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Highway History

In 1998, with the Interstate System essentially complete, FHWA's Office of Engineering compiled information about development of the program. In making this information available to the public, we have not updated the material. All information is as of 1998 when the Office of Engineering compiled the report.

The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways

Part I - History

A Brief History

Origins

Planning for what is now known as the Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called "The Interstate System," began in the late 1930's. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1938 called on the Bureau of Public Roads (BPR), the predecessor of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), to study the feasibility of a toll-financed system of three east-west and three north-south superhighways. The BPR's report, Toll Roads and Free Roads, demonstrated that a toll network would not be self-supporting. Instead, the BPR's report advocated a 26,700-mile interregional highway network.

In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed a National Interregional Highway Committee, headed by Commissioner of Public Roads Thomas H. MacDonald, to evaluate the need for a national expressway system. The committee's January 1944 report, Interregional Highways, supported a system of 33,900 miles, plus an additional 5,000 miles of auxiliary urban routes.

Original Designation of the Interstate System

In the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944, the Congress acted on these recommendations. The act called for designation of a National System of Interstate Highways, to include up to 40,000 miles "... so located, as to connect by routes, direct as practical, the principal metropolitan areas, cities, and industrial centers, to serve the National Defense, and to connect at suitable border points, routes of continental importance in the Dominion of Canada and the Republic of Mexico."

On August 2, 1947, Commissioner MacDonald and Federal Works Administrator Philip B. Fleming announced selection of the first 37,700 miles. The routes had been proposed by the State highway agencies and reviewed by the Department of Defense. However, neither the 1944 act nor later legislation in the 1940's authorized funds specifically for the Interstate System. As a result, progress on construction was slow.

Interstate Funding

The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1952 authorized the first funding specifically for System construction, but it was only a token amount of $25 million a year for fiscal years (FY) 1954 and 1955. Legislation in 1954 authorized an additional $175 million annually for FY 1956 and 1957.

Under the leadership of President Eisenhower, the question of how to fund the Interstate System was resolved with enactment of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. It served as a catalyst for the System's development and, ultimately, its completion. Title I of the 1956 Act increased the System's proposed length to 41,000 miles. It also called for nationwide standards for design of the System, authorized an accelerated program, established a new method for apportioning funds among the States, changed the name to the National System of Interstate and Defense Highway, and set the Federal Government's share of project cost at 90 percent.

Title II of the Act - entitled the Highway Revenue Act of 1956 - created the Highway Trust Fund as a dedicated source for the Interstate System.

Revenue from the Federal gas and other motor-vehicle user taxes was credited to the Highway Trust Fund to pay the Federal share of Interstate and all other Federal-aid highway projects. In this way, the Act guaranteed construction of all segments on a "pay-as-you-go" basis, thus satisfying one of President Eisenhower's primary requirements, namely that the program be self financing without contributing to the Federal budget deficit.

Interstate Cost Estimates

A new method of distributing funds among the States was necessitated by the 1956 Act and was based on each State receiving a share of the annual Interstate Construction fund authorization in the same proportion as the cost to complete its System bore to the cost of the System in all States. To achieve a simultaneous completion in all States, the Congress periodically required the BPR, and later FHWA, to develop a new estimate of the cost to complete the System and to serve as the basis for apportionments until the next estimate was prepared.

Between 1958 and 1991, 15 legislatively-mandated estimates were prepared and submitted to Congress. The final estimate, submitted in January 1991, indicated a total cost to complete the system of approximately $128.9 billion, of which the Federal share was $114.3 billion.

Additional Historical Information

The following list of books was prepared by Richard Weingroff, HPD-1, and provide the best look at the history of the Interstate System:

America's Highways 1776-1976, Federal Highway Administration, 1976. (This 550-page history discusses all aspects of American road development, including the history of the Interstate System. It is out of print but available in libraries or through inter-library loan.)

Lewis, Tom, Divided Highways: The Interstate Highway System and the Transformation of American Life, Viking Press, 1997. (Companion to an October 1997 PBS documentary of the same name.)

Rose, Mark H., Interstate Express Highway Politics 1941-1989, University of Tennessee Press, 1990 (Revised Edition). (Based on a Ph.D. thesis, this relatively short book is the best single source of information on how the 1956 legislation authorizing Interstate Highway Program came to be. The revised edition includes a chapter discussing the construction of the Interstate System.)

Seely, Bruce E., Building the American Highway System: Engineers as Policy Makers, Temple University Press, 1987. (Scholarly history of the Federal Highway Administration from its origins in 1893 as the Office of Road Inquiry to the present, with good coverage of the Interstate System.)

The States and the Interstates: Research on the Planning, Design and Construction of the Interstate and Defense Highway System, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1991. (Interstate history from the standpoint of the State transportation departments that built this highways.)

Interstate System, critical

Goddard, Stephen B., Getting There: The Epic Struggle Between Road and Rail in the American Century, Basic Books, 1994. (The epic struggle as told by an author who wishes the railroads had defeated the "high and mighty" road builders.)

Leavitt, Helen, Superhighway-Superhoax, Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1970.
A dust jacket blurb conveyed the theme: "From Sea to Shining Sea: we are strangling in a concrete straitjacket that pollutes the environment and makes driving a nightmare."

Kelley, Ben, The Pavers and the Paved, Donald W. Brown, Inc., 1971.

Mowbray, A. Q., Road to Ruin, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1969.

ADDITIONAL READING:

Barrow, Robert Van, The Politics of Interstate Route Selection: A Case Study of Interest Activities in a Decision Situation, Ph.D. Thesis, The Florida State University, 1967.

Bryan, Mike, Uneasy Rider: The Interstate Way of Knowledge, Alfred A Knopf, 1997. (Noting that the U.S. numbered "blue" highways are a vision of the past, Bryan takes off on a "Blue Highways" type journey along the Interstate routes of the Southwest, where he finds the same types of people he would have found along the old routes.)

Coster, Graham, A Thousand Miles from Nowhere: Trucking Two Continents, North Point Press, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995). (In which the author accompanies an English trucker from England to Russia and an America trucker across the United States.)

Crane, Stuart R., Federal Financing for Toll Projects Incorporated in the Interstate Highway System, Ph.D. Thesis, Indiana University, 1967.

Di Salvatore, Bryan, "A Reporter at Large: Large Cars," The New Yorker, September 12 and 19, 1988. (A two-part article about the life of a trucker on the Nation's Interstate highways.)

"40th Anniversary Special Section," Roads and Bridges, June 1996 (collection of articles on the 40th anniversary of the Interstate System).

Heppenheimer, T.A., "The Rise of the Interstates," American Heritage of Invention and Technology, Fall 1991.

Mitchell, John G., "30 Years on Ike's Autobahns," Audubon, November 1986. (An excellent look at the history and impact of the Interstate System from the perspective of a trip along I-75.)

Patton, Phil, Open Road: A Celebration of the American Highway, Simon and Schuster, 1986.

Riddick, Winston Wade, The Politics of National Highway Policy, 1953-1966, Ph.D Thesis, Columbia University, 1973.

Rose, Mark H., and Seely, Bruce E., "Getting the Interstate System Built: Road Engineers and the Implementation of Public Policy, 1955-1985," Journal of Policy History, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1990.

Schwartz, Gary T., "Urban Freeways and the Interstate System," Southern California Law Review 49 (March 1976), p. 406-513.

Sweet, James Stouder, The Federal Gasoline Tax at a Glance: A History, Bybee House, 1993 (a short history of the gas tax, available for $5.95 from Bybee House, 116 East Glendale Drive, Boone, NC 28607)

Sundstrom, Geoff, "The Paving of America: Mud and Macadam to Superhighways," Automotive News, October 30, 1985. (An excellent short history of highway development in the 20th century.)

Taylor, Nick, "Roads That Bind Us: Interstate Highways, a Guide to Rediscovering America," Travel Holiday, August 1990.

Legislative History Related to Size of the System

Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944 -- called for designation of a National System of Interstate Highways up to 40,000 miles.

The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 -- increased the authorized mileage by 1,000 miles to 41,000

The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968 -- authorized another 1,500 miles to a ceiling of 42,500.

The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968 -- also provided that the Secretary may designate, as part of the Interstate System, a highway meeting all standards for Interstate highways and that are logical additions or connections to the System. These Interstate additions are not "charged" against the legislated mileage ceiling for routes eligible for Interstate Construction funding. Codified in Section 139 of Title 23, the provision created no Federal financial responsibility for these Interstate additions.

P. L. 90-238 (Howard-Cramer Mileage) -- This 1968 act was separate from other major highway acts and provided for the addition of up to 200 miles for modifications or revisions to the basic system. The provision (and mileage added) became known by its co-sponsors, Congressmen Howard and Cramer.

The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 -- increased the Howard-Cramer mileage ceiling to 500 miles.

The National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 -- in Section 332(a)(2) designated 4 high priority corridors as future Interstate routes when the Secretary determines that they meet Interstate design standards and connect to an existing Interstate route. The NHS Act created no Federal financial responsibility for these Interstate additions.

Other legislation -- Individual routes were added to the system from a reserve of undesignated mileage without increasing the legislated mileage eligible for Interstate Construction funding:

  1. In 1960, provisions of the Hawaii Omnibus Act led to the designation of 3 routes on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii.
  2. The Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1978 provided for route additions in California and New York.
  3. The 1980 DOT Appropriations Act extended an Indiana route.
  4. The 1981 DOT Appropriations Act added a route in Alabama and extended a Missouri route.

Interstate Designations

On August 2, 1947, Commissioner Thomas MacDonald and Federal Works Administrator Philip B. Fleming announced selection of the first 37,700 miles. The routes had been proposed by the State highway agencies and reviewed by the Department of Defense. However, neither the 1944 act nor later legislation in the 1940's authorized funds specifically for the Interstate System. As a result, progress on construction was slow.

Following passage of the 1956 act, on 10/18/57, Secretary of Commerce Sinclair Weeks announced that 2,102 miles of new Interstate routes were being designated.

Following passage of the 1968 act, on 12/13/68, Transportation Secretary Alan Boyd announced that an additional 1,472.5 miles of Interstate routes had been designated in 28 States.

As a result of the Howard-Cramer provision (1968 and 1973 acts), an additional 402.62 miles of Interstate routes were designated in 9 States.

As of 12/31/97, under 23 U.S.C. 139(a), 2,108.33 miles have been added to the Interstate System in 30 States without Interstate Construction funding.

Following enactment of the NHS act in 1995, portions of high priority corridors totalling 109.7 miles have been added to the Interstate System in North Carolina and Pennsylvania.

Interstate Highway System October 18, 1957 Addition of 2,102 Miles

  • The Federal-aid Highway Act of 1956 [Section 108(l)] authorized an additional 1,000 mile expansion of the Interstate System, bringing the total authorized system to 41,000 miles.
  • On 10/18/57, Secretary of Commerce Sinclair Weeks announced that 2,102 miles of Interstate routes were being added to the Interstate System. The new routes included the 1,000 mile expansion plus 1,102 miles which had resulted from selections of more direct locations for routes previously designated.
  • The Secretary considered 4 factors in making his selections:
    1. National defense.
    2. System integration - the value of the route as a connector between numerous centers of population and industry which generate interregional traffic.
    3. Industry - transportation requirements of the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and forestry enterprises in the area traversed.
    4. Population.
  • The added routes are categorized, depending on whether they were part of the 1,000 mile expansion or resulted from the savings in locations selected from the original designation, in the following two tables.
The 1,000 Miles of Routes Added to the Interstate System on 10/18/57 In Accordance with Section 108(l) of the Federal-aid Highway Act of 1956
StateRouteLength (Miles)Description
Oregon - WashingtonI-82132Pendleton, OR to Ellenberg, WA
Alabama - LouisianaI-1291Mobile, AL to Baton Rouge, LA
Utah - ColoradoI-70547Cove Fort, UT to Denver, CO
South Dakota - North DakotaI-29230Sioux Falls, SD to Fargo, ND
Total1,000
The 1,102 Miles of Routes Added to the Interstate System on 10/18/57 As a Result of Savings From Selection of More Direct Locations for Previously Designated Routes
StateRouteLength (Miles)Description
North Carolina - Virginia
West Virginia - Ohio
I-77431Charlotte, NC to Canton, OH
PennsylvaniaI-79102Pittsburgh to Erie, PA
UtahI-8440Ogden to Echo Junction, UT
Tennessee - Kentucky
Illinois
I-24170Nashville, TN to Cairo, IL
City-to-City AdditionsSubtotal886 
New Urban Connections

Chicago, IL
Philadelphia, PA
St. Louis, MO
Washington, DC
Kansas City, MO
Louisville, KY
Omaha, NE
Duluth, MN

New Beltways

Cincinnati, OH
Louisville, KY
San Diego, CA
Akron, OH
Springfield-Holyoke, MA
Dayton, OH
Hartford, CT
Oklahoma City, OK
Syracuse, NY
Jacksonville, FL
Scranton, PA
Salt Lake City, UT
Sacramento, CA

   
Urban Connections & BeltsSubtotal216 
Total, Rural & UrbanTotal1,102 

Additions to the Interstate System Segments Added on 12/13/68 in Accordance with 1968 Highway Act

  • Section 14 of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-495) modified Title 23 by adding the following paragraph to Section 103(e)...
    "(3) In addition to the mileage authorized by paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection, there is hereby authorized additional mileage of not to exceed 1,500 miles for the designation of routes in the same manner as set forth in paragraph (1), in order to improve the efficiency and service of the Interstate System to better accomplish the purposes of that System."
  • On 12/13/68 Secretary Boyd announced that the U.S.DOT had allocated 1,472.5 miles, in 28 States, of the 1,500 additional Interstate miles authorized by Congress at the then estimated cost of $2.43 billion. Portions of routes added in North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas were already constructed to Interstate standards and were added to the system without charge.
  • 27.5 miles of the authorized additional mileage was held in a reserve pool to make adjustments that might be necessary.
  • The Bureau of Public Roads indicated that the States, in filing applications for the added 1,500 miles, had submitted suggested projects totalling more than 10,000 miles.
  • Some of the added mileage was never constructed and was withdrawn from the Interstate System under the Interstate Withdrawal-Substitution Program; the withdrawn segments were:
    • Colorado - The I-225 (renumbered I-470) SW beltway quadrant.
    • Connecticut - I-82 (renumbered I-84) east of Bolton to Rhode Island State Line.
    • Louisiana - The center portion of the New Orleans southern belt.
    • Massachusetts - I-295 Providence belt, NE and SE quadrants
    • Oklahoma - I-440 (renumbered as I-240) Oklahoma City belt
    • Oregon - I-505, Portland connector
    • Rhode Island - I-82 (renumbered I-84) Hartford-Providence
1,500 Mile Interstate Additions Added per 1968 Federal-Aid Highway Act
StateChief Route NumberDescriptionLength (Miles)1968 Cost ($Millions)
AlabamaI-565Huntsville spur19.222.9
Arizona 1I-410Papago Freeway, Phase I4.979.8
California 2I-15 I-380 I-605
  • San Diego to Colton (San Bern-Riverside)
  • San Francisco, spur to Int. Airport
  • Los Angeles, extend I-605 to I-210
102.5
1.6
5.5
-----
109.6
201.2
31.2
19.0
-----
251.4
Colorado 3I-80S I-225
  • Denver, extend I-80S to I-70
  • Denver belt, SW Quadrant
5.6
24.8
----
30.4
19.3
70.0
----
89.3
Connecticut 4I-82 I-291
  • CT portion of Hartford-Providence route
  • Hartford, extend belt I-291 to I-84
44.5
6.1
----
50.6
129.0
29.0
-----
158.0
FloridaI-75St. Petersburg to Miami252.0210.0
GeorgiaI-185Columbus spur38.832.6
IllinoisI-72Springfield via Decatur to Champaign80.056.0
IndianaI-164Evansville spur14.026.0
IowaI-380 I-129
  • Iowa City via Cedar Rapids to Waterloo
  • IA portion of Sioux City spur
74.3
0.5
-----
74.8
123.9
3.0
-----
126.9
KansasI-435KS portion of Kansas City west belt19.652.1
Louisiana 5I-410New Orleans, south belt30.0220.0
Massachusetts 6I-295 I-295
  • Providence belt, NE quadrant
  • Providence belt, SE quadrant (to RI Line)
14.3
1.5
----
15.8
44.3
3.1
----
47.4
MichiganI-69Marshall to Lansing to Flint96.0104.4
Minnesota 7I-894Radial to I-494 in Minneapolis9.429.0
MissouriI-435 I-435
  • MO portion of Kansas City west belt
  • Kansas City north belt to KC Int Airport
9.0
17.0
----
26.0
14.9
39.1
----
54.0
NebraskaI-129NE portion of Sioux City spur1.97.8
New YorkI-88Binghamton to Schenectady130.0210.0
North CarolinaI-77 I-40
  • NC portion of Charlotte-Columbia, SC route
  • Durham via Raleigh to Smithfield
9.1
58.1
----
67.2
0.0
81.6
----
81.6
OhioI-675Dayton, extension of I-675 belt3.57.3
Oklahoma 8I-440Oklahoma City belt SW quadrant9.314.9
Oregon 9I-505Portland connector1.111.0
Rhode Island 10I-82 I-295
  • RI portion of Hartford-Providence route
  • Providence belt, SE quadrant to Mass Line
20.7
12.2
----
32.9
61.3
107.5
-----
168.8
South CarolinaI-77SC portion of Charlotte-Columbia route75.065.0
TexasI-27 I-820
  • Amarillo to Lubbock
  • Fort Worth belt, NW quadrant
125.0
13.5
-----
138.5
43.1
22.0
----
65.1
Virginia 11I-64Norfolk, west belt (ext of I-64)9.2120.0
WashingtonI-182Tri-Cities spur28.025.0
WisconsinI-43Milwaukee to Green Bay104.892.5
Totals1,472.52,428.8
Footnotes:
  • 1   I-410 was renumbered as I-10 on 11/17/69.
  • 2   The I-15 addition was not built on the original location, but was constructed further westward bypassing Riverside and San Bernardino. I-215 follows the old I-15 routing at this location.
  • 3   I-80S was renumbered as I-76 on 8/1/74.
    I-225 was renumbered as I-470 on 5/2/69 and later was withdrawn from the system on 9/20/77.
  • 4   I-82 was renumbered as I-84 on 6/21/71. The portion east of Bolton (Quarryville) was withdrawn on 12/10/75. The East Hartford to Bolton segment was renumbered as I-384.
  • 5   The west portion (including Mississippi River Bridge) of the New Orleans belt was constructed and numbered as I-310. The east portion was constructed and numbered as I-510. The central portion of the belt was withdrawn from the system on 1/18/77.
  • 6   I-295 was renumbered as I-895 on 6/21/71. The portion from I-195 to I-95 at Attleboro was withdrawn on 4/12/73. The remainder from I-195 to the RI Line was withdrawn 10/15/82.
  • 7   I-894 was renumbered as I-394 on 3/6/69.
  • 8   I-440 was renumbered as I-240 on 12/17/74. The portion from the I-44 interchange south of Oklahoma City to I-40 west of Oklahoma City was renumbered as I-44 on 8/26/82.
  • 9   I-505 was withdrawn on 12/14/79.
  • 10   I-82 was renumbered as I-84 on 6/21/71 and was withdrawn on 9/20/83. I-295 was withdrawn 5/20/83.
  • 11   I-64 was lengthened and renumbered as I-664 on 4/22/71.

Howard-Cramer Interstate Route Additions

P.L. 90-238 (Enacted 1/2/68)

This act, which was separate from any major highway act, amended Section 103(d) of Title 23 [later renumbered as 23 U.S.C. 103(e)(2)] in order to provide sufficient mileage to enable affected States and the Secretary of Transportation to meet the problems which had been encountered in attempting to construct certain mostly urban Interstate segments.

Under the act, if a State and the Secretary agreed that a portion of an Interstate route was not essential to a unified and connected system and would not be constructed as part of the System, the Secretary could redesignate the withdrawn mileage, plus additional miles (if necessary) from the 200 miles made available by the act, to other Interstate routes or route portions.

The act required that the cost of all mileage used for these modifications would be no greater than the cost of the withdrawn mileage as reported in the 1965 Interstate Cost Estimate (ICE).

Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 (P.L. 93-86)

Section 137 of this act amended 23 U.S.C. 103(e)(2) and increased the additional mileage for the Howard-Cramer modifications from 200 to 500 miles. It also revised the cost limitation to that amount included in the 1972 ICE.

Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-599)

Section 107 of this act further amended 23 U.S.C. 103(e)(2) and removed the provision limiting Interstate Construction funding to the amount reported in the 1972 ICE. As a result the Howard-Cramer route additions were funded at a full 90 percent Federal share, the same as all other Interstate routes designated under Section 103(e).

Section 107 also amended 103(e)(2) by prohibiting the redesignation of any additional Interstate mileage under Section 103(e)(2) after the enactment date, November 6, 1978.

Howard-Cramer Designations

As a result of the above provisions, a total of 402.62 miles of Interstate routes, or portions thereof, were designated in 9 States as shown on the following table and maps.

Howard-Cramer Interstate Route Additions Designated Under 23 U.S.C. 103(e)(2)
StateRouteLength (Miles)Description
California1057.00Century Freeway in L.A., from Lynnwood to I-605
Connecticut6916.69From east of I-84 to I-91 at Meriden
Florida7546.31Tampa Bypass - From Bradenton to I-275 north of Tampa
Georgia5209.11Augusta Loop
57529.16Spur from I-75 at Marietta, north
6757.78Connector south of Atlanta
Louisiana49153.18From U.S. 190 at Opelousas to U.S. 84 at Grand Bayou
Massachusetts49512.90From S.R. 24 to I-95, south of Boston
Maryland9714.90From U.S. 50 at Annapolis to I-695 at Baltimore
1952.20Spur to BWI Airport
3701.18Spur from I-270 to Shady Grove
59519.31U.S. 50 from Capital Beltway to Annapolis
New Jersey19527.30From NJ Turnpike east of Trenton to Garden State Parkway
New York39060.50From Cohocton to I-490 at Rochester
5905.10From I-390 to I-490 at Rochester
Total402.62

Individual Routes (And Route Segments) Added to the Interstate System By Special Legislation

P.L. 86-624 -- Hawaii Omnibus Act -- Enacted 7/12/60

  • Section 17 of this act amended 23 U.S.C. and
    1. removed the limitation that the Interstate System be designated entirely within the continental United States;
    2. provided for the apportionment from the Highway Trust Fund to Hawaii of $12.375 million of Interstate funds for F.Y. 1962; and
    3. provided for the apportionment to Hawaii of Interstate funds for subsequent years in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 104(b)(5).
  • In August 1960 the Federal Highway Administrator approved the addition of H-1, H-2 and H-3 on the Island of Oahu. These additions were included in the 1961 Interstate Cost Estimate.

P.L. 95-599 -- Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA) of 1978 -- Enacted 11/6/78

  • Section 140 of the 1978 STAA specified that Interstate Routes be designated for:
    1. 20.5 miles of existing State Route 11 (Harbor Freeway) in the City of Los Angeles, California between I 10 and State Route 47 / Community of San Pedro (This route became I 110).
    2. 4.2 miles of the proposed Lockport Expressway in the town of Amherst, Erie County, New York (This route became I-990 in the Buffalo area).
    3. 5.1 miles of proposed I-481 connecting Exit 34-A of I-90 to the Bear Road Interchange of I 81 in Onondaga County, New York (This route became part of the I-481 loop at Syracuse).

P.L. 95-240 -- Supplemental Appropriations Act for 1978 -- Enacted 3/7/78

  • Section 209 of this 1978 act provided for the designation of a 1.5 mile spur in Tacoma, Washington (This route became I-705).

P.L. 96-131 -- 1980 Appropriations Act -- Enacted 11/30/79

  • Section 311 of the 1980 act provided for a 6-mile extension of I-164 in Evansville, Indiana.

P.L. 96-400 -- 1981 Appropriations Act -- Enacted 10/9/80

  • Section 310 of the 1981 act provided for a 3.03 mile extension of I-170 in St. Louis, Missouri, and the addition of 6.25 miles for I-210 in the vicinity of Mobile, Alabama. I-210 was later shorted and renumbered as I-165 pursuant to Section 133(f) of the Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Act of 1987.
Interstate Route Additions Under 23 U.S.C. 139(a) As of 12/31/97
StateNumber of RoutesRoutes AddedTotal Length
Arkansas2I-440, I-54015.93
California7I-215, I-238, I-580, I-680, I-710, I 880, I-980141.80
Connecticut1I-39554.69
Florida3I-175, I-375, I-59511.58
Georgia3I-185, I-516, I-98536.30
Hawaii1H-2014.10
Illinois8I-39, I-72, I-88, I-90, I-155, I-172, I-190, I-355445.03
Indiana2I-465, I-46934.63
Kansas1I-33550.10
Kentucky1I-26521.20
Louisiana1I-4919.55
Maine1I-49550.50
Maryland4I-68, I-195, I-695, I-79589.37
Massachusetts6I-90, I-93, I-95, I-195, I-395, I-49599.61
Michigan1I-6966.80
Missouri2I-64, I-17018.99
Nevada2I-515, I-58016.11
New Hampshire1I-2935.68
New York5I-87, I-478, I-495, I-678, I-990104.24
North Carolina6I-40, I-77, I-240, I-277, I-440, I-540127.54
Ohio1I-8035.00
Oklahoma3I-44, I-235, I-240120.65
Oregon1I-846.89
Pennsylvania2I-180, I-476138.80
South Carolina3I-77, I-385, I-52656.70
Tennessee2I-140, I-18135.00
Texas5I-20, I-27, I-30, I-44, I-41069.46
Virginia2I-95, I-66433.28
West Virginia1I-6831.80
Wisconsin2I-39, I-43167.00
30 States80Total Length      2,108.33
Interstate Route Additions Under 23 U.S.C. 139(a) As of 12/31/97
StateRouteDate AddedTerminiLength
ArkansasI-4401/14/80East Belt Freeway
Fr: I-30 Little Rock
To: I-40 East of Little Rock
9.96
I-54012/08/78Fr: I-540/AR 22 at Fort Smith
To: US 271 South of Fort Smith
5.97

AR Total 15.93
CaliforniaI-2159/16/97CA 215/Old US 395/Old CA 194
Fr: I-15 Murrieta, North of Temecula
To: I-215/CA 60 East of Riverside
29.40
I-21512/04/73US 395
Fr: S Int CA 60 at Riverside
To: I-10/I-215 San Bernardino
11.30
I-2152/01/72US 395/Old Location I-15
Fr: I-10 at San Bernardino
To: I-215 Devore NW of San Bernardino
13.80
I-2385/18/83CA 238
Fr: I-880 at San Lorenzo
To: I-550 at Castro Valley
2.10
I-5804/20/78Fr: US 101 at San Rafael
To: I-580/Castro St. at Richmond
7.30
I-6807/13/73CA 21, Luther Gibson Freeway
Fr: I-80 at Cordelia
To: I-780 at Benicia
12.50
I-7109/28/83CA 7 - Long Beach Freeway
Fr: I-10 at Monterey Park
To: CA 1 at Long Beach
19.70
I-8805/18/83CA 17, Nimitz Freeway
Fr: I-80 at Berkeley
To: I-280 at San Jose
44.70
I-9801/29/76CA 24
Fr: I-580 at Oakland
To: I-980, 0.8 mi N of I-880/CA 17
1.00
CA Total 141.80
ConnecticutI-3954/18/83CT 52
Fr: I-395 at Massachusetts State Line
To: I-95 at East Lyme
54.69
FloridaI-1755/20/82South Downtown Distributor
Fr: I-275 at St. Petersburg
To: FL 687
1.44
I-3755/20/82North Downtown Distributor
Fr: I-275 at St. Petersburg
To: FL 595 West of FL 687
1.34
I-5956/11/90FL 84
Fr: I-75 at Andytown
To: US 441 at Fort Lauderdale
8.8
FL Total 11.58
GeorgiaI-1853/06/84GA 411/Lindsey Creek Bypass
Fr: I-185/US 80/GA 22 at Columbus
To: US 27/280/Victory Dr at Columbus
5.50
I-5166/20/84GA 21, Lynes Parkway
Fr: US 17/80 Connector NW of Savannah
To: Mildred St S of I-16 & W of GA 20
6.40
I-9856/20/84US 23 / GA 365
Fr: I-85 at Suwanee, NE of Atlanta
To: GA 13 at Gainesville
24.40
GA Total 36.30
HawaiiH-20111/01/89HI 78
Fr: H-1/3 Halawa
To: H-1 Fort Shafter
4.10
IllinoisI-3912/12/85US 51
Fr: I-90 at Rockford
To: I-80 at LaSalle
63.89
I-3912/10/92US 51
Fr: I-80 at LaSalle
To: I-74 at Bloomington
55.70
I-725/10/95US 36 / Central Illinois Expressway
Fr: I-172/IL 336 SE of Quincy
To: I-55 at Springfield
94.00
I-886/26/87East-West Tollway
Fr: I-80 at Moline
To: I-290 at Chicago
140.59
I-909/14/77NW Tollway - JFK Expressway
Fr: I-290 at Schaumburg
To: NW int I-94/Edens Expy in Chicago
16.71
I-15512/10/95IL 121
Fr: I-74 at Peoria
To: I-55 at Lincoln
32.06
I-1725/10/95IL 336 / Central Illinois Expressway
Fr: US 24 NE of Quincy
To: I-72/US 36
19.00
I-19010/25/78Fr: Chicago O'Hare International Airport
To: I-90 in Chicago
3.07
I-3553/30/90IL 53
Fr: I-290 Itasca, NW of Chicago
To: I-55 Bollingbrook, SW of Chicago
20.01
IL Total 445.03
IndianaI-4651/7/70Fr: I-465 Exit 25, NW of Indianapolis
To: I-65 Exit 123, at Indianapolis
5.03
I-46910/12/95New IN 469
Fr: I-69 NE of Fort Wayne
To: I-69 SW of Fort Wayne
29.60
IN Total 34.63
KansasI-33510/21/87Kansas Turnpike
Fr: I-470 at Topeka
To: I-35 at Emporia
50.10
KentuckyI-26511/02/87KY 841 / Gene Snyder Freeway
Fr: I-71 NE of Louisville
To: I-65 South of Louisville
21.20
LouisianaI-4910/22/81US 167
Fr: I-49/US 190 at Opelousas
To: I-10 at Lafayette
19.55
MaineI-4958/11/87Maine Turnpike
Fr: I-95 at Gardiner
To: I-95 at Portland
50.50
MarylandI-686/03/91US 48
Fr: I-68 at West Virginia State Line
To: I-70 at Hancock
80.30
I-1957/28/75Metropolitan Blvd (BWI Airport Entrance)
Fr: I-95 Exit 47 / MD 166
To: I-195/US 1 at Elkridge
1.40
I-6956/28/76Baltimore Beltway
Fr: I-695/MD 295/Balt-Wash Parkway
To: I-97 Exit 17 / MD 3
2.20
I-7953/04/91Northwest Expressway
Fr: MD 140 at Reisterstown
To: I-795/Dolfield at Owings Mills
5.47
MD Total 89.37
MassachusettsI-904/23/90Massachusetts Turnpike
Fr: I-90 Allston Exit
To: I-93 in Boston
2.90
I-935/23/74MA 3 / MA 128
Fr: I-93 at Mass Ave
To: I-95 Exit 12 at Canton
14.10
I-95 1/10/75MA 128
Fr: I-95/NW Int MA 128 at Peabody
To: I-93 Exit 1 at Canton
37.54
I-1951/10/75Fr: I-495 Exit 1 / MA 25 at Wareham
To: I-195 WS Acushnet Rv at New Bedford
14.28
I-3954/18/83MA 52
Fr: I-90/I-290 at Auburn
To: I-395 at Connecticut State Line
12.29
I-4951/10/75MA 25
Fr: MA 24 at Rayham
To: I-195 Exit 22 / MA 25 at Wareham
18.50
MA Total 99.61
MichiganI-699/04/73MI 21
Fr: I-75 Exit 117A at Flint
To: I-475 Exit 6 at Flint
3.20
I-692/10/87MI 21
Fr: I-475 Exit 6 at Flint
To: I-94 Exit 271 at Port Huron
63.60
MI Total 66.80
MissouriI-648/08/87US 40
Fr: I-270 West of St Louis
To: I-55/70 at St Louis
14.70
I-1704/08/86MO 725
Fr: Page Ave/Rte D Overland
To: I-64/US 40 at Richmond Heights
4.29
MO Total 18.99
NevadaI-51511/01/94New US 93/95 - Boulder Highway, NV 582
Fr: Sand Hill Road at Las Vegas
To: "Wagon Wheel" Intch at Henderson
14.90
I-58011/24/78US 395/North-South Freeway
Fr: I-80 at Reno
To: Mill St at Reno
1.21
NV Total 16.11
New HampshireI-2938/09/76Everett Turnpike
Fr: I-93 North of Manchester
To: US 3 at Manchester
5.68
New YorkI-879/11/69NY Thruway
Fr: I-84 at Newburgh
To: W int I-287/NY 17 at Suffern
29.80
I-47811/12/71Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel
Fr: North end of tunnel in Manhattan
To: I-278/Brooklyn-Queens Expressway
1.90
I-49511/12/71Queens-Midtown Tunnel
Fr: West end of tunnel in Manhattan
To: I-278/Brooklyn-Queens Expressway
3.10
I-49510/25/83Long Island Expressway
Fr: I-678/Van Wyck Expressway (Queens)
To: NY 25 in Suffolk
59.60
I-6784/28/75Van Wyck Expressway
Fr: I-495 Long Island Expressway
To: JFK Intl Airport in Queens
7.80
I-9907/28/93Fr: CR 299/French Rd NE of Buffalo
To: NY 263 / Millersport Highway
2.04
NY Total 104.24
North CarolinaI-406/15/09Fr: I-95 at Benson
To: NC 132 at Wilmington
91.40
I-7712/27/68Fr: US 512/Woodlawn Rd in Charlotte
To: SC State Line
5.80
I-2401/26/76Fr: US 70/74 East int E of Asheville
To: US 74 E int SE of Asheville
1.71
I-2404/21/76NC 191 - US 19/23 - US 70/74
Fr: I-26/I-40 West of Asheville
To: Charlotte St North of Asheville
5.21
I-2774/26/78Northwest Expressway at Charlotte
Fr: I-77 Exit 11/NC 16
To: Tenth/McDowell Streets
1.72
I-4403/26/91Raleigh Beltline
Fr: I-40 SW of Raleigh
To: I-40 SE of Raleigh
16.70
I-5401/29/97Northern Wake Expressway
Fr: I-40/Raleigh-Durham Intl Airport
To: US 70
5.00
NC Total 127.54
OhioI-801/23/70Ohio Turnpike
Fr: I-480 SW of Cleveland
To: I-480 SE of Cleveland
35.00
OklahomaI-448/26/82Bailey Turnpike
Fr: I-240 at Oklahoma City
To: Texas State Line
114.76
I-2355/13/76US 77 / Central Expressway
Fr: I-44 Exit 127 at Oklahoma City
To: 36th Street NW
1.54
I-24012/24/68US 62 / OK 3 / South Bypass
Fr: I-44 at Oklahoma City
To: I-35
4.35
OK Total 120.65
OregonI-843/08/84US 30 / Banfield Expressway
Fr: I-5 at Portland
To: I-205
6.89
PennsylvaniaI-1809/23/83US 220 / PA 147
Fr: US 15 at Williamsport
To: I-80 at Milton
28.80
I-47610/24/96NE Extension, Pennsylvania Turnpike
Fr: I-276/476 at Philadelphia
To: I-81 North of Scranton
110.00
PA Total 138.80
South CarolinaI-778/14/95Fr: I-20 NE of Columbia
To: SC 48 South of Columbia
9.50
I-3852/13/84US 276
Fr: I-85 at Greenville
To: I-26 at Clinton
36.00
I-5268/05/92Mark Clark Expressway
Fr: East end of Wando River Bridge
To: US 17 at Mt Pleasant
3.60
I-5261/05/90Mark Clark Expressway
Fr: I-26 North of Charleston
To: US 17 West of Charleston
7.60
SC Total 56.70
TennesseeI-1405/27/97Pellissippi Parkway
Fr: I-40/TN 162 West of Knoxville]
To: US 129 North of Alcoa
11.20
I-18112/04/85US 23
Fr: TN 1 at Kingsport
To: US 321/TN 67 at Johnson City
23.80
TN Total 35.00
TexasI-207/03/84Fr: I-30 West of Fort Worth
To: I-20, 2 miles East of I-30
2.00
I-2712/13/68US 87
Fr: I-40 at Amarillo
To: I-27 Exit 110/US 87, N of Canyon
12.90
I-309/14/71Former Dallas-Fort Worth Turnpike
Fr: I-35W at Fort Worth
To: I-35E at Dallas
29.93
I-447/03/84US 281
Fr: Oklahoma State Line
To: 8th Street in Wichita Falls
14.70
I-4107/07/69Fr: I-10 Exit 564 NW of San Antonio
To: I-35 Exit 166 NE of San Antonio
9.93
TX Total 69.46
VirginiaI-953/21/86Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike
Fr: I-64 in Richmond
To: I-85 in Petersburg
24.08
I-6645/04/92Fr: South Shore of Hampton Roads
To: I-64 at Bowers Hill
9.20
VA Total 33.28
West VirginiaI-686/03/91US 48
Fr: I-79 at Morgantown
To: Maryland State Line
31.80
WisconsinI-391/11/96WI 78 - US 51
Fr: I-90/94 at Portage
To: South Int WI 29 at Wausau
104.00
I-4311/24/87WI 15
Fr: I-90 at Beloit
To: I-894 at Milwaukee
63.00
WI Total 167.00
   Total Mileage     2,108.33

High Priority Route Additions in Accordance With The National Highway System Designation Act of 1995

The National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 (P.L. 104-59) amended Section 1105 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 (P.L. 102-240) to designate all or parts of four National Highway System high priority corridors as future parts of the Interstate System. Section 1211 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (P.L. 105-178) modified the descriptions for three of these corridors and designated five additional corridors as future parts of the Interstate System. Interstate route numbers for four of the corridors are also specified by these Acts.

General descriptions and Route numbers of the Nine Corridors

  1. Kansas City, Missouri to Shreveport, Louisiana
  2. Georgetown, South Carolina to Portsmouth, Ohio (I-73 and I-74)
  3. Bedford, Pennsylvania to Corning, New York (I-99)
  4. Sarnia, Ontario, Canada to Chicago, Illinois, and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada to the U.S./Mexico Border in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas (I-69)
  5. Laredo, Texas to Texarkana, Texas (I-69)
  6. Harriman, New York to Erie, Pennsylvania
  7. Lafayette, Louisiana to New Orleans, Louisiana
  8. Danville, Virginia to Greensboro, North Carolina
  9. Batesville, Mississippi to Birmingham, Alabama

Funding Eligibility

Construction and improvement of these corridors are eligible for funds under the National Highway System program and the Surface Transportation Program, and bridge improvements may be funded under the Highway Bridge Program. When segments of these corridors are added to the Interstate System, they become eligible for Interstate Maintenance (IM) funds and their lane-miles are included in the formula for subsequent IM apportionments. Planning and development of high priority corridors are also eligible for funding under the discretionary National Corridor Planning and Development Program.

Signing

Interstate route signs may be erected when the Secretary adds a segment to the Interstate System after determining that it has been built to Interstate standards and connects with another Interstate segment. Informational signs may be erected to identify corridors (or segments of corridors) as future parts of the Interstate System in accordance with guidance contained in 23 CFR 470, Appendix C. Unless specified in legislation, i.e., I-69, I-73, I-74, and I-99, proposed Interstate route numbers must be submitted by the State(s) to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials for approval with concurrence by the Federal Highway Administration.

Segments Completed and Signed as Interstate Routes

The portions of these routes added to the Interstate System as of 6/30/98 are shown in the following table.

Interstate Route Additions Under Section 332(a)(2) of 1995 NHS Act As of 6/30/98
StateRouteDate AddedTerminiLength
PennsylvaniaI-991/26/96US 220 (High Priority Corridor 9)
Fr: Penn Turnpike at Bedford
To: PA 350 at Bald Eagle
53.00
North CarolinaI-738/27/96US 220 (High Priority Corridor 5)
Fr: US 220 A at Emery
To: I-40 at Greensboro
56.70
Total Mileage     109.70
Updated: 10/15/2013
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