to set targets. Based on the trend line, the predicted number of serious injuries for 2014-2018 yearly average would be 2896.0 per year, down from 3251.8 for 2011-2015 yearly average. There are certainly external factors, some specific to Massachusetts and others that are applicable nation-wide, that will impact the trend line (positively and negatively). Examples include: a required change in reporting and definition of serious injuries on the crash report, a recent State recreational marijuana law (in the process of implementation), a reduction in the prima facie speed limit law for thickly settled areas, anticipated changes in other roadway safety laws in the near future, increasing trend of distraction by all road users, advent of new vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-infrastructure safety-related technology with more common every-day use and others. Meanwhile, MassDOT has been implementing strategies and countermeasures identified in the SHSP. An evaluation of specific HSIP-funded projects completed prior to 2013 indicated that fatal and injury crashes have been reduced by 36 percent compared to what was to be expected had the safety improvements not been implemented. While an evaluation of all HSIP projects is not yet possible, this shows that implementation of safety countermeasures does have a significant impact on the number of serious injuries. Therefore, the external factors and countermeasure implementation will impact the trend line. However, for this first effort at safety performance target setting, Massachusetts will stick with the trend line as a prediction of 2895.9 annual serious injuries per year for 2014-2018. Through coordinated processes with our Annual Performance Report (Tracker) and the update of our SHSP (to be completed in 2018), we anticipate proposing future targets that take external factors into account. Moreover, it should be noted that our goal is towards zero deaths and we will continue to work towards that goal.
    FHWA guidance, we began with the trend line then considered external factors and planned implementation to inform the targets. Based on the trend line, the predicted number of serious injuries for 2015-2019 five year rolling average would be 2801 per year, down from 3132 for 2012-2016 yearly average, a 10.6% drop. Please note that in the Massachusetts crash system, the injury severity is based on “incapacitating injuries” not “serious injuries.” This will change in 2019 based on the Federal rule for defining suspected serious injuries. There are external factors, some specific to Massachusetts and others that are applicable nationwide, that will impact the trend line (positively and negatively) although we do not yet know enough to know how these will impact the trends. Examples include: a required change in reporting and definition of serious injuries on the crash report, a recent State recreational marijuana law (in the process of implementation), a proposed hands-free law and anticipated changes in other roadway safety laws in the near future. Meanwhile, MassDOT will begin implementing strategies and countermeasures that are being developed in the updated 2018 Strategic Highway Safety Plan. This target was developed in coordination with EOPSS/HSD(required to submit targets to NHTSA), the MassDOT OTP working closely with the MPOs, and the Office of Performance Management and Innovation (OPMI, which produces an annual performance report called Tracker that serves the public and State Legislature). Moreover, it should be noted that our overarching goal is towards zero deaths and serious injuries, and we will continue to work towards that goal. Our interim goal for 2018-2022 five year rolling average for serious injuries is 2467 which reflects a nearly 21% drop from the 2012-2016 serious injury five year rolling average of 3132.
    FHWA guidance, we began with a trend line and considered external factors and planned implementation projects to inform the targets. Based on this, the predicted number of serious injuries for 2016-2020 five year rolling average would be 2,689 per year, down from 2,809.8 for 2014-2018 yearly average and equal to a 4 percent reduction. The external factors, described in the fatalities section, also apply to injuries, and will impact the number of serious injuries on our roadways. Furthermore, there is also a data issue which may impact reporting levels On January 1, 2019, our statewide crash system changed the data attributes to describe the injury severity. The term used to be “incapacitating injury” now the term is “suspect serious injury” and there are definitions provided to police agencies for a suspected serious injury that would make it easier and more objective to report on injury severity. It is unclear how this will impact the trends. As a result, the 4 percent decrease in serious injuries was selected as it generally follows the trendline. This target was developed in coordination with EOPSS/HSD (required to submit targets to NHTSA), the MassDOT OTP working closely with the MPOs, and OPMI (which produces an annual performance report called Tracker that serves the public and State Legislature). Moreover, it should be noted that our overarching goal is towards zero deaths and serious injuries, and we will continue to work towards that goal.

  • Data Sources:
    Serious Injuries: 2019 Massachusetts HSIP Annual Report
    VMT: 2012-2018 FHWA Highway Statistics Series, VM-2 Table
    Targets: 2017-2019 Massachusetts HSIP Annual Reports

  • Number of Non-Motorized Fatalities and Serious Injuries

  • Number of Non-Motorized Fatalities
    and Serious Injuries
    2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
    Annual 602 506 554 516 525 489 445
    5-Year Average 540.6 518.0 505.8
    Target (5-Year Average) 540.8 541.0 505.4
  • Basis for Number of Non-Motorized Fatalities and Serious Injuries Target

    As with all the other target setting measures, FHWA’s guidance is to start with a trend line then consider external factors and planned implementation in order to set targets. If one were to simply use the trend line, the predicted number of fatalities and serious injuries for non-motorists for 2014-2018 yearly average would be 618.9 per year, UP from 540.8 for 2011-2015 yearly average. As mentioned earlier, there are certainly external factors that would impact the trend line (positively and negatively) and implementing countermeasures also impacts the projections. MassDOT and other agencies and entities are building infrastructure to promote and increase active transportation which increases the exposure of the non-motorists. It should be clear that the target is towards zero deaths/injuries and not an increase. With 1 in 4 fatalities on Massachusetts roadways involving non-motorists and an apparent increase in walking and cycling (although non-motorist vehicle miles traveled cannot yet be quantified), Massachusetts is upping efforts to stem that trend. Several projects and multi-agency programs have been implemented (after the Federal Fiscal Year reporting period for this report ended) that will hopefully help to turn the trend. As the Strategic Highway Safety Plan is developed over the next year and the Pedestrian Emphasis Area and Bicyclist Emphasis Area are refined, new multi-disciplined and multi-agency strategies will be developed and implemented. There will also be an increased effort to attempt to resolve some issues so that systemic projects could be implemented which would help to bring down the non-motorist fatalities and serious injuries. Therefore, although our current trend line shows a projected increase in non-motorist fatalities and serious injuries, our goal is to reverse the trend and move towards zero deaths by dramatically reducing the numbers. In the coming year we will work to refine this target and coordinate it based on related efforts (e.g. our Annual Performance Report and the SHSP update). So while the trend line indicates 618.9 fatalities and serious injuries for non-motorists for 2014-2018 yearly average, Massachusetts’ short term target is to stem the trend of increasing fatalities and injuries and therefore, is using the current 5 year average of 540.8 non-motorist serious injuries or fatalities 2014-2018.
    As with all the other target setting measures, FHWA’s guidance is to start with a trend line forecast and then consider external factors and planned implementation in order to set targets. Using the historical data to create a trend line, the predicted number of fatalities and serious injuries for non-motorists for 2015-2019 yearly average would be an increase from the 2012-2016 yearly average of 551. However, even though the fatalities and injuries has been trending up instead of down, the many Massachusetts agencies engaged in the safety of non-motorized modes are actively working on strategies to ameliorate the non-motorist fatality and injuries while promoting and encouraging walking and cycling. Therefore, the goal is to reverse the trend of increasing fatalities and injuries and move towards zero deaths and injuries. To do this, we have set the goal identical to last year which is 541 non-motorist fatalities and injuries for the 2015-2019 five year average. As the 2018 Strategic Highway Safety Plan is being completed and the Statewide Pedestrian Plan is being finalized, new multi-disciplined and multi-agency strategies will be developed and implemented. Several projects and multi-agency programs have been and are being implemented that will hopefully help to reverse the existing trend while encouraging non-motorist activities. There will also be an increased effort to attempt to resolve some issues so that systemic projects could be implemented which would help to bring down the non-motorist fatalities and serious injuries. Therefore, although our current trend line shows a projected increase in non-motorist fatalities and serious injuries, our goal is to reverse the trend and move towards zero deaths.
    As with all the other target setting measures, FHWA’s guidance is to start with a trend line forecast and then consider external factors and planned implementation in order to set targets. Using historical data to create a trend line, the predicted number of fatalities and serious injuries for non-motorists for the 2016-2020 yearly average see an increase from the 2014-2018 yearly average of 505.4 (this target includes bicyclists and pedestrians, and excludes skaters, not reported, train/trolley passengers, and other, from the query for statewide data for serious injuries). However, even though the fatalities and injuries has been trending upwards, Massachusetts is actively working on strategies to ameliorate non-motorist fatality and injuries, while promoting and encouraging walking and cycling. In fact, the past two years of closed crash data do indicate the trend may be changing. Therefore, the goal is to reverse the trend of increasing fatalities and injuries and move towards zero deaths and injuries. To do this, we have set the goal identical to the 2014-2018 5 year rolling average of 505.4. The 2018 Strategic Highway Safety Plan, the 2019 Statewide Pedestrian Plan and the 2019 Statewide Bicycle Plan identify new multi-disciplined and multi-agency strategies to implement to eliminate fatalities and serious injuries of people walking and bicycling. There also may be some implementation of low-cost systemic projects related to pedestrian safety in an effort to further drive down fatalities and serious injuries. Therefore, although our current trend line shows a projected increase in non-motorist fatalities and serious injuries, our goal is to reverse the trend and move towards zero deaths.

  • Data Sources:
    Fatalities: 2012-2017 Final FARS, 2018 FARS Annual Report File
    Serious Injuries: 2019 Massachusetts HSIP Annual Report
    Targets: 2017-2019 Massachusetts HSIP Annual Reports


Additional Comments

2020 Comments:

Please note that 2018 data are draft and expected to change. Typically, the statewide crash file closes approximately two years later. Presently, 2017 is our most current closed year. However, the safety performance targets were based on the preliminary information.

Safety Performance Target Assessment Summary

PLEASE NOTE: Each State’s safety performance target assessment is based on its own State-specific target methodology and program philosophy. Therefore, conclusions should not be drawn based only on the information in the Safety Performance Target Assessment Summary table. For example, the State may have set aggressive targets, and not met those targets, while another State may have set more easily attainable targets, and met those targets. FHWA understands that each State’s safety program is unique and therefore does not prescribe a methodology for States to set targets. States have the flexibility to use the methodology they deem most appropriate when setting their safety performance targets.

Massachusetts Safety Performance Target Assessment Summary
Performance Measure 2014-2018 Target 2014-2018 Outcome 2012-2016 Baseline Met Target? Better Than Baseline? Met or Made Significant Progress?
Number of Fatalities 352.0 358.4 363.8 No Yes YES
Rate of Fatalities 0.610 0.584 0.626 Yes N/A
Number of Serious Injuries 2,896.0 2,809.8 3,145.8 Yes N/A
Rate of Serious Injuries 5.010 4.588 5.426 Yes N/A
Number of Non-Motorized Fatalities and Serious Injuries 540.8 505.8 540.6 Yes N/A

Updated: 08/11/2020
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