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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-033
Date: August 2006

Task Analysis of Intersection Driving Scenarios: Information Processing Bottlenecks

U.S. Department of Transportation

Federal Highway Administration

Research, Development, and Technology

Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center

6300 Georgetown Pike

McLean, VA 22101-2296

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FOREWORD

The purpose of this report is to identify the information processing bottlenecks that drivers face in specific intersection driving scenarios. These bottlenecks represent situations in which drivers may become overloaded by driving demands, which could result in drivers conducting important driving tasks improperly or skipping certain tasks altogether. To identify and characterize information processing bottlenecks, this report presents a series of task analyses to determine key functions performed by drivers as they approach and navigate through different intersection scenarios. These task analyses focus on identifying the underlying information processing elements, including the perceptual, cognitive, and psychomotor subtasks associated with each individual driving task. A key benefit of using a task analysis approach is that it provides specific information about driver activities at various points during intersection navigation. This level of information is not made available using other approaches, such as crash data analyses, performance studies, and focus group research. This information about driver activities also can be quantified in relation to overall workload to identify when and under what conditions information processing bottlenecks occur.

Michael Trentacoste
Director, Office of Safety Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-06-033

2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Task Analysis of Intersection Driving Scenarios: Information Processing Bottlenecks

5. Report Date

August 2006

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

C.M. Richard, J.L. Campbell, and J.L. Brown

8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Battelle Human Transportation Center

1100 Dexter Avenue North, Suite 400

Seattle, WA 98109-3598

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61-04-C-00006

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Safety Research and Development

Federal Highway Administration

6300 Georgetown Pike

McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final, August 2004-August 2005

14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes:

Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR), Raymond A. Krammes; Task Manager, Thomas M. Granda

16. Abstract

The purpose of this report is to identify the information processing bottlenecks that drivers face in specific intersection driving scenarios. These bottlenecks represent situations in which drivers may become overloaded by driving demands, which could result in drivers conducting important driving tasks in improper fashion or skipping certain tasks altogether.

To identify and characterize information processing bottlenecks, this report presents a series of task analyses to determine key functions performed by drivers as they approach and navigate through different intersection scenarios. The focus of this task analysis is on identifying the underlying information processing elements, including the perceptual, cognitive, and psychomotor subtasks associated with each individual driving task. Seven distinct driving scenarios were investigated in the task analysis, and each scenario was successively separated into segments, tasks, and subtasks/information processing elements. The scenarios included in the analysis were: (1) left turn on green light, (2) left turn on yellow light, (3) straight on yellow light, (4) straight on green light, (5) right turn on green light, (6) right turn on red light, and (7) stop on red light.

Appendix A discusses in detail the equations and assumptions associated with the development of the vehicle timing/dynamics calculations performed for each of the seven driving scenarios included in the effort.

17. Key Words

task analysis, driver behavior, intersections, information processing, driver workload

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161

19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

219

22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)    Reproduction of completed page authorized


SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION

   Future Research

REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

LIST OF FIGURES

   Figure 1. An outline diagram showing organization of components of each scenario analysis

   Figure 2. Example scenario plan diagram identifying key assumptions

   Figure 3. Two-page layout of segment analysis showing key components

   Figure 4. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light diagram, details, and assumptions

   Figure 5. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light timeline depicting key segment phases duration and event/task milestones

   Figure 6. Scenario 1-Left Turn on Green Light Approach segment scenario diagram

   Figure 7. Scenario 1-Left Turn on Green Light Deceleration Segment scenario diagram

   Figure 8. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Intersection Entry segment scenario diagram

   Figure 9. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Prepare for Turn segment scenario diagram

   Figure 10. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Execute Turn segment scenario diagram

   Figure 11. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light total estimated workload ratings for all tasks in each segment

   Figure 12. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light average estimated workload ratings per task for each scenario segment

   Figure 13. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light diagram, details, and assumptions

   Figure 14. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light timeline depicting key segment phases duration and event/task milestones

   Figure 15. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Approach segment scenario diagram

   Figure 16. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Deceleration segment scenario diagram

   Figure 17. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Decision to Proceed segment scenario diagram

   Figure 18. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Intersection Entry segment scenario diagram

   Figure 19. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Execute Turn segment scenario diagram

   Figure 20. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light total estimated workload ratings for all tasks in each scenario segment

   Figure 21. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light average estimated workload ratings per task for each scenario segment

   Figure 22. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light diagram, details, and assumptions

   Figure 23. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light timeline depicting duration of key segment phases and event/task milestones

   Figure 24. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light Approach segment diagram

   Figure 25. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light Scenario Decision to Proceed segment diagram

   Figure 26. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light Intersection Entry segment diagram

   Figure 27. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light total estimated workload ratings for all tasks in each scenario segment

   Figure 28. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light average estimated workload ratings per task for each scenario segment

   Figure 29. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light diagram, details, and assumptions

   Figure 30. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light timeline of key segment phases duration and event/task milestones.

   Figure 31. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Approach segment diagram

   Figure 32. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Prepare for Lane Change segment diagram

   Figure 33. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Execute Lane Change segment of scenario diagram

   Figure 34. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Intersection Entry segment diagram

   Figure 35. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light total estimated workload ratings for all tasks in each scenario segment

   Figure 36. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light average estimated workload ratings per task for each scenario segment

   Figure 37. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light diagram, details, and assumptions

   Figure 38. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light timeline of key segment phases duration and task milestones

   Figure 39. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Approach segment diagram

   Figure 40. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Deceleration segment diagram

   Figure 41. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Intersection Entry segment diagram

   Figure 42. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Execute Turn segment diagram

   Figure 43. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light total estimated workload ratings for all tasks in each scenario segment

   Figure 44. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light average estimated workload ratings per task for each scenario segment

   Figure 45. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light scenario diagram, details, and assumptions

   Figure 46. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Scenario timeline depicting key segment phases duration and event/task milestones

   Figure 47. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Approach segment scenario diagram

   Figure 48. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Prepare for Lane Change segment of scenario diagram.

   Figure 49. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Execute Lane Change segment diagram

   Figure 50. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Stop segment diagram

   Figure 51. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Prepare for Turn/Intersection Entry segment of scenario diagram

   Figure 52. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Execute Turn segment diagram

   Figure 53. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light total estimated workload ratings for all tasks in each scenario segment

   Figure 54. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light average estimated workload ratings per task for each scenario segment

   Figure 55. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light diagram, details, and assumptions

   Figure 56. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light Scenario timeline depicting key segment phases duration and event/task milestones

   Figure 57. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light Approach segment diagram

   Figure 58. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light Stop segment diagram

   Figure 59. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light Proceed Through Intersection segment diagram

   Figure 60. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light total estimated workload ratings for all tasks in each scenario segment.

   Figure 61. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light average estimated workload ratings per task for each scenario segment.

   Figure 62. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light timeline depicting key temporal milestones

   Figure 63. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light timeline depicting key temporal milestones

   Figure 64. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light timeline depicting key temporal milestones

   Figure 65. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light timeline depicting key temporal milestones

   Figure 66. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light timeline depicting key temporal milestones

   Figure 67. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light timeline depicting key temporal milestones

   Figure 68. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light timeline depicting key temporal milestones

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Information sources used in the task analysis.

Table 2. Workload estimation chart used to determine workload estimates for each segment task.

Table 3. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light scenario partitioning based on driving objectives and speed characteristics by segment.

Table 4. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light assumptions and corresponding justifications.

Table 5. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light task analysis table.

Table 6. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Approach segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 7. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Approach segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 8. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Deceleration segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 9. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Deceleration segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 10. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Intersection Entry segment tasks and information processing subtasks involved.

Table 11. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Intersection Entry segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 12. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Prepare for Turn segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 13. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Prepare for Turn segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 14. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Execute Turn segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 15. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light Execute Turn segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 16. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light combined and average workload ratings, pacing of key tasks, and nature of bottlenecks that indicate potential problems for each scenario segment.

Table 17. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light driving objectives and speed characteristics as basis for each scenario segment partitioning.

Table 18. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light assumptions and corresponding justifications.

Table 19. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light task analysis table.

Table 19. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light task analysis table, continued.

Table 20. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Approach segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 21. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Approach segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 22. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Deceleration segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 23. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Deceleration segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 24. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Decision to Proceed segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 25. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Decision to Proceed segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 26. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Intersection Entry segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 27. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Intersection Entry segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 28. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Execute Turn Segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 29. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light Execute Turn segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 30. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light combined and average workload ratings, pacing of key tasks, and the nature of bottlenecks that indicate potential problems for each scenario segment.

Table 31. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light driving objectives and speed characteristics for each scenario segment as a basis for the scenario partitioning.

Table 32. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light assumptions and corresponding justifications.

Table 33. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light task analysis table.

Table 34. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light Approach segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 35. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light Approach segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 36. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light segment 2 Decision to Proceed tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 37. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light Decision to Proceed segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 38. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light Intersection Entry segment of tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 39. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light Intersection Entry segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 40. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light combined and average workload ratings, pacing of key tasks, and the nature of bottlenecks that indicate potential problems for each scenario segment.

Table 41. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light driving objectives and speed characteristics for each scenario segment as a basis for the scenario partitioning.

Table 42. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light assumptions and corresponding justifications.

Table 43. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light task analysis table.

Table 44. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Approach segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 45. Relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings for the Approach segment of Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light.

Table 46. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Prepare for Lane Change segment of tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 47. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Prepare for Lane Change segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 48. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Execute Lane Change segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 49. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Execute Lane Change segment of relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 50. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Intersection Entry segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 51. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light Intersection Entry segment of relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 52. Combined and average workload ratings, pacing of key tasks, and nature of bottlenecks that indicate potential problems for each scenario segment.

Table 53. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light driving objectives and speed characteristics for each scenario segment used as a basis for the scenario partitioning.

Table 54. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light assumptions and corresponding justifications.

Table 55. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light task analysis table.

Table 56. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Approach segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 57. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Approach segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 58. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Deceleration segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 59. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Deceleration segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 60. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Intersection Entry segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 61. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Intersection Entry segment of relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 62. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Execute Turn segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 63. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light Execute Turn segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 64. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light combined and average workload ratings, pacing of key tasks, and nature of bottlenecks that indicate potential problems for each scenario segment.

Table 65. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light driving objectives and speed characteristics for each scenario segment as a basis for the scenario partitioning.

Table 66. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light assumptions and corresponding justifications.

Table 67. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light task analysis table.

Table 68. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Approach segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 69. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Approach segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 70. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Prepare for Lane Change segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 71. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Prepare for Lane Change segment of relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 72. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Execute Lane Change segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 73. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Execute Lane Change segment of relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 74. Stop Segment of Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 75. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Stop segment of relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 76. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Prepare for Turn/Intersection Entry segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 77. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Prepare for Turn / Intersection Entry segment relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 78. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Execute Turn segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 79. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light Execute Turn segment of relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 80. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light combined and average workload ratings, pacing of key tasks, and nature of bottlenecks that indicate potential problems for each scenario segment.

Table 81. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light driving objectives and speed characteristics for each scenario segment used as a basis for the scenario partitioning.

Table 82. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light assumptions and corresponding justifications.

Table 83. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light task analysis table.

Table 84. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light Approach segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 85. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light Approach segment of relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 86. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light Stop segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 87. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light Stop segment of relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 88. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light Proceed Through Intersection segment tasks and information processing subtasks.

Table 89. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light Proceed Through Intersection segment of relative timing and duration of segment tasks and summary of key findings.

Table 90. Combined and average workload ratings, pacing of key tasks, and nature of bottlenecks that indicate potential problems for each scenario segment.

Table 91. A summary of the nature of the information processing bottlenecks for each scenario.

Table 92. Commonly applied assumptions with corresponding justification.

Table 93. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light description of key temporal milestones.

Table 94. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light equations and assumptions for Milestone A.

Table 95. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light, Milestone B, equations and assumptions.

Table 96. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light, Milestone C, equations and assumptions.

Table 97. Scenario 1–Left Turn on Green Light, Milestone D, equations and assumptions.

Table 98. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light description of key temporal milestones.

Table 99. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light, Milestone A, equations and assumptions.

Table 100. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light, Milestone B, equations and assumptions.

Table 101. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light, Milestone C, equations and assumptions.

Table 102. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light, Milestone D, equations and assumptions.

Table 103. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light, Milestone E, equations and assumptions.

Table 104. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light, Milestone F, equations and assumptions.

Table 105. Scenario 2–Left Turn on Yellow Light, Milestone G, equations and assumptions.

Table 106. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light description of key temporal milestones.

Table 107. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light, Milestone A, equations and assumptions.

Table 108. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light, Milestone B, equations and assumptions.

Table 109. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light, Milestone C, equations and assumptions.

Table 110. Scenario 3–Straight on Yellow Light, Milestone D, equations and assumptions.

Table 111. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light description of key temporal milestones.

Table 112. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light, Milestone A, equations and assumptions.

Table 113. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light, Milestone B, equations and assumptions.

Table 114. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light, Milestone C, equations and assumptions.

Table 115. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light, Milestone D, equations and assumptions.

Table 116. Scenario 4–Straight on Green Light, Milestone E, equations and assumptions.

Table 117. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light description of key temporal milestones.

Table 118. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light, Milestone A, equations and assumptions.

Table 119. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light, Milestone B, equations and assumptions.

Table 120. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light, Milestone C, equations and assumptions.

Table 121. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light, Milestone D, equations and assumptions.

Table 122. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light, Milestone E, equations and assumptions.

Table 123. Scenario 5–Right Turn on Green Light, Milestone F, equations and assumptions.

Table 124. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light description of key temporal milestones.

Table 125. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light, Milestone A, equations and assumptions.

Table 126. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light, Milestone B, equations and assumptions.

Table 127. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light, Milestone C, equations and assumptions.

Table 128. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light, Milestone D, equations and assumptions.

Table 129. Scenario 6–Right Turn on Red Light, Milestone E, equations and assumptions.

Table 130. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light description of key temporal milestones.

Table 131. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light, Milestone A, equations and assumptions.

Table 132. Scenario 7–Stop on Red Light, Milestone B, equations and assumptions.

LIST OF ACRONYMS

AASHTO - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

FHWA - Federal Highway Administration

GES - General Estimates System

LTAP/LD - left turn across path-lateral direction conflict

LTAP/OD - left turn across path-opposite direction conflict

LVM - lead-vehicle moving

LVS - lead-vehicle stationary

MSK - meter-second-kilogram

MUTCD - Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices

NA - not applicable

POV - principle other vehicle

RT - reaction time

SI - International System of Units

TTC - time-to-collision

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