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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-130
Date: April 2007

The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Intersection Safety Indices (ISI) Calculators that accompany this user manual are available in a Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet format. Full functionality is only available in the Excel download. [Download pedestrian calculator HTML , Excel] [Download bicycle calculator HTML , Excel]

Pedestrian and Bicyclist Intersection Safety Indices

User Guide

PDF Version (3 MB)

PDF files can be viewed with the Acrobat® Reader®

 

FOREWARD

The primary objective of this study was to develop safety indices to allow engineers, planners, and other practitioners to proactively prioritize intersection crosswalks and intersection approaches with respect to pedestrian and bicycle safety. The models in this study use easily collected, observable characteristics of an intersection to produce safety index values. Practitioners will be able to use these models on a small or large scale to determine where best to focus efforts to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety.

Michael Trentacoste, Director
Director, Office of Safety
Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

 

TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATION

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-06-130

2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Pedestrian and Bicyclist Intersection Safety Indices: User Guide

5. Report Date

April 2007

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

Daniel L. Carter, William W. Hunter, Charles V. Zegeer, and J. Richard Stewart

8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center
Highway Safety Research Center
University of North Carolina
730 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, CB #3430
Chapel Hill, NC 27599

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61-00-C-00071

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

User Guide, 2001-2005

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

15. Supplementary Notes

Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR): Ann Do, HRDS-06. Sprinkle Consulting, Inc., Lutz, FL, was a subcontractor.

16. Abstract

The primary objective of this study was to develop safety indices to allow engineers, planners, and other practitioners to proactively prioritize intersection crosswalks and intersection approaches with respect to pedestrian and bicycle safety. The study involved collecting data on pedestrian and bicycle crashes, conflicts, avoidance maneuvers, and subjective ratings of intersection video clips by pedestrian and bicycle experts. There were a total of 68 intersection crosswalks selected for the pedestrian analysis from the cities of Philadelphia, PA; San Jose, CA; and Miami-Dade County, FL. The bicycle analysis included 67 intersection approaches from Gainesville, FL; Philadelphia, PA; and Portland and Eugene, OR.

Prioritization models were developed based on expert safety ratings and behavioral data. Indicative variables included in the pedestrian safety index model included type of intersection control (signal or stop sign), number of through lanes, 85th percentile vehicle speed, main street traffic volume, and area type. Indicative variables in the bicycle safety models (for through, right-turn, and left-turn bike movements) included various combinations of: presence of bicycle lane, main and cross street traffic volumes, number of through lanes, presence of on-street parking, main street speed limit, presence of traffic signal, number of turn lanes, and others. Through this User Guide, practitioners will be able to use the safety indices to identify which crosswalks and intersection approaches have the highest priority for in-depth pedestrian and bicycle safety evaluations and subsequently use other tools to identify and address potential safety problems.

17. Key Words

Pedestrian safety, bicyclist safety, safety index, safety rating, crosswalk safety, intersection prioritization.

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

51

22. Price
Form DOT F 17000.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page is authorized

 


SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

CHAPTER 2. DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER 3. PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE INTERSECTION SAFETY INDICES

CHAPTER 4. EXAMPLES OF PED ISI AND BIKE ISI APPLICATION

CHAPTER 5. Q & A ON MODEL APPLICATION

CHAPTER 6. COUNTERMEASURE SELECTION

APPENDIX A. DATA COLLECTION FORMS

APPENDIX B. QUICK REFERENCE TABLES

REFERENCES

This User Guide is accompanied by two Microsoft® ExcelTM spreadsheets:

  • Ped ISI Calculator.xls
  • Bike ISI Calculator.xls

These spreadsheets can be used to calculate safety index values quickly and precisely for the Ped ISI or Bike ISI.

 


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Sample illustration for pedestrian survey.  
Figure 2. Sample video clip for pedestrian survey.  
Figure 3. Sample illustration for bicycle survey.  
Figure 4. Sample video clip for pedestrian survey.  
Figure 5. Illustration of pedestrian crossing.  
Figure 6. Illustration of bicycle approach.  
Figure 7. Bicycle facility types.  
Figure 8. Examples of LTCROSS values.  
Figure 9. Examples of RTCROSS values.  
Figure 10. Examples of TURNVEH values.  
Figure 11. Crosswalk view of pedestrian example intersection.  
Figure 12. Diagonal view of pedestrian example intersection.  
Figure 13. Overhead view of pedestrian example intersection (image courtesy of the United States Geological Survey).  
Figure 14. Spreadsheet calculation of Ped ISI value.  
Figure 15. Quick reference table—pedestrian (signalized and noncommercial area).  
Figure 16. Street view of bicycle example 1.  
Figure 17. Street view of bicycle example 1.  
Figure 18. Overhead photo of bicycle example 1 (image courtesy of the United States Geological Survey).  
Figure 19. Spreadsheet calculation of safety index values for bicycle example 1.  
Figure 20. Quick reference table—bicycle through (signalized with no bike lane).  
Figure 21. Quick reference table—bicycle right turn.  
Figure 22. Quick reference table—bicycle left turn (signalized with no bike lane).  
Figure 23. Street view of bicycle example 2.  
Figure 24. Street view of bicycle example 2.  
Figure 25. Overhead view of bicycle example 2 (image courtesy of the United States Geological Survey).  
Figure 26. Spreadsheet calculation of bike ISI values for bicycle example 2.  
Figure 27. Street view of bicycle example 3.  
Figure 28. Street view of bicycle example 3.  
Figure 29. Overhead view of bicycle example 3 (image courtesy of the United States Geological Survey).  
Figure 30. Spreadsheet calculation of bike ISI values for bicycle example 3.  
 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Ped ISI model and variable descriptions.  
Table 2. Bike ISI models and variable descriptions.  
Table 3. Bike ISI model equations.  
Table 5. Pedestrian safety index—example data collection sheet.  
Table 6. Bicycle safety index—example data collection sheet.  
Table 7. Ped ISI and Bike ISI values.  
Table 8. Pedestrian safety index—signalized crossing in a commercial area.  
Table 9. Pedestrian safety index—signalized crossing in a noncommercial area.  
Table 10. Pedestrian safety index—stop-controlled crossing in a commercial area.  
Table 11. Pedestrian safety index—stop-controlled crossing in a noncommercial area.  
Table 12. Pedestrian safety index—uncontrolled crossing in a commercial area.  
Table 13. Pedestrian safety index—uncontrolled crossing in a noncommercial area.  
Table 14. Bicycle safety index—through movement—signalized intersection with bike lane.  
Table 15. Bicycle safety index—through movement—signalized intersection with no bike lane.  
Table 16. Bicycle safety index—through movement—unsignalized intersection with bike lane.  
Table 17. Bicycle safety index—through movement—unsignalized intersection with no bike lane.  
Table 18. Bicycle safety index—right-turn movement.  
Table 19. Bicycle safety index—left-turn movement—signalized intersection with bike lane.  
Table 20. Bicycle safety index—left-turn movement—signalized intersection with no bike lane.  
Table 21. Bicycle safety index—left-turn movement—unsignalized intersection with bike lane.  
Table 22. Bicycle safety index—left-turn movement—unsignalized intersection with no bike lane.  

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