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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-11-058
Date: December 2011

 

Investigation of Low and High Temperature Properties of Plant Produced Rap Mixtures

Investigation of Low- and High-Temperature Properties of Plant-Produced RAP Mixtures—508 Captions

Figure 1. Graph. Number of gyrations to achieve 7 percent AV. This graph shows the number of gyrations to achieve 4 percent air voids (AV). The number of gyrations to 7 percent AV is on the y-axis from zero to 30, and AV at N design is on the x-axis from zero to 6. Data are plotted for contractors 2 (diamonds), 4 (squares), and 5 (triangles). The data show a slightly increasing linear relationship between the number of gyrations required to reach 7 percent AV and AV at the design number of gyrations.

Figure 2. Graph. Example master curves. This graph shows an example master curve. The dynamic modulus (|E*|) is on the y-axis ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) on a log base 10 scale, and the reduced frequency values is on the x-axis ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz. Data are plotted for mix 4-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 4-B with 15 percent RAP, mix 4-C with 25 percent RAP, and mix 4-D with 40 percent RAP. The data show that as the reduced frequency increases, |E*| values increase nonlinearly.

Figure 3. Graph. Comparison of high critical temperatures (Tc, DSR) for binders recovered from plant mixtures. This graph shows a comparison of high critical temperatures (Tc, Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR)) for binders recovered from plant mixtures. Tc, DSR is on the y- axis ranging from 147.2 to 179.6 °F (64 to 82 °C), and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Tc, DSR for each mix design for a given contractor is shown by vertical columns. For contractor 2, the highest Tc, DSR is 15 percent RAP, followed by 25 and 40 percent RAP (performance grade (PG) 64-22), zero percent RAP, 40 percent RAP (PG58-28), and 25 percent RAP (PG58-28). For contractor 3, the highest Tc, DSR is 25 percent RAP (PG58-28), followed by 25 percent RAP (PG64-22), 15 percent RAP, 40 percent RAP (PG58-28), zero percent RAP, and 40 percent RAP (PG64-22). For contractor 4, the highest Tc, DSR is 40 percent RAP (PG64-22), followed by 25 percent RAP (PG64-22), zero percent RAP, 15 percent RAP, 40 percent RAP (PG58-28), and 25 percent RAP (PG58-28). For contractor 5, the highest Tc, DSR is 25 percent RAP (PG64-22), followed by 40 percent RAP (PG64-22), 15 percent RAP, 40 percent RAP (PG58-28), zero percent RAP, and 25 percent RAP (PG58-28).

Figure 4. Graph. Comparison of low critical temperatures (Tc, BBR) for binders recovered from plant-produced mixtures (based on BBR m-value = 0.300). This graph shows a comparison of critical low temperatures (Tc, Bending beam rheometer (BBR)) for binders recovered from plant-produced mixtures based on a BBR m-value of 0.300. Tc, BBR is on the y-axis ranging from 10.4 to 86 °F (-12 to -30 °C), and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Tc,BBR for each mix design for a given contractor is shown by vertical columns. For contractor 2, the lowest Tc, BBR is 25 percent RAP (performance grade (PG) 58-28), followed by 40 percent RAP (PG58-28), zero percent RAP, 15 percent RAP, 25 percent RAP (PG64-22), and 40 percent RAP (PG64-22). For contractor 3, the lowest Tc, BBR is 40 percent RAP (PG58-28), followed by zero percent RAP, 15 percent RAP, 25 percent RAP (PG64-22), 25 percent RAP (PG58-28), and 40 percent RAP (PG64-22). For contractor 4, the lowest Tc, BBR is 25 percent RAP (PG58-28), followed by 40 percent RAP (PG58-28), 15 percent RAP, 25 percent RAP (PG64-22), zero percent RAP, and 40 percent RAP (PG64-22). For contractor 5, the lowest Tc, BBR is 25 percent RAP (PG58-28), followed by 40 percent RAP (PG58-28), zero percent RAP, 15 percent RAP, 40 percent RAP (PG64-22), and 25 percent RAP (PG64-22).

Figure 5. Graph. Mix modulus of PG64-22 mixes from contractor 1. This graph shows the mix modulus of performance grade (PG) 64-22 mixes from contractor 1. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on a log base 10 scale on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 100,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 1-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 1-B with 15 percent RAP, mix 1-C with 25 percent RAP, and mix 1-D with 40 percent RAP. The order of the mixtures from highest plotted |E*| values to the lowest values is mix 1-D and mix 1-C, followed by mixes 1-A and 1-B, which are similar.

Figure 6. Graph. Mix modulus of control and PG58-28 mixes from contractor 1. This graph shows the mix modulus of control and performance grade (PG) 58-28 mixes from contractor 1. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on a log base 10 scale on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 100,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 1-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 1-E with 25 percent RAP, and mix 1-F with 40 percent RAP. The data points plot on top of one another with no clear distinction between mixes.

Figure 7. Graph. Comparison of mix moduli of PG64-22 and PG58-28 from contractor 1. This graph shows a comparison of mix moduli of performance grade (PG) 64-22 and PG58-28 from contractor 1. The dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on a log base 10 scale on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 100,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 1-C with 25 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 1-E for 25 percent RAP, mix 1-D with 40 percent RAP, and mix 1-F with 40 percent RAP. The order of the mixtures from highest plotted |E*| values to the lowest values is mix 1-D and mix 1-C, followed by mixes 1-E and 1-F, which are similar.

Figure 8. Graph. Mix modulus of PG64-22 mixes from contractor 2. This graph shows the mix modulus of performance grade (PG) 64-22 mixes from contractor 2. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on a log base 10 scale on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 2-B with 15 percent RAP, mix 2-C with 25 percent RAP, and mix 2-D with 40 percent RAP. The order of the mixtures from highest plotted |E*| values to the lowest values is mix 2-D and mix 2-A, followed by mixes 2-B and 2-C, which are similar.

Figure 9. Graph. Mix modulus of control and PG58-28 mixes from contractor 2. This graph shows the mix modulus of control and performance grade (PG) 58-28 mixes from contractor 2. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on a log base 10 scale on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 2-E with 25 percent RAP, and mix 2-F with 40 percent RAP. The data points plot on top of one another with no clear distinction between mixes.

Figure 10. Graph. Comparison of mix moduli of PG64-22 and PG58-28 from contractor 2. This graph shows a comparison of mix moduli of performance grade (PG) 64-22 and PG58-28 from contractor 2. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) on a log base 10 scale are on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2-C with 25 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 2-E for 25 percent RAP, mix 2-D with 40 percent RAP, and mix 2-F with 40 percent RAP. The order of the mixtures from highest plotted |E*| values to the lowest values is mix 2-D and mix 2-C, followed by mixes 2-E and 2-F, which are very similar.

Figure 11. Graph. Mix modulus of PG64-22 mixes from contractor 3. This graph shows the mix modulus of performance grade (PG) 64-22 mixes from contractor 3. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) on a log base 10 scale are on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 3-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 3-B with 15 percent RAP, mix 3-C with 25 percent RAP, and mix 3-D with 40 percent RAP. The order of the mixtures from highest plotted |E*| values to the lowest values is mixes 3-C, 3-A, 3-D, and 3-B.

Figure 12. Graph. Mix modulus of control and PG58-28 mixes from contractor 3. This graph shows the mix modulus of control and performance grade (PG) 58-28 mixes from contractor 3. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) on a log base 10 scale are on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 3-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 3-E with 25 percent RAP, and mix 3-F with 40 percent RAP. The data points plot on top of one another with no clear distinction between mixes.

Figure 13. Graph. Comparison of mix moduli of PG64-22 and PG58-28 from contractor 3. This graph shows a comparison of mix moduli of performance grade (PG) 64-22 an PG58-28 from contractor 3. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) on a log base 10 scale are on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 3-C with 25 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 3-E for 25 percent RAP, mix 3-D with 40 percent RAP, and mix 3-F with 40 percent RAP. The order of the mixtures from highest plotted |E*| values to the lowest values is mixes 3-C and 3-E, which are very similar, followed by mixes 3-F and 3-D.

Figure 14. Graph. Mix modulus of PG64-22 mixes from contractor 4. This graph shows the mix modulus of performance grade (PG) 64-22 mixes from contractor 4. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 100 to 100,000 on a log base 10 scale are on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 4-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 4-B with 15 percent RAP, mix 4-C with 25 percent RAP, and mix 4-D with 40 percent RAP. The order of the mixtures from highest plotted |E*| values to the lowest values is mixes 4-D and 4-C, followed by mixes 4-A and 4-B, which are very similar.

Figure 15. Graph. Mix modulus of control and PG58-28 mixes from contractor 4. This graph shows the mix modulus of control and performance grade (PG) 58-28 mixes from contractor 4. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on a log base 10 scale on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 4-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 4-E with 25 percent RAP, and mix 4-F with 40 percent RAP. The order of the mixtures from highest plotted |E*| values to the lowest values is mixes 4-A, 4-F, and 4-E.

Figure 16. Graph. Comparison of mix moduli of PG64-22 and PG58-28 from contractor 4. This graph shows a comparison of mix moduli of performance grade (PG) 64-22 and PG58-28 from contractor 4. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) on a log base 10 scale are on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 4-C with 25 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 4-E for 25 percent RAP, mix 4-D with 40 percent RAP, and mix 4-F with 40 percent RAP. The order of the mixtures from highest plotted |E*| values to the lowest values is mixes 4-D, 4-C and 4-F, which are very similar, followed by mix 4-E.

Figure 17. Graph. Mix modulus of PG64-22 mixes from contractor 5. This graph shows the mix modulus of performance grade (PG) 64-22 mixes from contractor 5. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on a log base 10 scale on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 5-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 5-B with 15 percent RAP, mix 5-C with 25 percent RAP, and mix 5-D with 40 percent RAP. The data points plot on top of one another with no clear distinction between mixes.

Figure 18. Graph. Mix modulus of control and PG58-28 mixes from contractor 5. This graph shows the mix modulus of control and performance grade (PG) 58-28 mixes from contractor 5. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) on a log base 10 scale are on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 5-A with zero percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 5-E with 25 percent RAP, and mix 5-F with 40 percent RAP. Mixes 5-A and 5-F plot very similarly, and mix 5-E has lower |E*| values.

Figure 19. Graph. Comparison of mix moduli of PG64-22 and PG58-28 from contractor 5. This graph shows a comparison of mix moduli of performance grade (PG) 64-22 and PG58-28 from contractor 5. Dynamic modulus (|E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) on a log base 10 scale are on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.001 to 10,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 5-C with 25 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), mix 5-E for 25 percent RAP, mix 5-D with 40 percent RAP, and mix 5-F with 40 percent RAP. The order of mixtures from the highest plotted |E*| values to the lowest values is mixes 5-D, 5-C, 5-F, and 5-E.

Figure 20. Graph. Example of thorough blending (mix 5B). This graph shows an example of thorough blending for mix 5B. The modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on a log base 10 scale on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 5B (solid circles) estimated and mix 5B (open circles) measured, and the data points are on top of one another.

Figure 21. Graph. Example of poor blending (mix 4D). This graph shows an example of poor blending for mix 4D. The dynamic modulus( |E*|) values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on a log base 10 scale on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 4D estimated (solid triangles) and mix 4D measured (open triangles). The measured values plot at higher |E*| and frequency values than the estimated values.

Figure 22. Graph. IDT stiffness and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 1. This graph shows the indirect tensile (IDT) stiffness and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 1. Stiffness values ranging from 2,175,565.5 to 4,351,131 psi (15 to 30 GPa) are on the left y-axis, and the pavement cracking temperature ranging from -29.2 to 3.2 °F (-34 to -16 °C) is on the right y-axis. The different mixes with varying reclaimed asphalt pavement contents are on the x-axis. The stiffness and temperature values are plotted and connected by lines for each mix.

Figure 23. Graph. IDT strength and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 1. This graph shows the indirect tensile (IDT) strength and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 1. Strength values ranging from 362.5 to 580 psi (2,500 to 4,000 kPa) are on the left y-axis, and the pavement cracking temperature ranging from -29.2 to 3.2 °F (-34 to -16 °C) is on the right y-axis. The different mixes with varying reclaimed asphalt pavement contents are on the x-axis. The strength and temperature values are plotted and connected by lines for each mix.

Figure 24. Graph. IDT stiffness and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 2. This graph shows the indirect tensile (IDT) stiffness and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 2. Stiffness values ranging from 1,450,377 to 4,351,131 psi (10 to 30 GPa) are on the left y-axis, and the pavement cracking temperature ranging from -50.8 to 3.2 °F (-46 to -16 °C) is on the right y-axis. The different mixes with varying reclaimed asphalt pavement contents are on the x-axis. The stiffness and temperature values are plotted and connected by lines for each mix.

Figure 25. Graph. IDT strength and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 2. This graph shows the indirect tensile (IDT) strength and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 2. Strength values ranging from 435 to 580 psi (3,000 to 4,000 kPa) are on the left y-axis, and the pavement cracking temperature ranging from -50.8 to 3.2 °F (-46 to -16 °C) is on the right y-axis. The different mixes with varying reclaimed asphalt pavement contents are on the x-axis. The strength and temperature values are plotted and connected by lines for each mix.

Figure 26. Graph. IDT stiffness and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 3. This graph shows the indirect tensile (IDT) stiffness and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 3. Stiffness values ranging from 2,900,754 to 5,801,508 psi (20 to 40 GPa) are on the left y-axis, and the pavement cracking temperature ranging from -7.6 to 14 °F (-22 to -10 °C) are on the right y-axis. The different mixes with varying reclaimed asphalt pavement contents are on the x-axis. The stiffness and temperature values are plotted and connected by lines for each mix.

Figure 27. Graph. IDT strength and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 3. This graph shows the indirect tensile (IDT) strength and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 3. Strength values ranging from 435 to 580 psi (3,000 to 4,000 kPa) are on the left y-axis, and the pavement cracking temperature ranging from -7.6 to 14 °F (-22 to -10 °C) is on the right y-axis. The different mixes with varying reclaimed asphalt pavement contents are on the x-axis. The strength and temperature values are plotted and connected by lines for each mix.

Figure 28. Graph. IDT stiffness and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 4. This graph shows the indirect tensile (IDT) stiffness and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 4. Stiffness values ranging from 2,175,565.5 to 4,351,131 psi (15 to 30 GPa) are on the left y-axis, and the pavement cracking temperature ranging from -7.6 to 14 °F (-28 to -10 °C) is on the right y-axis. The different mixes with varying reclaimed asphalt pavement contents are on the x-axis. The stiffness and temperature values are plotted and connected by lines for each mix. Data are missing for mix 4D.

Figure 29. Graph. IDT strength and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 4. This graph shows the indirect tensile (IDT) strength and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 4. Strength values ranging from 362.5 to 507.5 psi (2,500 to 3,500 kPa) are on the left y-axis, and the pavement cracking temperature ranging from -7.6 to 3.2 °F (-28 to -16 °C) is on the right y-axis. The different mixes with varying reclaimed asphalt pavement contents are on the x-axis. The strength and temperature values are plotted and connected by lines for each mix. Temperature data are missing for mix 4D.

Figure 30. Graph. IDT stiffness and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 5. This graph shows the indirect tensile (IDT) stiffness and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 5. Stiffness values ranging from 2,175,565.5 to 4,351,131 psi (15 to 30 GPa) are on the left y-axis, and the pavement cracking temperature ranging from -29.2 to 3.2 °F (-34 to -16 °C) is on the right y-axis. The different mixes with varying reclaimed asphalt pavement contents are on the x-axis. The stiffness and temperature values are plotted and connected by lines for each mix.

Figure 31. Graph. IDT strength and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 5. This graph shows the indirect tensile (IDT) strength and pavement cracking temperature for contractor 5. Strength values ranging from 362.5 to 580 psi (2,500 to 4,000 kPa) are on the left y-axis, and the pavement cracking temperature ranging from -29.2 to 3.2 °F (-34 to -16 °C) is on the right y-axis. The different mixes with varying reclaimed asphalt pavement contents are on the x-axis. The strength and temperature values are plotted and connected by lines for each mix.

Figure 32. Graph. Comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix A. This graph show a comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix A. The binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix A using n-propyl bromide and methylene chloride as solvents. The data for methylene chloride have higher modulus values then the data for n-propyl bromide.

Figure 33. Graph. Comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix B. This graph show a comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix B. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix B using n-propyl bromide and methylene chloride as solvents. The data for methylene chloride have higher modulus values then the data for n-propyl bromide.

Figure 34. Graph. Comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix C. This graph show a comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix C. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix C using n-propyl bromide and methylene chloride as solvents. The data points all fall on top of one another.

Figure 35. Graph. Comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix D. This graph show a comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix D. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix D using n-propyl bromide and methylene chloride as solvents. The data points all fall on top of one another.

Figure 36. Graph. Comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix E. This graph show a comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix E. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix E using n-propyl bromide and methylene chloride as solvents. The data for methylene chloride have higher modulus values then the data for n-propyl bromide.

Figure 37. Graph. Comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix F. This graph show a comparison of binder recovered using different solvents for mix F. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix F using n-propyl bromide and methylene chloride as solvents. The data for n-propyl bromide have slightly higher modulus values then the data for methylene chloride.

Figure 38. Graph. Comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix A. This graph show a comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix A. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix A using two different procedures, the Heritage Research Group (HRG) method and the North Central Superpave Center (NCSC) method. The data for the NCSC method have higher modulus values then the data for the HRG method.

Figure 39. Graph. Comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix B. This graph show a comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix B. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix B using two different procedures. The data for the North Central Superpave Center method have higher modulus values then the data for the Heritage Research Group method.

Figure 40. Graph. Comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix C. This graph show a comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix C. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix C using two different procedures. The data values for each method plot on top of one another.

Figure 41. Graph. Comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix D. This graph show a comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix D. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix D using two different procedures. The data for the Heritage Research Group method have higher modulus values then the data for the North Central Superpave Center method.

Figure 42. Graph. Comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix E. This graph show a comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix E. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix E using two different procedures. The data for the North Central Superpave Center method have higher modulus values then the data for the Heritage Research Group method.

Figure 43. Graph. Comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix F. This graph show a comparison of binders recovered using different procedures and same solvent for mix F. Binder modulus ranging from 0.00145 to 145 psi (10 to 1,000,000 Pa) on a log base 10 scale is on the y-axis, and the reduced frequency ranging from 0.0001 to 100 Hz on a log base 10 scale is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for recovered binder from mix F using two different procedures. The data for the North Central Superpave Center method have higher modulus values then the data for the Heritage Research Group method.

Figure 44. Graph. Fatigue life for mixtures at 69.8 °F (21 °C) and 400 με. This graph shows the fatigue life for mixtures at 69.8 °F (21 °C) and 400 microstrain. Fatigue life ranging from zero to 1,600 cycles is on the y-axis, and the various mixtures are on the x-axis. Data for each temperature and strain level are shown per mix.

Figure 45. Graph. DSR critical temperatures—mixes with PG64-22 binder. This graph shows the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) critical temperature for mixes with performance grade (PG) 64-22. Critical high temperature ranging from 147.2 to 179.6 °F (64 to 82 °C) is on the y-axis, and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Data for mixes A, B, C, and D are represented by bars for each contractor. The order of the critical temperatures for contractor 2 is mixes B, C, and D, which are tied, followed by mix A. For contractor 3, the order is mixes C, B, A, and D. For contractor 4, the order is mixes D, C, A, and B. For contractor 5, the order is mixes C, D, B, and A.

Figure 46. Graph. DSR critical temperatures—mixes with PG58-28 binder. This graph shows the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) critical temperature for mixes with performance grade (PG) 58-28. Critical high temperature ranging from 147.2 to 168.8 °F (64 to 76 °C) is on the y-axis, and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Data for mixes E and F are represented by bars for each contractor. For contractor 2, the order of critical temperatures is mix F followed by mix E. For contractor 3, the order is mix F followed by mix E. For contractor 4, the order is mix F followed by mix E. For contractor 5, the order is mix E followed by mix F.

Figure 47. Graph. DSR critical temperatures—mixes with 25 and 40 percent RAP. This graph shows the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) critical temperature for mixes with 25 and 40 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Critical high temperature ranging from 147.2 to 179.6 °F (64 to 82 °C) is on the y-axis, and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Data for mixes C, D, E, and F are represented by bars for each contractor. The order of the critical temperatures for contractor 2 is mixes D, C, F, and C. The order for contractor 3 is mixes E, C, F, and D. The order for contractor 4 is mixes D, C, F, and E. The order for contractor 5 is mixes C, D, F, and E.

Figure 48. Graph. BBR critical temperatures—mixes with PG64-22 binder. This graph shows the bending beam rheometer (BBR) critical temperature for mixes with performance grade (PG) 64-22. Critical low temperature ranging from 10.4 to -11.2 °F (-12 to -24 °C) is on the y-axis, and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Data for mixes A, B, C, and D are represented by bars for each contractor. The order of the critical temperatures for contractor 2 is mixes A, B, C, and D. For contractor 3, the order is mixes A, B, C, and D. For contractor 4, the order is mixes B, C, A, and D. For contractor 5, the order is mixes A, B, D, and C.

Figure 49. Graph. BBR critical temperatures—mixes with PG58-28 binder. This graph shows bending beam rheometer (BBR) critical temperature for mixes with performance grade (PG) 58-28. Critical low temperature ranging from 10.4 to -22 °F (-12 to -30 °C) is on the y-axis, and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Data for mixes E and F are represented by bars for each contractor. The order of the critical temperatures for contractor 2 is mix E followed by mix F. For contractor 3, the order is mix F followed by mix E. For contractor 4, the order is mix E followed by mix F. For contractor 5, the order is mix E followed by mix F.

Figure 50. Graph. BBR critical temperatures—mixes with 25 and 40 percent RAP. This graph shows the bending beam rheometer (BBR) critical temperature for mixes with 25 and 40 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Critical high temperature ranging from 10.4 to -22 °F (-12 to -30 °C) is on the y-axis, and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Data for mixes C, D, E, and F are represented by bars for each contractor. The order of the critical temperatures for contractor 2 is mixes E, F, C, and D. For contractor 3, the order is mixes F, C, E, and D. For contractor 4, the order is mixes E, F, C, and D. For contractor 5, the order is mixes E, F, D, and C.

Figure 51. Graph. TSAR™ critical temperatures—mixes with PG64-22 binder. This graph shows the TSAR™ critical high temperature for mixes with performance grade (PG) 64-22. Critical high temperature ranging from 10.4 to -11.2 °F (-12 to -24 °C) is on the y-axis, and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Data for mixes A, B, C, and D are represented by bars for each contractor. The critical temperatures for contractor 2 mixes are tied. For contractor 3, the order is mixes B, C, D, and A. For contractor 4, the order is mixes A, B, D, and C. For contractor 5, the order is mixes C, A, B, and D.

Figure 52. Graph. TSAR™ critical temperatures—mixes with PG58-28 binder. This graph shows the TSAR™ critical high temperature for mixes with performance grade (PG) 58-28. Critical high temperature ranging from 10.4 to -22 °F (-12 to -30 °C) is on the y-axis, and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Data for mixes E and F are represented by bars for each contractor. The order of the critical temperatures for contractor 2 is mix E followed by mix F. For contractor 3, the order is mix F followed by mix E. For contractor 4, the order is mix E followed by mix F. For contractor 5, the order is mix E followed by mix F.

Figure 53. Graph. TSAR™ critical temperatures—mixes with 25 and 40 percent RAP. This graph shows the TSAR™ critical high temperature for mixes with 25 and 40 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Critical high temperature ranging from 10.4 to -22 °F (-12 to -30 °C) is on the y-axis, and contractors 2 through 5 are on the x-axis. Data for mixes C, D, E, and F are represented by bars for each contractor. The critical temperatures for contractor 2 mixes are tied. For contractor 3, the order is mixes F, E, C, and D. For contractor 4, the order is mixes E, F, D, and C. For contractor 5, the order is mixes E, F, C, and D.

Figure 54. Graph. Contractor 2 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix A. This graph shows the contractor 2 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix A. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2A estimated and mix 2A measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 55. Graph. Contractor 2 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix B. This graph shows the contractor 2 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix B. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2B estimated and mix 2B measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 56. Graph. Contractor 2 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix C. This graph shows the contractor 2 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix C. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2C estimated and mix 2C measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 57. Graph. Contractor 2 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix D. This graph shows the contractor 2 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix D. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2D estimated and mix 2D measured. The data for the measured plots are higher than the estimated plots.

Figure 58. Graph. Contractor 2 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix E. This graph shows the contractor 2 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix E. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2E estimated and mix 2E measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 59. Graph. Contractor 2 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix F. This graph shows the contractor 2 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix F. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2F estimated and mix 2F measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 60. Graph. Contractor 3 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix A. This graph shows the contractor 3 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix A. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2A estimated and mix 2A measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 61. Graph. Contractor 3 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix B. This graph shows the contractor 3 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix B. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2B estimated and mix 2B measured. The data for the measured plots are slightly lower than the estimated plots.

Figure 62. Graph. Contractor 3 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix C. This graph shows the contractor 3 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix C. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2C estimated and mix 2C measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 63. Graph. Contractor 3 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix D. This graph shows the contractor 3 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix D. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2D estimated and mix 2D measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 64. Graph. Contractor 3 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix E. This graph shows the contractor 3 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix E. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2E estimated and mix 2E measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 65. Graph. Contractor 3 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix F. This graph shows the contractor 3 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix F. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2F estimated and mix 2F measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 66. Graph. Contractor 4 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix A. This graph shows the contractor 4 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix A. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2A estimated and mix 2A measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 67. Graph. Contractor 4 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix B. This graph shows the contractor 4 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix B. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2B estimated and mix 2B measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 68. Graph. Contractor 4 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix C. This graph shows the contractor 4 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix C. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) is on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz is on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2C estimated and mix 2C measured. The data for the measured plots at higher dynamic modulus values than the estimated.

Figure 69. Graph. Contractor 4 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix D. This graph shows the contractor 4 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix D. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2D estimated and mix 2D measured. The data for the measured plots have slightly lower dynamic modulus values than the estimated plots.

Figure 70. Graph. Contractor 4 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix E. This graph shows the contractor 4 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix E. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2E estimated and mix 2E measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 71. Graph. Contractor 4 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix F. This graph shows the contractor 4 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix F. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2F estimated and mix 2F measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 72. Graph. Contractor 5 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix A. This graph shows the contractor 5 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix A. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2A estimated and mix 2A measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 73. Graph. Contractor 5 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix B. This graph shows the contractor 5 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix B. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2B estimated and mix 2B measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 74. Graph. Contractor 5 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix C. This graph shows the contractor 5 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix C. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2C estimated and mix 2C measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 75. Graph. Contractor 5 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix D. This graph shows the contractor 5 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix D. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2D estimated and mix 2D measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 76. Graph. Contractor 5 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix E. This graph shows the contractor 5 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix E. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2E estimated and mix 2E measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

Figure 77. Graph. Contractor 5 evaluation of blending from master curves: mix F. This graph shows the contractor 5 evaluation of blending from the master curves for mix F. Modulus values ranging from 14,503.8 to 14,504,000 psi (100 to 100,000 MPa) are on the y-axis, and reduced frequency values ranging from 0.0001 to 1,000,000 Hz are on the x-axis. Data are plotted for mix 2F estimated and mix 2F measured. The data plots are on top of one another, creating a smooth curve.

 


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration