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Report
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-01-165
Date: March 2002

Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements Volume 3: Case Studies Using The Guidelines

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Submitted to:

Federal Highway Administration
Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101

Submitted By:

Michigan Tech Transportation Institute
Michigan Technological University
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
1400 Townsend Drive
Houghton, Michigan 49931

and

Applied Pavement Technology
3001 Research Road, Suite C
Champaign, IL 61822


Table of Contents

1. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
2. CHAPTER 2. PRIMARY CASE STUDIES
2.1 I-90 NEAR SPEARFISH, SOUTH DAKOTA (SD-090-019)
  Project Description
  Field Evaluation
  MRD Field Characterization
  Laboratory Analysis
  Core Selection/Visual Inspection
  Stereo Optical Microscopy
  Staining Tests
  Petrographic Optical Microscopy
  Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
  Chemical Laboratory Tests
  Interpretation and Diagnosis
  Recommended Treatment/Rehabilitation Alternatives
  Recommended Prevention Strategies
2.2
TH 65 IN MORA, MINNESOTA (MN-065-064)
  Project Description
  Distress Survey Results
  MRD Field Characterization
  Laboratory Analysis
  Core Selection/Visual Inspection
  Stereo Optical Microscopy/Staining Tests
  Petrographic Optical Microscopy
  Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
  Interpretation and Diagnosis
  Recommended Treatment/Rehabilitation Alternatives
  Recommended Prevention Strategies
2.3 NEAR RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA (NC-440-015)
  Project Description
  Distress Survey Results
  MRD Field Characterization
  Laboratory Analysis
  Core Selection/Visual Inspection
  Stereo Optical Microscopy
  Staining Tests
  Petrographic Optical Microscopy
  Scanning Electron Microscopy
  Interpretation and Diagnosis
  Recommended Treatment/Rehabilitation Alternatives
  Recommended Prevention Strategies
2.4 SR 58 NEAR BORON, CALIFORNIA (CA-058-141)
  Project Description
  Distress Survey Results
  MRD Field Characterization
  Laboratory Analysis
  Core Selection/Visual Inspection
  Stereo Optical Microscopy
  Staining Tests
  Petrographic Optical Microscopy
  Scanning Electron Microscopy
  Interpretation and Diagnosis
  Recommended Treatment/Rehabilitation Alternatives
  Recommended Prevention Strategies
3. CHAPTER 3. SECONDARY CASE STUDIES
3.1 NEAR MOJAVE, CALIFORNIA (CA-014-011)
  Project Description
  Distress Survey Results
  MRD Field Characterization
  Laboratory Analysis
  Core selection/Visual Inspection
  Stereo Optical Microscopy
  Staining Tests
  Interpretation and Diagnosis
3.2 SR 2 NEAR IOWA-NEBRASKA BORDER (IA-002-002)
  Project Description
  Distress Survey Results
  MRD Field Characterization
  Laboratory Analysis
  Core Selection/Visual Inspection
  Stereo Optical Microscopy
  Petrographic Optical Microscopy
  Interpretation and Diagnosis
4. CHAPTER 4. CONCLUSIONS
5. CHAPTER 5. REFERENCES

Figures

3-1. General location of projects included in study
3-2. Typical distress manifestation observed on SD-090-019-002.
3-3. Typical distress manifestation observed on SD-090-019, Sections 1 and 2.
3-4. Typical distress manifestation observed on SD-090-019-002.
3-5. Core specimens from SD-090-019.
3-6. Stereo optical micrographs of typical cracking pattern associated with porous siltstone aggregate SD-090-019.
3-7. Stereo optical micrograph showing gel deposits in SD-090-019 aggregates.
3-8. Slab 1B stained with sodium cobaltinitrite/rhodamine B from SD-090-019-001.
3-9. Slab 1B stained with sodium cobaltinitrite/rhodamine B from SD-090-019-001.
3-10. Slab 2B stained with sodium cobaltinitrite/rhodamine B from SD-090-019-002.
3-11. Stereo optical micrographs of air voids filled with sulfate minerals stained with potassium permanganate (note differences due to polishing).
3-12. Core SD-090-019-001B, thin-section micrographs of same rhyolite aggregate that was stained with sodium cobaltinitrite.
3-13. Core SD-090-019-001B, thin-section micrographs of same volcanic aggregate that was stained with sodium cobaltinitrite.
3-14. Ettringite (a) and hydrocalumite (b) infilling in void and crack, respectively.
3-15. Ternary diagram showing the probable range of composition for the hydrocalumite deposits analyzed from SD-090-019.
3-16. Flowchart for assessing the likelihood of MRD causing the observed distress in the pavement as applied to the Spearfish, South Dakota site.
3-17. Flowchart for assessing general concrete properties based on visual examination as applied to the Spearfish, South Dakota site.
3-18. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete paste as applied to the Spearfish, South Dakota site.
3-19. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete aggregates as applied to the Spearfish, South Dakota site.
3-20. Flowchart for identifying infilling materials in cracks and voids as applied to the Spearfish, South Dakota site.
3-21. Typical distress manifestations observed at MN-065-064.
3-22. Cores evaluated for MN-065-064.
3-23. Stereo optical micrographs showing sulfate minerals filling air voids.
3-24. Histogram of 16 fluorescence measurements from calibration thin section composed of quartz sand in a dyed epoxy matrix.
3-25. Histogram of 30 fluorescence measurements from 0.38 w/c standard.
3-26. Histogram of 30 fluorescence measurements from 0.41 w/c standard.
3-27. Histogram of 30 fluorescence measurements from 0.42 w/c standard.
3-28. Histogram of 30 fluorescence measurements from 0.52 w/c standard.
3-29. Histogram of 30 fluorescence measurements from 0.56 w/c standard.
3-30. Histogram of 30 fluorescence measurements from 0.74 w/c standard.
3-31. Histogram of 30 fluorescence measurements from 0.80 w/c standard.
3-32. Average cement paste fluorescence measurements versus w/c. Error bars represent one standard deviation.
3-33. Histogram of fluorescence measurements from 1950 concrete from mid-panel of the left-turn lane of site MN-065-064-001.
3-34. Histogram of fluorescence measurements from 1990 concrete from mid-panel of the traffic lane of site MN-065-064-001.
3-35. Distribution of the w/c values from the 1950 concrete from mid-panel of the left-turn lane of site MN-065-064-001.
3-36. Distribution of the w/c values from the 1990 concrete from mid-panel of the traffic lane of site MN-065-064-001.
3-37. The w/c values versus depth from the 1950 concrete from mid-panel of the left-turn lane of site MN-065-064-001.
3-38. The w/c values versus depth from the 1990 concrete from mid-panel of the traffic lane of site MN-065-064-001.
3-39. Typical SEM micrograph and x-ray analysis for ettringite infilling air void.
3-40. Typical SEM micrograph and x-ray analysis for hydrocalumite infilling air void.
3-41. Flowchart for assessing the likelihood of MRD causing the observed distress in the pavement as applied to MN-065-064.
3-42. Flowchart for assessing general concrete properties based on visual examination as applied to MN-065-064.
3-43. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete paste as applied to MN-065-064.
3-44. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete aggregates as applied to MN-065-064.
3-45. Flowchart for identifying infilling materials in cracks and voids as applied to MN-065-064.
3-46. Typical cracking pattern at NC-444-015. Note distress over entire slab length with spalling occuring at joints.
3-47. Cores and specimens evaluated from NC-440-015.
3-48. Stereo optical micrographs of ASR gel and reactive coarse aggregate from NC-440-015.
3-49. Typical stereo optical micrographs of stained concrete. Note that the broad banding occurs from the montage process to create a single image.
3-50. Petrographic micrographs from spall obtained from NC-440-015 showing ettringite filled entrained air voids. Ettringite growths are unusually dense.
3-51. Petrogrpahic micrograph of a tan to red coating observed on some of the fine aggregates that appears to undergo ASR from spall obtained from NC-440-015.
3-52. Petrographic micrograph of ettringite and "ASR gel blob" from spall obtained from NC-440-015.
3-53. Petrographic micrograph of ettringite intermixed with ASR gel.
3-54. Petrographic micrograph of ASR gel in crack within coarse aggregate.
3-55. SEM micrograph of ettringite filling air voids and crack.
3-56. SEM micrograph of ettringite and ASR reaction product.
3-57. Typical spectra for ettringite and ASR reaction product.
3-58. Flowchart for assessing the likelihood of MRD causing the observed distress in the pavement as applied to NC-440-015.
3-59. Flowchart for assessing general concrete properties based on visual examination as applied to NC-440-015.
3-60. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete paste as applied to NC-440-015.
3-61. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete aggregates as applied to NC-440-015.
3-62. Flowchart for identifying infilling materials in cracks and voids as applied to NC-440-015.
3-63. Typical conditions at CA-058-141.
3-64. Photographs of core specimens analyzed from CA-058-141.
3-65. Stereo optical micrographs showing staining observed in core CA-058-141-001C.
3-66. Petrographic micrograph of core CA-058-141-001E.
3-67. Petrographic micrograph of core CA-058-141-001E.
3-68. SEM spectra and micrograph from CA-058-141.
3-69. Flowchart for assessing the likelihood of MRD causing the observed distress in the pavement as applied to CA-058-141.
3-70. Flowchart for assessing general concrete properties based on visual examination as applied to CA-058-141.
3-71. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete paste as applied to CA-058-141.
3-72. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete aggregates as applied to CA-058-141.
3-73. Flowchart for identifying infilling materials in cracks and voids as applied to CA-058-141.
3-74. Typical conditions at CA-014-011.
3-75. Map cracking pattern on core CA-014-011-001E, emphasized by wetting down the surface.
3-76. Inverse image of polished cross section of core CA-014-011-001E.
3-77. Same area of core CA-058-011-001E as shown in figure 3-78.
3-78. Results of staining test applied to core CA-058-011-001E.
3-79. Phenolphthalein stained polished slab, showing carbonation along plastic shrinkage crack.
3-80. Flowchart for assessing the likelihood of MRD causing the observed distress in the pavement as applied to CA-014-011.
3-81. Site conditions at IA-002-002.
3-82. Closeup view of longitudinal hairline cracks.
3-83. Polished slab from core IA-002-002-001A.
3-84. Stereo micrograph showing air void structure of IA-002-002-001A.
3-85. Reactive fine aggregate particle with alkali-silica gel filled air voids as viewed in thin section.
3-86. Flowchart for assessing the likelihood of MRD causing the observed distress in the pavement as applied to IA-002-002.
3-87. Flowchart for assessing general concrete properties based on visual examination as applied to IA-002-002.
3-88. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete paste as applied to IA-0020002.
3-89. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete aggregates as applied to IA-002-002.
3-90. Flowchart for identifying infilling materials in cracks and voids as applied to IA-002-002.

Tables

3-1. Primary and secondary test sites included in study.
3-2. Summary of design features for SD-090-019.
3-3. Summary of pavement condition surveys for SD-090-019-001.
3-4. Summary of pavement condition surveys for SD-090-019-002.
3-5. Summary of MRD characterization for SD-090-019.
3-6. Results of ASTM C 457 for concrete from SD-090-019.
3-7. Summary of 10 analyses from ettringite deposits, compared to a calculated composition for dehydrated ettringite.
3-8. Summary of 13 analyses from hydrocalumite deposits.
3-9. Identified diagnostic features along with their associated MRD type and significance as related to SD-090-019.
3-10. Summary of design features for MN-065-064.
3-11. Summary of pavement condition surveys for MN-065-064-001.
3-12. Summary of pavement condition surveys for MN-065-064-002.
3-13. Summary of MRD characterization for MN-065-064.
3-14. Results of ASTM C 457 on concrete from MN-065-064-001.
3-15. Quantitative results from single spectrum collected from ettringite deposit, compared to a calculated composition for dehydrated ettringite.
3-16. Summary of 10 analyses and theoretical composition of hydrocalumite deposits.
3-17. Diagnostic features identified along with their associated MRD type and significance as related to MN-065-064.
3-18. Summary of design features for NC-440-015.
3-19. Summary of pavement condition surveys for NC-440-015-001.
3-20. Summary of pavement condition surveys for NC-440-015-002.
3-21. Summary of MRD characterization for NC-440-015.
3-22. Results of ASTM C 457 on concrete from NC-440-015.
3-23. Diagnostic features identified along with their associated MRD type and significance as related to NC-440-015.
3-24. Summary of design features for CA-058-141.
3-25. Summary of pavement condition surveys for CA-058-141-001.
3-26. Summary of MRD characterization for CA-058-141.
3-27. Results of ASTM C 457 on concrete from CA-058-141.
3-28. Summary of 12 analyses of ASR gel deposit shown in figure 3-68.
3-29. Diagnostic features identified along with their associated MRD type and significance as related to this pavement.
3-30. Summary of design features for CA-014-011.
3-31. Summary of pavement condition surveys for CA-014-011-001.
3-32. Summary of MRD characterization for CA-014-011.
3-33. Diagnostic features identified along with their associated MRD type and significance as related to CA-014-001.
3-34. Summary of design features for IA-002-002.
3-35. Summary of pavement condition surveys for IA-002-002-001.
3-36. Summary of pavement condition surveys for IA-002-002-002.
3-37. Summary of MRD characterization for IA-002-002.
3-38. Air-void characteristics of core IA-002-002-001A as determined by ASTM C457
3-39. Diagnostic features identified along with their associated MRD type and significance as related to this pavement.


  Technical Report Documentation Page
1. Report No.
FHWA-RD-01-165
2. Government Accession No.3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle
GUIDELINES FOR DETECTION, ANALYSIS, AND TREATMENT OF MATERIALS-RELATED DISTRESS IN CONCRETE PAVEMENTS - Volume 3: Case Studies Using the Guidelines
5. Report Date
March 2002

6. Performing Organization Code
VTRC 02-R

7. Author(s)
L. L. Sutter, K. R. Peterson, T. J. Van Dam, K. D. Smith, M. J. Wade
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Michigan Technological University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
1400 Townsend Drive
Houghton, MI 49931
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
DTFH61-96-C-00073
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Federal Highway Administration, Research Technology and Development;
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, Virginia 22101-2296
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Final Report 1996-2002
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
HCP30-B
15. Supplementary Notes
FHWA Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR): Dr. Stephen W. Forster

Special thanks are given to the following highway agencies for their assistance in the conduct of this study: Minnesota, California, Iowa, South Dakota, and North Carolina.

16. Abstract
The performance of concrete pavements can be adversely affected by the concrete's inability to resist the environment in which it is placed. This lack of durability can occur even when the structural design of the pavement is adequate. The distresses that result from this lack of durability are referred to herein as materials-related distress (MRD). This report documents the investigation of MRD in concrete pavements and the development of a set of systematic guidelines for the evaluation of MRD. The guidelines developed cover three major areas of MRD: field distress surveys, pavement sampling, and sample handling; laboratory testing, data analysis, and interpretation; and treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention.

This report is Volume 3 of a three-volume set, and documents the results of the use of the guidelines on in-service concrete pavements. The other two reports are:

FHWA-RD-01-163, Volume 1: Final Report

FHWA-RD-01-164, Volume 2: Guidelines Description and Use

17. Key Words
concrete materials; concrete pavements; concrete durability; concrete distress; concrete evaluation; petrographic examination; concrete mixture design.
18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions. This document is available through the National Technical Information Service; Springfield, Viginia 22161.
19. Security Classif. (of this report)
Unclassified
20. Security Classif. (of this page)
Unclassified
21. No. of Pages 22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized


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