|This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information|
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-13-046
Date: October 2013
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The deep mixing method (DMM) is an in situ soil treatment in which native soils or fills are blended with cementitious and/or other materials, typically referred to as binders. Compared to native soils or fills, the soil-binder composite material that is created has enhanced engineering properties such as increased strength, lower permeability, and reduced compressibility. The treated soil properties obtained by DMM reflect the characteristics of the native soil, binder characteristics, construction variables, operational parameters, curing time, and loading conditions.
The purpose of this report is to provide user-oriented DMM design and construction guidelines for the support of embankments and typical transportation-oriented foundations. The use of DMM for liquefaction mitigation and excavation support is also discussed in general terms, since these applications are often associated with DMM projects for embankments and foundations. The embankment and foundation applications addressed in this manual include embankment support (both new embankments and embankment widening), culvert support through an embankment founded on DMM, bridge abutment support, retaining wall foundations, and bridge pier support.
This manual includes guidelines required for U.S. transportation engineers to plan, design, construct, and monitor deep mixing projects for embankment and foundation support. Information includes background on the use of DMM for transportation projects in the United States; a glossary of commonly used terminology and nomenclature; a description of applications, feasibility, and flow of design and construction for DMM projects; site investigation and characterization considerations; ranges of treated soil properties and a procedure for determining treated soil strengths for design; recommended design procedures for embankment and foundation applications and a design example; a description of contract procurement vehicles and recommendations; guidance for developing plans and specifications for contract documents; guidance for developing bench-scale testing and full-scale field testing programs; a description of means, methods, and materials for DMM; an overview of available and recommended quality control/quality assurance procedures and monitoring techniques; and typical costs and methods for estimating costs of DMM projects for comparison with alternative technologies.
Jorge E. Pagán-Ortiz
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development
This document is distributed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.
The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade and manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the object of the document.
Quality Assurance Statement
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of the information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvements.
Technical Report Documentation Page
|1. Report No.
|2. Government Accession No.||3 Recipient's Catalog No.|
|4. Title and Subtitle
Federal Highway Administration Design Manual: Deep Mixing for Embankment and Foundation Support
5. Report Date
|6. Performing Organization Code|
Mary Ellen C. Bruce, Ryan R. Berg, James G. Collin, George M. Filz, Masaaki Terashi, and David S. Yang
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Geotechnica, Sa., Inc.
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.DTFH61-06-C-00039
|12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Office of Transportation Management
|13. Type of Report and Period Covered
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary NotesThe Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative (COTR) was Michael Adams, HRDI-40.
This report provides background on deep mixing for U.S. transportation projects and provides further information
on design and construction aspects. This report also includes guidelines required for U.S. transportation engineers
to plan, design, construct, and monitor deep mixing projects for embankment and foundation support applications. Considerations for secondary associated applications such as excavation support and liquefaction mitigation are
|17. Key Words
Deep mixing, Design manual, Case histories, Quality control, Quality assurance, Specifications, Construction, Feasibility, Foundations, Embankments
|18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161
19. Security Classification
20. Security Classification
21. No. of Pages
|Form DOT F 1700.7||Reproduction of completed page authorized|
|BART||Bay Area Rapid Transit|
|BRN||Blade rotation number|
|Caltrans||California Department of Transportation|
|CDIT||Coastal Development Institute of Technology|
|CDM||Cement deep mixing|
|CDSM||Cement deep soil mixing|
|CPT||Cone penetration test|
|CSM||Cutter soil mixing|
|DJM||Dry jet mixing|
|DMM||Deep mixing method|
|DRE||Dry rotary end|
|DSM||Deep soil mixing|
|ECI||Early contractor involvement|
|FDOT||Florida Department of Transportation|
|FHWA||Federal Highway Administration|
|GPS||Global Positioning System|
|GWT||Ground water table|
|ISS||In situ stabilization|
|LPV||Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity|
|MassDOT||Massachusetts Department of Transportation|
|MDM||Modified deep mixing|
|MnDOT||Minnesota Department of Transportation|
|PCC||Portland cement concrete|
|PennDOT||Pennsylvania Department of Transportation|
|PWPR||Porewater pressure response ratio|
|RQD||Rock quality designation|
|SPT||Standard penetration test|
|TPF||Transportation Pooled Fund|
|TRD||Trench cutting and remixing deep wall method|
|USACE||U.S. Army Corps of Engineers|
|VDOT||Virginia Department of Transportation|
|WisDOT||Wisconsin Department of Transportation|
|WJE||Wet jet end|
|WRE||Wet rotary end|
|WRS||Wet rotary shaft|
|WSDOT||Washington State Department of Transportation|
|WVP||Wet vertical panel|
Topics: research, infrastructure, structures
Keywords: research, structures, Deep mixing, Design manual, Case histories, Quality control, Quality assurance, Specifications, Construction, Feasibility, Foundations, Embankments
TRT Terms: research, infrastructure, Facilities, Structures