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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-99-207

Prediction of the Expected Safety Performance of Rural Two-Lane Highways

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The bibliography presented below includes all sources consulted in the development of the AMFs.

Access Points

Hauer, E., “Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes: Review and Interpretation of Published Literature,” unpublished, 1999.

Li, J., “Joint Effects of Access and Geometry on Two-Lane Rural Highway Safety in British Columbia,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 1994/12, XXI(vi), 1994.

Muskaug, R., Accident Rates on National Roads, Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, Norway, 1985.

Transportation Research Board, “Driveway and Street Intersection Spacing,” Transportation Research Circular 456, March 1996.

Cross Section (Lane Width, Shoulder Width, and Shoulder Type)

Benekohal and Lee, “Comparison of Safety Effects of Roadside Versus Roadway Improvements on Two-Lane Rural Highways,” Transportation Research Record 1303, Transportation Research Board, 1991.

Brüde, U., and J. Larsson, Traffic Safety Effect of Wide Driving Lanes, VTI-Meddelande 807, Swedish Road and Traffic Institute, Linkoping, Sweden, 1996.

Busbee, C.B., “Cost-Effectiveness of a Two-Way Left-Turn Lane,” Traffic Engineering, Institute of Traffic Engineers, December 1975.

Conradson, B.A., and N. Al-Ashari, Evaluation of Four Safety Projects, Traffic and Safety Division, Michigan Department of State Highways, 1972.

Datta, T.K., Assessment of the Benefits of Two-Way Center Left-Turn Lanes, Report No. FHWA-MI-RD-94-06, Michigan Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1994.

Goldstine, R., “Influence of Road Width on Accident Rates by Traffic Volume,” Transportation Research Record 1318, Transportation Research Board, 1991.

Griffin, L. I., and K. K. Mak, The Benefits to Be Achieved from Widening Rural, Two-Lane Farm-to-Market Roads in Texas, Report No. IAC(86-87) - 1039, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX, April 1987.

Harwood, D.W., and J.C. Glennon, “Selection of Median Treatments for Existing Arterial Highways,” Transportation Research Record 681, Transportation Research Board, 1978.

Harwood, D.W., Multilane Design Alternatives for Improving Suburban Highways, NCHRP Report 282, Transportation Research Board, 1986.

Heimbach, C.L., W.W. Hunter, and G.C. Chao , et al., “Paved Highway Shoulders and Accident Experience,” Transportation Engineering Journal, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 4, November 1974.

Hoffman, M.R., “Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes Work!,” Traffic Engineering, Institute of Traffic Engineers, August 1974.

Nemeth, Z.A., “Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes: State of the Art Overview and Implementation Guide,” Transportation Research Record 681, Transportation Research Board, 1983.

Pendleton, O.J., Evaluation of Accident Analysis Methodology, Report No. FHWA-RD-96-039, Federal Highway Administration, November 1996 (particularly Chapter 5, “Illinois Roadway High Hazard Analysis”).

Rinde, E. A., Accident Rates vs. Shoulder Width, Report No. CA-DOT-TR-3147-1-77-01, California Department of Transportation, 1977.

Sawhill, R.B., and D.R. Neuzil, “Accidents and Operational Characteristics on Arterial Streets with Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes,” Highway Research Record 31, Highway Research Board, 1963.

Thakkar, J.S., “A Study of the Effect of Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes on Traffic Accidents,” Transportation Research Record 960, Transportation Research Board, 1984.

Turner, D.S., D.B. Fambro, and R.O. Rogness, “Effects of Paved Shoulders on Accident Rates for Rural Texas Highways,” Transportation Research Record 819, Transportation Research Board, 1981.

Walton, C.M., R.B. Machemehel, T. Horne, and W. Fung, “Accident and Operational guidelines for Continuous Two-way Left-Turn Median Lanes,” Transportation Research Record 737, Transportation Research Board, 1979.

Yagar, S., and M. Van Aerde, “Reducing Accidents with Two-Way Left Turn Lanes,”

Proceedings, Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference III, 1984.

Zegeer, C.V., and F.M. Council, Safety Effectiveness of Highway Design Features: Volume III—Cross Sections, Report No. FHWA-RD-91-048, Federal Highway Administration, 1991.

Zegeer, C.V., and F.M. Council, “Safety Relationships Associated with Cross-Sectional Elements,” Transportation Research Record 1512, Transportation Research Board, 1994.

Zegeer, C. V., R. C. Deen, and J. G. Mayes, “Effect of Lane and Shoulder Width on Accident Reduction on Rural, Two-Lane Roads,” Transportation Research Record 806, Transportation Research Board, 1981.

Zegeer, C. V., D. W. Reinfurt, J. Hummer, L. Herf, and W. Hunter, “Safety Effects of Cross-Section Design for Two-Lane Roads,” Transportation Research Record 1195, Transportation Research Board, 1988.

Zegeer, C. V., R. Stewart, F. Council, and T. R. Neuman, “Accident Relationships of Roadway Width on Low-Volume Roads,” Transportation Research Record 1445, Transportation Research Board, 1994.

General or Other Issues

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, Washington, DC, 1994.

Choueri, E.M., et al., “Safety Aspects of Individual Design Elements and Their Interactions on Two-Lane Highways: International Perspective,” Transportation Research Record 1445, Transportation Research Board, 1994.

Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 1988.

Gunnerson, H.E., “Iowa Narrow Bridge Study,” Highway Research Abstracts, Vol. 31, No. 7, July 1961.

Hanley, K.E., A. R. Gibby, and T. C. Ferrara, The Evaluation of Accident Reduction Factors on California State Highways, Report No. FHWA/CA-TO-96- , California Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, December 1996.

Mak, K.K., “Effects of Bridge Width on Highway Safety,” in Relationship Between Safety and Key Highway Elements, State of the Art Report 6, Transportation Research Board, 1987.

Roy Jorgensen and Associates, Evaluation of Criteria for Safety Improvements on the Highway, Bureau of Public Roads, October 1966.

Smith, S. A., et al., Identification, Quantification, and Structuring of Two-Lane Rural Highway Safety Problems and Solutions, Volume II—Technical Report, Federal Highway Administration, July 1981.

Texas Transportation Institute, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, “Improved Procedures for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Roadside Safety Features,” NCHRP Project 22-9, ongoing

Turner, D. S., “Prediction of Bridge Accident Rates,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 110, No. 1, January 1984.

Woods, D.L., et al., “Remedial Safety Treatment of Narrow Bridges,” Traffic Engineering, March 1976.

Horizontal and Vertical Alignment

Council, F.M., “The Safety Effects of Spiral Transitions on Horizontal Curves,” Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, 1992.

Deacon, J., “Relationship Between Accidents and Horizontal Curvature,” in Designing Safer Roads: Practices for Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (Appendix D), Special Report 214, Transportation Research Board, 1987.

Fambro, D.B., K. Fitzpatrick, and R. Koppa, Determination of Stopping Sight Distances, NCHRP Report 400, Transportation Research Board, 1997.

Glennon, J.C., T.R. Neuman, and J.E. Leisch., Safety and Operational Considerations for Design of Rural Highway Curves, Report No. FHWA-RD-86/035, Federal Highway Administration, December 1985.

Hanley, K.E., A.R. Gibby, and T.C. Ferrara, The Evaluation of Accident Reduction Factors on California State Highways, Report No. FHWA/CA-TO-96, California Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, December 1996.

Hadi, et al., “Estimating Safety Effects of Cross Section Design for Various Highway Types Using Negative Binomial Regression,” Transportation Research Record 1500, Transportation Research Board, 1995.

Lamm, R., and E. M. Choueri, “Accident Rates on Curves as Influenced by Highway Design Elements Based on Investigations in the State of New York,” presented at the 66th annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 1987.

Li, J., W. Abdelwahad, and G. Brown, “Joint Effect of Access and Geometry on Two-Lane Rural Highway Safety in British Columbia,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, XXI (vi), 1994.

Lin, F.B., “Flattening Horizontal Curves on Two-Lane Highways,” Transportation Engineering Journal, American Society of Civil Engineers, March/April 1990.

Matthews, L. R., and J. W. Barnes, “Relation Between Road Environment and Curve Accidents,” Proceedings, 14th ARRB Conference, Part 4, 1988.

Miaou, S-P., “Development of Adjustment Factors for Single-Vehicle Run-Off-Road Accidents Rates by Horizontal Curvature and Grade,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, draft, August 3, 1995.

Miaou, S-P., “Vertical Grade Analysis Summary,” unpublished, May 1998.

Miaou, S-P., Measuring the Goodness-of-Fit of Accident Prediction Models, Report No. FHWA-RD-96-040, Federal Highway Administration, December 1996.

Neuman, T.R., and J.C. Glennon, “Cost-Effectiveness of Improvements to Stopping-Sight-Distance Safety Problems,” Transportation Research Record 923, Transportation Research Board, 1983.

Tom, G.K.J., “Accidents on Spiral Transition Curves,” ITE Journal, Vol. 65(9), September 1995.

Urbanik, T., W. Hinshaw, and D.B. Fambro, “Safety Effects of Limited Sight Distance on Crest Vertical Curves,” Transportation Research Record 1208, Transportation Research Board, 1989.

Zador, et al., Superelevation and Roadway Geometry: Deficiency at Crash Sites and Grades, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 1995.

Zegeer, C.V., et al., Safety Effectiveness of Highway Design Features: Volume II—Alignment, Report No. FHWA-RD-91-045, Federal Highway Administration, 1991.

Zegeer, C. V., J. R. Stewart, F. M. Council, D. W. Reinfurt, and E. Hamilton, “Safety Effects of Geometric Improvements on Horizontal Curves,” Transportation Research Record 1356, Transportation Research Board, 1992.

Zegeer, C., R. Stewart, D. Reinfurt, F. Council, T. Neuman, E. Hamilton, T. Miller, and W. Hunter, Cost-Effective Geometric Improvements for Safety Upgrading of Horizontal Curves, Report No. FHWA-RD-90-021, Federal Highway Administration, October 1991.

Intersections

Agent, K. R., “Development of Warrants for Left-Turn Lanes,” Research Report 526, Bureau of Highways, Kentucky Department of Transportation, Lexington, KY, July 1989.

Agent, K.R., and R.C. Deen, “Relationship Between Roadway Geometrics and Accidents,” Transportation Research Record 541, Transportation Research Board, 1975.

Bauer, K. M., and D. W. Harwood, Statistical Models of At-Grade Intersection Accidents,

Report No. FHWA-RD-96-125, Federal Highway Administration, 1996.

Brüde, U., and J. Larsson, Countermeasures at Junctions Taken As Part of the Regional Road Authorities’ Traffic Safety Program, VTI-Rapport 292, Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute, Linkoping, 1985.

Brüde, U., and J. Larsson, Effects on Traffic Safety of Road Improvements at Junctions, VTI-Rapport 310, Swedish Road and Traffic Institute, Linkoping, Sweden, 1985.

Brüde, U., and J. Larsson, Traffic Safety Effects of LHOVRA Signals, VTI-Meddelande 575, Swedish Road and Traffic Institute, Linkoping, Sweden, 1988

Brüde, U., and J. Larsson, Conversion from Stop to Yield. Effect on the Number of Personal Injury Accidents, VTI-Meddelande 695, Swedish Road and Traffic Institute, Linkoping, Sweden, 1992.

California Department of Public Works, Evaluation of Minor Improvements: Flashing Beacons, Safety Lighting, Left-Turn Channelization, Traffic Department, California of Public Works, 1967 (as cited in Reference 27).

Creasey, T., and K. R. Agent, “Development of Accident Reduction Factors,” Research Report UKTRP-85-6, Kentucky Transportation Research Program, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, March 1985.

Cribbins, P., and J. Walton, “Traffic Signals and Overhead Flashers at Rural Intersections: Their Effectiveness in Reducing Accidents,” Transportation Research Record 325, Transportation Research Board, 1970.

Dale, C. W., Cost-Effectiveness of Safety Improvement Projects, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, May 1973.

Datta, T. K., “Head-On, Left-Turn Accidents at Intersections with Newly Installed Traffic Signals,” Transportation Research Record 1318, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1991.

David, N.A., and J.R. Norman, Motor Vehicle Accidents in Relation to Geometric and Traffic Features of Highway Intersections: Vol. II—Research Report, Report No. FHWA-RD-76-129, Federal Highway Administration, 1976.

Elvik, R., Meta Analysis of Intersection Accidents, Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, Norway.

Ermer, O. J., “Accident Reduction Factors for Indiana,” Report No. FHWA/IN/JHRP-91/11, Joint Highway Research Program, Purdue University School of Engineering, Indiana Department of Transportation, May 1991.

Exnicios, H.F., “Accident Reduction Through Channelization of Complex Intersections,” in

Improved Street Utilization Through Traffic Engineering, Special Report 93, Highway research Board, 1967.

Glennon, J. C., et al., Technical Guidelines for the Control of Direct Access to Arterial Highways, Volume II: Detailed Description of Access Control Techniques, Report No. FHWA-RD-76-87, Federal Highway Administration, 1975.

Glennon, J. C., et al., Evaluation of Techniques for the Control of Direct Access to Arterial Highways, Report No. FHWA-RD-76-85, Federal Highway Administration, 1976.

Hagenauer, G. F., et al., “Chapter 5. Intersections,” in Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Traffic Control and Roadway Elements, Volume 1, Report No. FHWA-TS-82-232, Federal Highway Administration, December 1982.

Hall, D.L., K.C. Sinha, and H. Michael, “Comprehensive Evaluation of Nonsignalized Control at Low Volume Intersections,” Transportation Research Record 541, Transportation research Board, 1978.

Hanna, J.T., T.E. Flynn, and L.T. Webb, “Characteristics of Accidents in Rural Municipalities,” Transportation Research Record 601, Transportation Research Board, 1976.

Harwood, D.W., M.T. Pietrucha, M.D. Wooldridge, R.E. Brydia, and K. Fitzpatrick, Median Intersection Design, NCHRP Report 375, Transportation Research Board, 1995.

Hauer, E., J.C.N. Ng, and J. Lovell, “Estimation of Safety at Signalized Intersections,” Transportation Research Record, Transportation Research Board, 1988.

Helberg, N., S. Hemdorff, H. Hojgaard, H. Lund, and H. Ludvigsen, Effect of Stop Signs—Report of an Experiment at 4-Arm Junctions in Rural Areas, Working Report 8/1996, Danish Council for Road Safety Research, Gentofte, Denmark, 1996.

King, G.F., and R.B. Goldblatt, “Relationship of Accident Patterns to Type of Intersection Control,” Transportation Research Record 540, Transportation Research Board, 1975.

Kuciemba, S. R., and J. A. Cirillo, Safety Effectiveness of Highway Design Features: Intersections, Report No. FHWA-RD-91-048, Federal Highway Administration, November 1992.

Kulmala, R., Safety at Three- and Four-Arm Junctions: Development and Application of Accident Prediction Models, VTT Publication 233, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, 1995.

Lau, M.Y., and A.D. May, Accident Prediction Model Development: Signalized

Intersections, Research Report No. UCB-ITS-RR-88-7, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Berkeley, December 1988.

Lau, M.Y., and A.D. May, Accident Prediction Model Development: Unsignalized

Intersections, Research Report No. UCB-ITS-RR-89-12, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Berkeley, May 1989.

Leckie, D, Traffic Signalization—Before and After Accident Analysis, Ontario Department of Highways, Canada, 1971.

Lovell, J., and E. Hauer, “The Safety Effect of Conversion to All-Way STOP Control,” Transportation Research Record 1068, Transportation Research Board, 1986.

Maze, T. H., J. L. Henderson, and S. Sankar, “Impacts on Safety of Left-Turn Treatment at High-Speed Signalized Intersections,” Iowa Highway Research Board Project HR-347, Iowa State University, January 1994.

McCoy, P. T., W. J. Hoppe, and D. V. Dvorak, “Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Left-Turn Lanes on Uncontrolled Approaches of Rural Intersections (Abridgement),” Transportation Research Record 1026, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1985.

McCoy, P. T., and M. S. Malone, “Safety Effects of Left-Turn Lanes on Urban Four-Lane Roadways,” Transportation Research Record 1239, Transportation Research Board, 1989.

McCoy, P. T., E. J. Tripi, and J. A. Bonneson, “Guidelines for Realignment of Skewed

Intersections,” Final Report of Research Project No. RES2(0099) P471, Nebraska Department of Roads, November 1994.

New York State Department of Transportation, Effect of Signalization, Traffic and Safety Division, 1982.

Parker, M.R., et al., Geometric Treatments for Reducing Passing Accidents at Rural Intersections on Two-Lane Rural Highways: Vol I—Final Report, Report No. FHWA/RD-83/074, Federal Highway Administration, 1983.

Poch, M., “Geometric and Traffic-Related Elements that Influence Total, Rear-End, and Approach-Turn Intersection Approach Accidents,” M. Sc. Thesis, University of Washington, 1994.

Poch, M., and F. Mannering, ‘Negative Binomial Analysis of Intersection Accident

Frequencies,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 122, No. 2., March/April 1996.

Schoene, G.W., and H.L. Michael, Effects of a Change in Traffic Control Device on Intersection Accidents, Purdue University, Engineering Reprint CE 237, 1968.

Short, M.S., G.A. Woelfe, and C. Chang, “Effects of Traffic Signal Installation on Accidents,”

Accident Analysis and Prevention, 14, 1982.

Solomon, D., “Traffic Signals and Accidents in Michigan,” Public Roads, 30, 1959.

Washington, S.P., et al., Evaluation of High-Speed Isolated Intersections in California, Report No. FHWA/CA/TO/91-2, California Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, June 1991.

Passing Lanes and Short Four-Lane Sections

Harwood, D.W., and C.J. Hoban, Low-Cost Methods for Improving Traffic Operations on Two-Lane Roads, Report No. FHWA-IP-87-2, Federal Highway Administration, January 1987.

Harwood, D. W., and A. D. St. John, Passing Lanes and Other Operational Improvements on Two-Lane Highways, Report No. FHWA/RD-85/028, Federal Highway Administration, July 1984.

Harwood, D.W., A.D. St. John, and D.L. Warren, “Operational and Safety Effectiveness of Passing Lanes on Two-Lane Highways.” Transportation Research Record 1026, Transportation Research Board, 1985.

Nettelblad, P., Traffic Safety Effects of Passing (Climbing) Lanes: An Accident Analysis Based on Data for 1972-1977, Meddelande TU 1979-5, Swedish National Road Administration, 1979.

Rinde, E. A., Accident Rates vs. Shoulder Width, Report No. CA-DOT-TR-3147-1-77-01, California Department of Transportation, 1977.

Taylor, W.C., and M. Jain, “Warrants for Passing Lanes,” Transportation Research Record 1303, Transportation Research Board, 1991.

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