Asphalt Binder Cracking Device to Reduce Low-Temperature Asphalt Pavement Cracking
This report summarizes research into use of the Asphalt Binder Cracking Device (ABCD), a new empirical test method for evaluating the low-temperature cracking potential of asphalt binder. The ABCD test method has been adopted as a Provisional Standard by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. This report presents the results of two interlaboratory studies that examined the ABCD’s precision and documents the modification of the ABCD procedure to achieve greater precision.
The refinement of the late-stage prototype and inter-laboratory study of the ABCD was supported by a grant from the Highways for LIFE Technology Partnerships Program. The Technology Partnerships Program provided grants to assist general industry make the leap from promising late-stage prototypes to market-ready products and promoted partnerships with State and local highway agencies to demonstrate the technologies under real-world conditions.
This report will be of interest to State and local departments of transportation, Federal Highway Administration division offices, highway research institutions, asphalt manufacturers, and highway construction contractors.
This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.
The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document. Trade names mentioned in this report are not intended as an endorsement of any machine, contractor, process, or product.
Quality Assurance Statement
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. The FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.
|1. Report No. FHWA-HIF-11-029||2. Government Accession No.||3. Recipient’s Catalog No.|
|4. Title and Subtitle Asphalt Binder Cracking Device to Reduce Low-Temperature Asphalt Pavement Cracking: Final Report||5. Report Date: May 2011|
|6. Performing Organization Code|
Sang-Soo Kim, Ph.D., P.E.
|8. Performing Organization Report No.|
|9. Performing Organization Name and Address
EZ Asphalt Technology, LLC
340 W. State Street Unit #2, 142 Innovation Center
Athens, OH 45701
|10. Work Unit No.|
|11. Contract or Grant No.
|12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Highways for LIFE Program Office, Office of Infrastructure,
Federal Highway Administration,
U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE Washington, DC 20590
|13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Final Report; 2008–2010
|14. Sponsoring Agency Code
|15. Supplementary Notes
Agreement Officer: Freida Byrd, Office of Acquisition Management, Federal Highway Administration (HAAM-40)
Agreement Officer Technical Representative: Julie Zirlin, Highways for LIFE, Office of Infrastructure, Federal Highway Administration (HIHL)
The ABCD is an easy-to-use device for determining the overall low-temperature cracking potential of an asphalt binder. The report presents results of the ABCD interlaboratory study (ILS), a second ILS comparing use of the ABCD with Bending Beam Reflectometer (BBR) testing, and a third study that modified the ABCD testing procedure to improve precision of ABCD testing. Data from 23 laboratories participating in the ABCD testing are presented.
Results of the ABCD and BBR testing indicated that the precision estimates of ABCD cracking temperature and those of the BBR critical temperature were comparable. The No-Trim ABCD test procedure developed during the project is expected to improve the precision of ABCD test results.
|17. Key Words
asphalt pavement cracking, Asphalt Binder Cracking Device, asphalt binder testing, Bending Beam Rheometer, low temperature cracking
|18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions. This document is available to the public through http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hfl/.
|19. Security Classif. (of this report)
|20. Security Classif. (of this page)
|21. No. of Pages
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized
|APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS||APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI UNITS|
|Symbol||When You Know||Multiply By||To Find||Symbol||Symbol||When You Know||Multiply By||To Find||Symbol|
|in2||square inches||645.2||square millimeters||mm2||mm2||square millimeters||0.0016||square inches||in2|
|ft2||square feet||0.093||square meters||m2||m2||square meters||10.764||square feet||ft2|
|yd2||square yards||0.836||square meters||m2||m2||square meters||1.195||square yards||yd2|
|mi2||square miles||2.59||square kilometers||km2||km2||square kilometers||0.386||square miles||mi2|
|fl oz||fluid ounces||29.57||milliliters||ml||mL||milliliters||0.034||fluid ounces||fl oz|
|ft3||cubic feet||0.028||cubic meters||m3||m3||cubic meters||35.314||cubic feet||ft3|
|yd3||cubic yards||0.765||cubic meters||m3||m3||cubic meters||1.307||cubic yard||yd3|
|NOTE: Volumes greater than 1000 l shall be shown in m3|
|0.907||megagrams||Mg||Mg (or "t")||megagrams
(or "metric ton")
|1.103||short tons (2000 lb)||T|
|TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)||TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)|
|°F||Fahrenheit||5(F–32)/9 or (F–32)/1.8||Celcius||°C||°C||Celsius||1.8C +32||Fahrenheit||°F|
|FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS||FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS|
|lbf/in2||pound per square inch||6.89||kilopascals||kPa||kPa||kilopascals||0.145||poundforce per square inch||lbf/in2|
The overall scope of the Highways for LIFE grant to EZ Asphalt Technology was to refine the Asphalt Binder Cracking Device (ABCD) test method and to conduct an ABCD interlaboratory study (ILS). During Phase 1, ABCD test equipment and test procedures were re-fined. During Phase 2, five units of ABCD were manufactured and tested in an ABCD ILS. Thirty-one laboratories volunteered for the ABCD ILS. Following manufacturing and testing, ABCD units were delivered to the first five participating laboratories. As a laboratory finished the ILS testing, the unit was repacked and shipped to the next waiting laboratory.
Due to the larger than expected number of volunteering laboratories, the original binder samples prepared for this ABCD ILS ran out in the middle of ILS testing. Replacement binder samples were used for the later part of ABCD ILS testing. However, the analyses of ABCD ILS were based on the data from the 23 laboratories that used the original binder samples. With very limited experience with the ABCD equipment and test procedure, almost all participating laboratories were able to complete the ABCD ILS successfully without major difficulty. Ten laboratories also volunteered to participate in the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) Critical Temperature ILS. The results of the ABCD and BBR studies indicated that the precision estimates of ABCD cracking temperature and those of the BBR critical temperature were comparable.
The standard deviation of the ABCD cracking temperature, strain jump, and fracture strength for single-operator ABCD tests were 0.95 ºC (1.71 ºF), 5.48 με, and 0.86 MPa (125 psi), respectively. The standard deviation of the ABCD cracking temperature, strain jump, and fracture strength for multilaboratory ABCD tests were 1.36 ºC (2.45 ºF), 7.21 με, and 1.13 MPa (163.9 psi), respectively. The standard deviations of the BBR critical temperature for single-operator and multilaboratory tests were 0.44 ºC (0.79 ºF) and 0.75 ºC (1.35 ºF), respectively, when the critical temperatures were determined from an interpolation process where the BBR test results from two adjacent grading temperatures bracket the critical values of creep stiffness and m-value. The precision estimates of the BBR critical temperature are better than those of the ABCD cracking temperature. However, the BBR critical temperature alone cannot estimate the proper cracking temperature of asphalt binder. Strength testing must be performed and combined with the BBR test results. Then, the precision of the resulting cracking temperature by BBR would be similar to that of ABCD cracking temperature.
To further improve the precision of ABCD test results, the No-Trim ABCD test procedure was developed. An experiment performed with a limited number of binders showed that the steps for trimming and lubrication of the silicone mold in the current ABCD procedure could be eliminated. Based on these findings, a revised ABCD test procedure was developed and is presented in this report. The No-Trim ABCD test procedure is expected to improve the precision of ABCD test results, especially the multilaboratory precision estimates.
The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Committee has voted to adopt the ABCD test method as a provisional test method. The ABCD test procedure will be included in a 2011 edition of AASHTO specifications.