U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
AASHTO Standard Practice for Determination of International Roughness Index for Quantifying Roughness of Pavements, AASHTO PP 37-02.
AASHTO, Joint Task Force on Traffic Monitoring Standards of the AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Traffic Engineering. AASHTO Guidelines for Traffic Data Programs.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 1992.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Standard Specification and Test Methods for Highway Traffic Monitoring Devices, Review Copy: Version C for E17.52, Draft December 2002.
Avis, J., Transportation System Network, Presentation at NATMEC 2002.
Cunagin, W.D., A.B. Grubbs, and D.J. Vitello Jr. Development of an Overhead Vehicle Sensor System. Research Report 426-1F. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX, October 1987.
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Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), HPMS Field Manual, 2001b, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/hpmsmanl/hpms.htm.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Study Tour for European Traffic Monitoring Programs and Technologies, FHWA's Scanning Program, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C., August 1997.
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Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT)
The estimate of typical daily traffic on a road segment for all days of the week, Sunday through Saturday, over the period of one year.
Average Daily Traffic (ADT)
The total traffic volume during a given time period (more than a day and less than a year) divided by the number of days in that time period.
Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR)
A device that records the continuous passage of vehicles across a given section of roadway by hours of the day, days of the week or months of the year.
Base traffic counts recorded at an automatic traffic recorder.
Automatic Vehicle Classifier AVC)
A device that works in conjunction with computerized electronic equipment that counts and classifies vehicles by type and axle configuration.
Axle Correction Factor
The factor developed to adjust vehicle-axle sensor-base data for the incidence of vehicles with more than two axles, or the estimate of total axles based on automatic vehicle classification data divided by the total number of vehicles counted.
The data collected as a result of measuring and recording traffic characteristics such as vehicle volume, classification, speed, weight, or a combination of these characteristics.
The beginning and ending date and time of traffic characteristic measurement.
The traffic characteristic being measured, the measurement device, and time period.
A traffic count taken as part of the requirement for system-level estimates of traffic. The count is typically short-term, and may be volume, classification, or Weigh-in-Motion.
The grouping of streets and highways into classes, or systems, according to the character of service they are intended to provide. The recognition that individual roads do not serve travel independently and most travel involves movement through a network of roads is basic to functional classification.
Geographic Information System GIS)
A method of storing, analyzing, and displaying spatial data.
Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS)
A federally mandated data reporting system for all roads except local.
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)
A system that employs electronics, communications, and/or information processing to improve the efficiency of surface transportation operations and provide real-time information about travel options.
A detector that senses changes in inductance, of its inductive loop sensor, caused by the passage or presence of a vehicle near the sensor.
Measurement of traffic characteristics based on human observation, which may or may not be electronically recorded.
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO)
Regional agency responsible for urbanized area transportation planning.
National Highway System (NHS)
A designated system of highways of National Significance mandated under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. The purpose of the NHS is to provide an interconnected system of principal arterial routes to serve major population centers, airports and public transportation facilities, to meet national defense requirements and to serve interstate and interregional travel.
Permanent Count Stations
ATRs that are permanently placed at specific locations throughout the region to record the distribution and variation of traffic flow by hours of the day, days of the week, and months of the year from year to year.
Parameters used to adjust base counts that consider travel behavior fluctuations by day of the week and month of the year.
Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP)
A five-year program for pavement and operations research funded by Congress and managed through the National Academy of Sciences. One of the four research areas, Long-term Pavement Performance, is planned as a 20-year program.
Traffic Management Center (TMC)
Also known as Traffic Operations Center, it serves as the nerve center for a traffic management system. Data on traffic conditions collected in real time by any of a variety of means are transmitted to the TMC where traffic engineers, assisted by computer, monitor traffic flow and respond to congestion in a variety of ways, such as adjusting traffic signal timing or transmitting information on current conditions to motorists via changeable message signs.
Traffic Monitoring Guide (TMG)
Document that provides FHWA's recommended approach to the monitoring of traffic characteristics. The guide provides direction for persons interested in conducting a statistically based monitoring of traffic counting, vehicle classification, and truck weighing.
The collection, editing, summarization, reporting, and analysis of traffic volume, classification, and weight data.
The measurement, summarization, and reporting of traffic volume by vehicle type and axle configuration.
Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)
Average Sunday through Saturday vehicle movement on a specific road segment multiplied by the length of the road segment, reported in the form of daily and annual VMT.
Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) The process of estimating a moving vehicle's static gross weight and the portion of that weight that is carried by each wheel, axle, or axle group or combination thereof, by measurement and analysis of dynamic forces applied by its tires to a measuring device.
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