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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-11-040
Date: November 2012

 

Crash Data Analyses for Vehicle-To-Infrastructure Communications for Safety Applications

Addendix A: Relevant Distributions

Table 23. Frequency of annual observed and annual weighted single-vehicle and multi-vehicle crashes by pre-crash scenario.

Pre-crash Scenario Single-Vehicle Crashes Multi-Vehicle Crashes
Annual Observed Crashes Annual Weighted Crashes Annual Observed Crashes Annual Weighted Crashes
1. No driver present 7 602 0 0
2. Vehicle failure 467 38,894 184 11,881
3. Control loss/vehicle action 893 77,173 350 31,332
4. Control loss/no vehicle action 5,620 457,714 984 63,080
5. Running red light 18 868 2,932 234,013
6. Running stop sign 41 3,586 478 40,838
7. Road edge departure/maneuver 656 85,141 30 1,479
8. Road edge departure/no maneuver 4,693 417,076 90 4,299
9. Road edge departure/backing 404 85,540 0 0
10. Animal/maneuver 101 17,844 3 404
11. Animal/no maneuver 1,686 295,063 52 6,065
12. Pedestrian/maneuver 562 20,629 7 646
13. Pedestrian/no maneuver 1,226 40,603 40 2,861
14. Cyclist/maneuver 564 21,022 3 155
15. Cyclist/no maneuver 716 28,757 9 500
16. Backing into vehicle 3 371 679 130,865
17. Turning/same direction 0 0 1,562 199,311
18. Parking/same direction 4 163 256 38,088
19. Changing lanes/same direction 392 30,751 2,750 309,933
20. Drifting/same lane 0 0 1,055 110,959
21. Opposite direction/maneuver 18 1,920 118 8,384
22. Opposite direction/no maneuver 248 25,593 1,228 97,565
23. Rear-end/striking maneuver 26 2,736 577 80,087
24. Rear-end/LVA 0 0 151 22,049
25. Rear-end/LVM 34 2,131 1,861 199,714
26. Rear-end/LVD 119 7,771 3,078 386,480
27. Rear-end/LVS 97 8,057 6,853 930,045
28. LTAP/OD at signal 0 0 2,359 200,212
29. Turn right at signal 0 0 228 30,980
30. Left turn across path/opposite direction at non-signal 0 0 1,903 182,574
31. SCP at non-signal 39 3,773 5,783 641,880
32. Turn at non-signal 97 7,572 242 38,788
33. Evasive maneuver/maneuver 38 3,624 71 8,936
34. Evasive maneuver/no maneuver 217 18,363 291 28,408
35. Rollover 149 6,126 13 450
36. Non-collision no impact 191 21,171 133 15,318
37. Object contacted/maneuver 326 68,220 9 595
38. Object contacted/no maneuver 615 78,808 100 9,220
39. Hit and run 0 0 26 3,551
40. Other-rear-end 0 0 13 1,516
41. Other-sideswipe 0 0 13 1,875
43. Other-turn across path 0 0 5 836
44. Other-turn into path 0 0 9 1,417
46. Other 0 0 145 22,347
Total 20,265 1,877,663 36,668 4,099,936

Note: Pre-crash scenarios for which there were no annual observed crashes were omitted from this table.

Table 24. Cost of annual single-vehicle crashes by pre-crash scenario and injury type.

Pre-Crash Scenario Cost by Injury Type (millions of dollars)
No Injury

Possible Injury

Non-Incapacitating

Incapacitating

Fatal

Injured, Unknown Severity

Total

1. No driver present 1

3

11

15

0

11

41

2. Vehicle failure 119

199

447

690

2,143

24

3,622

3. Control loss/vehicle action 247

358

847

1,102

3,730

39

6,323

4. Control loss/no vehicle action 1,299

2,667

5,511

10,277

39,240

362

59,356

5. Running red light 2

5

22

22

0

0

51

6. Running stop sign 11

16

61

49

18

0

155

7. Road edge departure/maneuver 323

281

469

571

1,677

37

3,358

8. Road edge departure/no maneuver 1,261

2,177

4,603

7,834

25,768

478

42,121

9. Road edge departure/backing 375

76

109

141

396

36

1,135

10. Animal/maneuver 76

42

24

29

0

4

174

11. Animal/no maneuver 1,230

528

896

1,116

333

28

4,131

12. Pedestrian/maneuver 3

354

586

973

1,737

87

3,740

13. Pedestrian/no maneuver 6

515

1,155

2,797

13,348

149

17,969

14. Cyclist/maneuver 9

283

782

571

507

97

2,249

15. Cyclist/no maneuver 13

419

923

1,183

2,808

34

5,379

16. Backing into vehicle 2

0.04

2

0

0

0

4

18. Parking/same direction 0.25

2

3

7

0

0

12

19. Changing lanes/same direction 91

222

343

420

340

14

1,429

21. Opposite direction/maneuver 5

17

24

18

91

0

155

22. Opposite direction/no maneuver 80

153

224

476

498

3

1,434

23. Rear-end/striking maneuver 10

11

25

17

149

0

212

25. Rear-end/LVM 6

10

37

57

108

0

218

26. Rear-end/LVD 22

37

118

150

400

7

734

27. Rear-end/LVS 25

51

85

121

25

9

315

31. SCP at non-signal 11

30

41

48

0

0

129

32. Turn at non-signal 23

32

107

173

0

2

336

33. Evasive maneuver/maneuver 12

16

31

56

35

1

152

34. Evasive maneuver/no maneuver 56

112

202

300

163

10

843

35. Rollover 8

51

148

324

921

3

1,455

36. Non-collision no impact 77

55

165

275

1,031

9

1,611

37. Object contacted/maneuver 297

82

86

91

437

19

1,012

38. Object contacted/no maneuver 315

173

288

554

2,913

36

4,279

Total 6,013

8,973

18,375

30,455

98,817

1,499

164,132

Note: Pre-crash scenarios for which there were no annual observed crashes were omitted from this table.

Table 25. Cost of annual multi-vehicle crashes by pre-crash scenario and injury type.

Pre-Crash Scenario Cost by Injury Type (millions of dollars)
No Injury Possible Injury Non-Incapacitating Incapacitating Fatal Injured, Unknown Severity Total
2. Vehicle failure 37 74 90 215 810 9 1,235
3. Control loss/vehicle action 104 212 213 249 660 10 1,448
4. Control loss/no vehicle action 172 533 648 1,133 4,755 45 7,286
5. Running red light 593 2,556 2,473 3,373 3,835 270 13,099
6. Running stop sign 102 414 519 543 223 80 1,882
7. Road edge departure/maneuver 4 11 14 17 118 3 168
8. Road edge departure/no maneuver 11 25 59 125 604 3 828
10. Animal/maneuver 1 1 4 1 0 0 8
11. Animal/no maneuver 21 36 39 53 216 5 369
12. Pedestrian/maneuver 3 1 3 10 6 0 23
13. Pedestrian/no maneuver 9 10 22 63 798 11 913
14. Cyclist/maneuver 0 3 4 3 0 0 10
15. Cyclist/no maneuver 1 1 5 35 53 $1 $96
16. Backing into vehicle 556 316 146 117 202 25 1,362
17. Turning/same direction 747 971 753 1,026 2,202 102 5,800
18. Parking/same direction 148 157 110 173 349 10 948
19. Changing lanes/same direction 1,225 1,205 816 1,180 1,957 62 6,446
20. Drifting/same lane 426 470 410 499 1,314 29 3,148
21. Opposite direction/maneuver 19 65 100 299 1,794 9 2,286
22. Opposite direction/no maneuver 263 619 1,126 2,473 17,403 84 21,967
23. Rear-end/striking maneuver 288 530 263 354 537 52 2,023
24. Rear-end/LVA 73 183 84 161 180 15 697
25. Rear-end/LVM 640 1,692 1,117 1,405 4,060 161 9,076
26. Rear-end/LVD 1,297 3,230 1,550 2,026 1,503 221 9,827
27. Rear-end/LVS 3,028 8,529 4,005 4,765 3,177 446 23,951
28. LTAP/OD at signal 518 1,960 2,404 2,787 2,360 222 10,252
29. Turn right at signal 121 129 92 75 556 19 991
30. Left turn across path/opposite direction at non-signal 503 1,672 1,861 2,618 5,052 134 11,840
31. SCP at non-signal 1,991 5,044 4,934 6,872 13,504 430 32,776
32. Turn at non-signal 153 151 122 95 177 3 701
33. Evasive maneuver/maneuver 30 76 37 44 93 9 290
34. Evasive maneuver/no maneuver 93 179 235 220 829 13 1,569
35. Rollover 0 3 13 22 369 1 410
36. Non-collision no impact 62 41 43 69 55 1 273
37. Object contacted/maneuver 2 1 6 6 17 0 32
38. Object contacted/no maneuver 36 36 32 43 239 1 386
39. Hit and run 14 8 11 20 18 0 71
40. Other-rear-end 6 3 8 2 0 0 19
41. Other-sideswipe 8 4 0 6 16 0 35
43. Other-turn across path 4 0 0 0 0 0 4
44. Other-turn into path 5 7 5 3 0 1 21
46. Other 89 74 67 86 211 17 544
Total 13,407 31,233 24,446 33,266 70,252 2,508 175,111

Note: Pre-crash scenarios for which there were no annual observed crashes were omitted from this table.

Table 26. Single-vehicle pre-crash scenarios by vehicle type-annual crashes (observed).

Single-Vehicle Pre-Crash Scenario Light Vehicles Transit Vehicles Special Vehicles Single-Unit Trucks Combined-Unit Trucks Other Vehicles Total
1. No driver present 6 0 0 1 0 1 7
2. Vehicle failure 364 1 1 33 39 30 467
3. Control loss/vehicle action 690 1 1 21 41 141 893
4. Control loss/no vehicle action 4,803 4 4 87 200 522 5,620
5. Running red light 16 0 0 1 1 0 18
6. Running stop sign 39 0 0 0 1 1 41
7. Road edge departure/maneuver 509 5 4 34 51 54 656
8. Road edge departure/no maneuver 4,141 8 8 112 134 291 4,693
9. Road edge departure/backing 339 2 4 30 8 22 404
10. Animal/maneuver 87 0 0 7 1 7 101
11. Animal/no maneuver 1,548 2 2 11 30 94 1,686
12. Pedestrian/maneuver 505 10 2 16 4 25 562
13. Pedestrian/no maneuver 1,109 12 4 24 10 68 1,226
14. Cyclist/maneuver 534 2 2 11 3 14 564
15. Cyclist/no maneuver 658 8 2 10 4 36 716
16. Backing into vehicle 3 0 0 1 0 0 3
18. Parking/same direction 2 0 0 0 0 2 4
19. Changing lanes/same direction 299 0 0 12 25 57 392
21. Opposite direction/maneuver 14 0 0 1 0 4 18
22. Opposite direction/no maneuver 184 0 0 12 8 44 248
23. Rear-end/striking maneuver 18 0 0 2 2 5 26
25. Rear-end/lead vehicle constant speed 25 0 0 2 2 5 34
26. Rear-end/LVD 60 0 0 10 10 39 119
27. Rear-end/LVS 61 0 0 5 9 23 97
31. Straight crossing path at non-signal 23 0 0 0 1 14 39
32. Turn at non-signal 54 1 0 3 1 39 97
33. Evasive maneuver/maneuver 30 0 0 2 1 6 38
34. Evasive maneuver/no maneuver 165 0 0 11 11 31 217
35. Rollover 41 1 0 11 23 74 149
36. Non-collision no impact 126 2 1 6 36 20 191
37. Object contacted/ maneuver 185 1 4 71 8 57 326
38. Object contacted/no maneuver 436 1 1 57 69 52 615
Total 17,069 59 38 598 730 1,771 20,265

Note: Pre-crash scenarios for which there were no annual observed crashes were omitted from this table.

Table 27. Single-vehicle pre-crash scenarios by vehicle type-annual national crashes (weighted).

Single-Vehicle Pre-Crash Scenario Light Vehicles Transit Vehicles Special Vehicles Single-Unit Trucks Combined-Unit Trucks Other Vehicles Total
1. No driver present 540 3 0 26 1 32 602
2. Vehicle failure 34,928 18 10 896 1,452 1,588 38,894
3. Control loss/vehicle action 69,501 75 153 589 1,116 5,739 77,173
4. Control loss/no vehicle action 427,253 363 168 2,863 5,335 21,732 457,714
5. Running red light 860 0 0 4 4 1 868
6. Running stop sign 3,459 0 0 0 46 81 3,586
7. Road edge departure/ maneuver 64,416 733 944 5,876 7,932 5,241 85,141
8. Road edge departure/ no maneuver 375,558 1,386 1,588 11,765 6,545 20,234 417,076
9. Road edge departure/backing 71,128 471 830 6,667 1,219 5,225 85,540
10. Animal/maneuver 15,049 0 0 1,705 210 880 17,844
11. Animal/no maneuver 283,464 392 405 1,526 3,272 6,004 295,063
12. Pedestrian/maneuver 18,608 263 72 494 47 1,145 20,629
13. Pedestrian/no maneuver 37,551 326 57 329 193 2,145 40,603
14. Cyclist/maneuver 20,255 88 41 140 29 470 21,022
15. Cyclist/no maneuver 27,160 131 140 116 97 1,112 28,757
16. Backing into vehicle 354 0 0 5 0 12 371
18. Parking/same direction 129 0 0 1 0 33 163
19. Changing lanes/same direction 28,174 0 0 318 580 1,679 30,751
21. Opposite direction/maneuver 1,567 0 0 74 0 279 1,920
22. Opposite direction/no maneuver 21,944 26 0 910 724 1,988 25,593
23. Rear-end/striking maneuver 2,233 0 0 118 105 280 2,736
25. Rear-end/lead vehicle constant speed 1,913 0 0 48 58 112 2,131
26. Rear-end/LVD 6,020 4 0 221 241 1,286 7,771
27. Rear-end/LVS 6,770 0 1 122 280 885 8,057
31. Straight crossing path at non-signal 3,131 5 55 0 97 484 3,773
32. Turn at non-signal 5,795 7 4 221 134 1,410 7,572
33. Evasive maneuver/maneuver 3,005 0 4 83 137 395 3,624
34. Evasive maneuver/ no maneuver 16,274 9 5 480 377 1,219 18,363
35. Rollover 2,684 6 5 159 624 2,648 6,126
36. Non-collision no impact 16,259 51 9 355 3,256 1,242 21,171
37. Object contacted/maneuver 34,235 190 1,085 17,964 1,218 13,527 68,220
38. Object contacted/ no maneuver 57,493 136 64 8,643 4,610 7,863 78,808
Total 1,657,709 4,684 5,641 62,719 39,938 106,972 1,877,663

Note: Pre-crash scenarios for which there were no annual observed crashes were omitted from this table.

Table 28. Multi-vehicle pre-crash scenarios by vehicle type-annual crashes (observed).

Multi-Vehicle Pre-Crash Scenario Light Vehicles Transit Vehicles Special Vehicles Single-Unit Trucks Combined-Unit Trucks Other Vehicles Not Reported Total
2. Vehicle failure 227 1 1 27 56 5 52 367
3. Control loss/vehicle action 524 1 1 25 78 14 56 700
4. Control loss/no vehicle action 1,433 3 6 68 204 40 215 1,967
5. Running red light 5,348 26 9 209 158 113 1 5,864
6. Running stop sign 886 4 3 27 18 18 0 956
7. Road edge departure/ maneuver 27 0 0 2 2 1 30 60
8. Road edge departure/ no maneuver 81 0 0 3 6 2 90 181
10. Animal/maneuver 4 0 0 0 0 2 1 7
11. Animal/no maneuver 74 0 0 3 3 4 20 104
12. Pedestrian/maneuver 8 0 0 1 1 1 4 14
13. Pedestrian/no maneuver 49 0 0 2 2 4 23 80
14. Cyclist/maneuver 4 0 0 0 0 0 2 6
15. Cyclist/no maneuver 10 0 0 0 0 0 7 17
16. Backing into vehicle 1,115 5 8 118 71 31 11 1,358
17. Turning/same direction 2,449 21 11 198 317 128 0 3,124
18. Parking/same direction 433 4 2 25 28 18 2 511
19. Changing lanes/same direction 4,079 28 10 363 848 166 7 5,501
20. Drifting/same lane 1,514 16 4 148 331 73 24 2,109
21. Opposite direction/ maneuver 206 1 2 8 9 9 2 237
22. Opposite direction/ no maneuver 2,149 6 13 108 110 57 13 2,455
23. Rear-end/striking maneuver 987 3 3 51 65 37 9 1,155
24. Rear-end/LVA 266 1 3 12 16 6 0 302
25. Rear-end/LVM 3,073 7 8 189 333 104 8 3,721
26. Rear-end/LVD 5,360 15 10 269 351 125 25 6,155
27. Rear-end/LVS 12,512 45 32 442 392 183 99 13,706
28. Left turn across path/opposite direction at signal 4,423 12 4 80 94 105 0 4,718
29. Turn right at signal 384 4 1 25 28 14 0 456
30. Left turn across path/opposite direction at non-signal 3,537 8 6 68 44 145 0 3,807
31. Straight crossing path at non-signal 10,586 31 32 290 235 365 28 11,566
32. Turn at non-signal 415 3 1 22 24 17 3 485
33. Evasive maneuver/maneuver 121 0 1 4 7 3 7 142
34. Evasive maneuver/ no maneuver 431 1 1 19 30 38 62 581
35. Rollover 3 0 0 1 2 8 13 27
36. Non-collision no impact 58 0 0 24 46 5 133 266
37. Object contact/maneuver 8 0 0 1 1 0 9 19
38. Object contact/no maneuver 93 0 0 13 28 6 59 199
39. Hit and run 37 1 0 5 3 5 2 53
40. Other-rear-end 20 0 0 0 1 0 4 26
41. Other-sideswipe 20 0 0 3 3 1 0 26
43. Other-turn across path 7 0 0 1 2 0 0 10
44. Other-turn into path 17 0 0 0 1 0 0 18
Total 62,971 246 170 2,850 3,944 1,847 1,020 73,047

Note: Pre-crash scenarios for which there were no annual observed crashes were omitted from this table.

Table 29. Multi-vehicle pre-crash scenarios by vehicle type-annual national crashes (weighted).

Multi-Vehicle Pre-Crash Scenario Light Vehicles Transit Vehicles Special Vehicles Single-Unit Trucks Combined-Unit Trucks Other Vehicles Not Reported Total
2. Vehicle failure 18,108 89 115 549 1,866 244 2,791 23,762
3. Control loss/ vehicle action 55,741 92 125 884 2,153 1,005 2,663 62,664
4. Control loss/no vehicle action 106,048 227 638 2,689 4,518 2,812 9,228 126,160
5. Running red light 447,840 2,307 591 4,891 4,029 8,307 62 468,027
6. Running stop sign 78,673 236 388 828 669 879 4 81,676
7. Road edge departure/ maneuver 1,183 0 0 199 74 22 1,479 2,958
8. Road edge departure/no maneuver 3,998 0 0 85 141 76 4,299 8,599
10. Animal/maneuver 456 5 0 0 0 177 169 807
11. Animal/ no maneuver 9,140 0 0 113 149 193 2,534 12,129
12. Pedestrian/ maneuver 819 71 0 69 71 66 194 1,291
13. Pedestrian/ no maneuver 4,976 0 0 9 18 189 530 5,723
14. Cyclist/maneuver 253 0 0 0 0 0 57 311
15. Cyclist/no maneuver 748 0 0 65 0 3 184 1,000
16. Backing into vehicle 232,283 1,103 1,757 11,781 7,568 4,605 2,633 261,731
17. Turning/same direction 354,003 3,710 1,857 12,116 16,762 10,172 1 398,621
18. Parking/same direction 69,973 808 236 1,898 1,217 1,865 179 76,176
19. Changing lanes/same direction 550,798 4,586 1,839 21,185 27,774 13,059 625 619,866
20. Drifting/same lane 187,281 3,023 772 10,031 11,285 6,653 2,872 221,918
21. Opposite direction/ maneuver 15,015 27 120 278 248 799 281 16,768
22. Opposite direction/ no maneuver 172,669 351 1,722 6,975 6,749 4,930 1,733 195,129
23. Rear-end/striking maneuver 149,967 471 370 2,607 1,558 4,165 1,036 160,174
24. Rear-end/LVA 41,766 25 311 741 561 695 0 44,098
25. Rear-end/LVM 375,424 347 798 6,486 8,081 7,856 438 399,429
26. Rear-end/LVD 742,967 1,254 1,127 9,743 6,754 10,136 979 772,960
27. Rear-end/LVS 1,798,898 5,082 3,793 18,028 11,281 17,326 5,682 1,860,090
28. Left turn across path/opposite direction at signal 388,802 942 205 2,316 2,612 5,546 0 400,423
29. Turn right at signal 56,905 646 279 1,877 1,019 1,233 0 61,959
30. Left turn across path/opposite direction at non-signal 351,595 945 453 3,115 2,165 6,873 0 365,148
31. Straight crossing path at non-signal 1,227,427 3,704 4,206 12,625 10,285 24,425 1,088 1,283,759
32. Turn at non-signal 70,503 547 129 2,533 1,939 1,397 529 77,577
33. Evasive maneuver/ maneuver 17,023 5 88 240 141 210 166 17,872
34. Evasive maneuver/ no maneuver 49,420 212 172 994 1,051 1,956 3,010 56,816
35. Rollover 142 0 0 14 81 214 450 901
36. Non-collision no impact 8,358 69 0 2,780 3,596 515 15,318 30,636
37. Object contact/ maneuver 526 0 0 144 43 5 474 1,191
38. Object contact/ no maneuver 10,188 0 77 1,897 1,683 635 3,960 18,440
39. Hit and run 4,960 139 0 867 95 588 454 7,102
40. Other-rear-end 2,741 0 4 1 1 3 283 3,032
41. Other-sideswipe 3,286 63 0 175 154 5 68 3,751
43. Other-turn across path 1,344 0 0 131 196 0 0 1,672
44. Other-turn into path 2,743 0 0 0 74 4 13 2,834
Total 7,614,990 31,085 22,170 141,957 138,662 139,844 66,469 8,155,177

Note: Pre-crash scenarios for which there were no annual observed crashes were omitted from this table.

 

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