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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-11-065
Date: April 2012
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The concrete paving industry has experienced many changes in the last 15 years. To achieve concrete pavement’s full potential in the 21st century, the industry has identified trends that call for dramatic, even revolutionary, improvements. Aiming for a holistic approach, the improvements can best be implemented through a carefully developed and aggressively implemented strategic plan for research and technology transfer known as the Long-Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology (CP Road Map).
This report is volume I of II. It provides the background and summary information on the effort that led to the CP Road Map. Sufficient copies of this report are being distributed to provide eight copies to each Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Resource Center, five copies to each FHWA division, and a minimum of eight copies to each State highway agency. Direct distribution is being made to the division offices for forwarding to the State highway agencies. Additional copies for the public are available from the National Technical Information Service.
Jorge E. Pagán-Ortiz
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development
This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.
The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers’ names appear in this report because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.
Quality Assurance Statement
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve the Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.
Technical Report Documentation Page
|1. Report No.
|2. Government Accession No.
|3 Recipient’s Catalog No.
|4. Title and Subtitle
Long–Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology–The Concrete Pavement Road Map (Second Generation): Volume I, Background and Summary
5. Report Date
6. Performing Organization CodeN/A
Dale Harrington, Robert Rasmussen, David Merritt, Tom Cackler, and Peter Taylor
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
National Center for Concrete Pavement Technology
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
|11. Contract or Grant No.
|12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Office of Infrastructure Research and Development
|13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Final Report, April–June 2011
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
|15. Supplementary Notes
The Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative was Ahmad Ardani, HRDI–10.
The Long-Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology (CP Road Map) is a holistic strategic plan for concrete
pavement research and technology transfer. The CP Road Map is a living plan that includes 12 distinct but integrated research
tracks leading to specific products and processes. The resulting improvements will help the concrete pavement industry meet the
challenges of, and achieve the industry’s full potential in, the 21st century. The plan was developed in close partnership with
stakeholders representing all aspects of the concrete pavement community, public and private, and the research will be
conducted through partnerships of stakeholders. Over the last several years, the plan has been managed through an operational
support mechanism provided by a transportation pooled fund project. The CP Road Map is presented in two volumes. Volume I
describes why the research plan is needed, how it was developed, and, generally, what the plan includes. Volume I also
describes the research management plan that will guide the conduct and implementation of research. Volume II describes in
detail the 12 tracks of research. Each track description includes a general overview, a track goal, track action items, a list of
subtracks, and detailed problem statements within each subtrack.
|17. Key Words
Concrete pavement, Concrete mix design, Pavement construction, Pavement design, Pavement performance, Pavement smoothness, Equipment automation
|18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions. This document is available to the Public through the National Technical Information Service; Springfield, VA 22161
19. Security Classification
20. Security Classification
21. No. of Pages
|Form DOT F 1700.7||Reproduction of completed page authorized|
The Concrete Pavement (CP) Road Map is a comprehensive and strategic plan for concrete pavement research that guides the investment of research dollars. It is a living plan with broad stakeholder involvement. For the last 5 years, it has tracked and facilitated technologies that have been helping the concrete pavement community meet the paving needs of today as well as the paving challenges of the future. The CP Road Map is guiding the industry work toward a new generation of concrete pavements for the 21st century.
Strategic: It combines more than 270 research problem statements into 12 integrated and cohesive tracks of research, leading to specific products that will dramatically affect the way concrete pavements are designed and constructed.
Innovative: From the way it was developed, to its unique track structure and cross-track integration, to the plan for conducting the research, the CP Road Map introduces a new, inclusive, and far-reaching approach to pavement research.
Stakeholder involvement: The CP Road Map plan is for the Federal, State, and private concrete pavement community. Peers helped create it, so it reflects all needs. It has guided stakeholders in both research selection and prioritization.
No cost or time limitations: The research contained in the CP Road Map is at an estimated overall cost of $275 to $500 million.
Independent of any one agency or pot of money: Stakeholders with funds and expertise will pool their resources, jointly conduct and coordinate the research, and apply the results. The plan incorporates innovative, effective research implementation to move useful new products and systems to the field quickly.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the concrete pavement industry have commissioned a national research plan for the 21st century. Why is such a plan needed?
For most of the 20th century, the same materials–portland cement, high–quality aggregate, and water–were used in pavement concrete with only minor refinements. It was a fairly forgiving formula that allowed some variations in subgrade quality, construction practices, and other variables without sacrificing pavement performance. For generations, the industry had the luxury of keeping traffic off of new concrete pavements for several days (even weeks) while the concrete developed its intended design strength.
In the past 20 years, the industry has experienced more changes than those that occurred in the previous 80 years, and the following changes are turning the process of building concrete pavements on end:
In this environment, the old system for constructing concrete pavements is not meeting today’s demands. Pavement failures have occurred that were unheard of 30 years ago. The concrete pavement community cannot continue business as usual if it is going to meet the growing demands on highway construction and rehabilitation. The CP Road Map gives the community an opportunity to proactively reinvent itself through research.
The project to develop the CP Road Map began in 2001 through an agreement between the Innovative Pavement Research Foundation (IPRF) and a team led by Iowa State University’s Center for Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Pavement Technology (PCC Center, now the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center (National CP Tech Center)).
In May 2003, FHWA initiated a new agreement with the National CP Tech Center to complete the work. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) Committee for Research on Improved Concrete Pavements acted as the project advisory panel. Twenty percent of total funding for the project was provided by Iowa State University. The concrete pavement industry and State transportation departments provided valuable input to the CP Road Map and supported its implementation.
An Iowa State University-led team facilitated the development of the CP Road Map. They developed a database of existing research and gathered input, face-to-face, from the highway community. The team identified gaps in research that became the basis for problem statements, which are organized into a cohesive strategic research plan.
The research database is a thorough catalog of recently completed and in-progress research projects and their products. Over the years, this database has been regularly updated and has served as a valuable resource as part of the research management.
The success of the CP Road Map has been a result of a cooperative process involving high levels of stakeholder teamwork.
This cooperative process began during the CP Road Map development when five major brainstorming and feedback sessions were conducted at the following events: the October 2003 meeting of the Midwest Concrete Consortium (currently the National Concrete Consortium) in Ames, IA; a special November 2003 regional workshop for eastern and southern stakeholders in Syracuse, NY; the May 2004 meeting of the American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA) in Kansas City, MO; a special January 2004 regional teleconference for western stakeholders; and an October 2004 final meeting of national stakeholders hosted by FHWA at the Turner- Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) in McLean, VA.
Through these events, plus special presentations at more than 20 professional conferences and workshops across the country, more than 400 engineers and managers provided direct input into the CP Road Map.
Participants represented the following entities:
Input was provided in the following four broad categories:
Again and again, stakeholders who participated in these brainstorming events said they needed more and better analysis tools for measuring the "hows" and "whys" of pavement failures and successes–that is, to measure pavement performance. Better quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) methods/tools are needed for every stage of the pavement system, particularly mix design, design, and construction. Because variables in each stage affect the others, the methods/ tools must be integrated across stages.
From these concepts of pavement performance and systems integration, the following overall vision for the CP Road Map was developed:
By 2020, the highway community will have a comprehensive, integrated, and fully functional system of concrete pavement technologies that provides innovative solutions for customer-driven performance requirements.
Based on this goal and other stakeholder input, the following specific research objectives were identified:
The objectives were "filtered" through the project team’s database of existing research to determine gaps in the research. These gaps became the basis for problem statements.
Approximately 250 problem statements were written, reviewed, and fine-tuned. Final versions of the problem statements were added to the research database as work to be accomplished via the CP Road Map.
Research problem statements, projects, budgets, timelines, and research results in the database must be regularly updated. The CP Road Map will succeed only if the database is managed and maintained.
Most of the 270+ problem statements did not fit neatly into just one of the brainstorming categories (mixtures and materials, design, construction, and pavement management/business systems). To capture the cross categories and the integrated nature of the problem statements, the problem statements were organized into 12 product-focused tracks of research within the database. This structure encourages various stakeholder groups to step forward as champions for a specific track. While there have been refinements, additions, and subtractions to the CP Road Map over the last 10 years of implementation, 12 tracks remain.
Each problem statement is a topical summary only. Most problem statements are further broken down into specific research project statements that provide detailed descriptions of the research to be accomplished, budgets, and timelines. The research management plan (described later in this report) makes research track team leaders responsible for data entry of detailed project statements into the database.
As noted in the 12 brief track descriptions below, research in one track often affects or is affected by research in another track. In the CP Road Map, this interdependence and other critical relationships are outlined in the track and problem statement descriptions. It is the responsibility of research track team leaders, as described later in this document, to ensure that research is appropriately coordinated and integrated.
Moreover, the research database can be sorted to isolate problem statements on a variety of subjects. For example, several important problem statements related to foundations and drainage systems, maintenance and rehabilitation, and environment advancements are included in various tracks. In the CP Road Map, problem statements related to these particular topics have been listed in separate cross reference tables.
Each of the CP Road Map tracks is a full research program in itself, with its own budget, 2 to 7 subtracks, and as many as 45 problem statements. Subtracks include statements describing the development of innovative technology transfer, training tools, and methods to ensure that innovative research products are quickly and efficiently moved into practice.
The following list provides a brief description of each research track:
To date, implementation of the CP Road Map has followed the spirit of the research management plan as originally proposed–a framework that outlined a progressive, cooperative approach to managing and conducting the research. Under this plan, organizations identify common interests, partner with each other in executing specific contracts, and, in the end, produce and share a product that is greater than the sum of the parts.
The research management plan emphasizes scope control, phasing of research, reporting, systems integration, voluntary peer review, maintenance of the research database, program-wide technology transfer, and assistance to organizations that want to leverage their funds and human resources.
The research management plan is based on the following assumptions:
In line with this general philosophy, the research management plan outlines a four-tier system of participation and responsibility: an executive advisory committee (EAC), an administrative support group, research track team leaders, and sustaining organizations.
A tri-party EAC, representing FHWA, State transportation departments, and industry, will provide broad oversight of the CP Road Map. It will be a decisionmaking and policy-making facilitation group with many responsibilities, including the following:
An administrative support group will provide professional management services for the EAC and, to a lesser degree, the research track team leaders. It will be the "doing" body for coordination and support activities, like maintaining the research database.
Research track team leaders will coordinate and oversee all activities within a specific research track as follows:
Sustaining organizations, including agencies, consultants, universities, professional associations, and other organizations, with specialized interests and skills that are interested in pooling dedicated funds will assume responsibility for conducting research through cooperation, partnerships, and funding agreements. Some people and organizations will assume multiple roles.
In addition, sustaining organizations conducting research under the CP Road Map may retain full fiscal and technical control of the work under their jurisdictions. The key to successful conduct of the research, however, is cooperation, and the research management plan facilitates and supports cooperative efforts.
The implementation of the CP Road Map has largely followed this plan, with the National CP Tech Center providing administrative support under contract through a transportation pooled fund project, TPF-5(185).(2)
The CP Road Map is a plan for concrete pavement research consisting of 12 tracks and subtracks. Since its development, the management of these tracks has been conducted via track management teams consisting of leaders in the respective areas.
The general range of costs associated with each track represents the time dedicated to the CP Road Map by multiple stakeholders who contributed to its development. The support needed for this effort comes from in-kind services and funding provided by a number of participants including industry organizations, State transportation departments, and Federal agencies. The estimates are subject to change as the CP Road Map evolves. All numbers provided are rounded. The total cost for all tracks is $277 to $492 million.
The CP Road Map is published in two volumes. Volume I contains the executive summary plus the following eight chapters:
Volume II contains the executive summary and describes in detail the 12 tracks of planned and ongoing research as follows:
Each problem statement clearly defines tasks that need to be performed to produce a desired product or achieve a desired objective. Each problem statement will need to be developed into appropriate research project statements with detailed descriptions of the research to be accomplished, specific budgets, and definite timelines.
Managing a long-term research program is a long, slow process. The CP Road Map provides a framework for moving forward.
Stakeholders in the concrete pavement community are invited to participate.
To receive a copy of the full two-volume CP Road Map with complete problem statements, contact Ahmad Ardani, FHWA, (202)-493-3422, email@example.com.
For additional information, go to http://www.cproadmap.org.
Topics: research, infrastructure, pavements and materials
Keywords: research, infrastructure, pavements and materials, Dynamic modulus, MEPDG, LTPP, Hot mix asphalt, Artificial neural network (ANN)
TRT Terms: research, facilities, transportation, highway facilities, roads, parts of roads, pavements