Area Source Small stationary and non-transportation pollution sources that are too small and/or numerous to be included as point sources but may collectively contribute significantly to air pollution (e.g., dry cleaners).
Attainment Area An area considered to have air quality that meets or exceeds the U.S. EPA national ambient air quality standards, which EPA establishes according to the requirements of the Clean Air Act. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a nonattainment area for others. Nonattainment areas are areas designated by EPA as not meeting a standard for a pollutant.
Carbon Monoxide (CO) A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas formed in large part by incomplete combustion of fuel. Human activities (e.g., transportation or industrial processes) are largely the source for CO contamination in ambient air.
Congestion Management and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program A categorical funding program under the Federal-aid Highway Program. CMAQ directs funding to projects that contribute to meeting or maintaining national ambient air quality standards in nonattainment and maintenance areas. CMAQ funds generally may not be used for projects that result in the construction of new capacity available to SOVs (single-occupant vehicles).
Emissions Inventory A complete list of sources and amounts of pollutant emissions within a specific area and time interval.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) The Federal regulatory agency responsible for administering and enforcing Federal environmental laws including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and others.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) An agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation that provides financial and technical support for constructing, improving, and preserving America’s highway system.
Federal Transit Administration (FTA) An agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation that provides stewardship of combined formula and discretionary programs to support a variety of locally planned, constructed, and operated public transportation systems throughout the United States.
High Occupancy Vehicles (HOVs) Generally applied to vehicles carrying two or more people; freeways, expressways, and other large volume roads may have lanes designated for use by carpools, vanpools, and buses. The term HOV is also sometimes used to refer to high-occupancy vehicle lanes themselves.
Highway Term applies to roads, streets, and parkways, and also includes rights-of-way, bridges, railroad crossings, tunnels, drainage structures, signs, guardrails, and protective structures in connection with highways.
Hydrocarbons (HC) Colorless gaseous compounds originating from evaporation and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.
Inspection and Maintenance Program (I/M) An emissions testing and inspection program implemented to ensure that the catalytic or other emissions control devices on in-use vehicles are properly maintained over time.
Land Use Refers to the manner in which portions of land or the structures on them are used (i.e., commercial, residential, retail, industrial, etc.).
Lapse Means that the conformity determination for a metropolitan transportation plan or TIP has expired, and thus there is no currently conforming metropolitan transportation plan and TIP.
Maintenance Area Any geographic region of the United States previously designated nonattainment pursuant to the CAA Amendments of 1990 and subsequently re-designated to attainment subject to the requirement to develop a maintenance plan under Section 175A of the CAA, as amended.
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) The policy board of an organization created and designated to carry out the metropolitan transportation planning process.
Metropolitan Transportation Plan The official multimodal metropolitan transportation plan addressing no less than a 20-year planning horizon that is developed, adopted, and updated by the MPO through the metropolitan transportation planning process.
Metropolitan Transportation Plan/TIP Amendment A revision to a metropolitan transportation plan or TIP that involves a major change to a project included in a metropolitan transportation plan or TIP including the addition or deletion of a project or a major change in project cost, project/project phase initiation dates, or a major change in design concept or design scope (e.g., changing project termini or the number of through traffic lanes). Changes to projects that are included only for illustrative purposes do not require an amendment. An amendment is a revision that requires public review and comment, re-demonstration of fiscal constraint, or a conformity determination (for those involving “non-exempt” projects in nonattainment and maintenance areas).
Metropolitan Transportation Plan/TIP Update Making current a metropolitan transportation plan or TIP through a comprehensive review. Updates require public review and comment, a 20-year horizon year for the metropolitan transportation plan, a four-year program period for TIPs, demonstration of fiscal constraint, and a conformity determination (in nonattainment and maintenance areas).
Mobile Sources Include motor vehicles, aircraft, seagoing vessels, and other transportation modes. The mobile source related pollutants are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons or volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter.
Mode A form of transportation such as an automobile, bus, or bicycle.
Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget (MVEB) That portion of the total allowable emissions defined in the submitted or approved control strategy implementation plan revision or maintenance plan for a certain date for the purpose of meeting reasonable further progress milestones or demonstrating attainment or maintenance of the NAAQS, for any criteria pollutant or its precursors, allocated to highway and transit vehicle use and emissions.
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Those standards established pursuant to Section 109 of the CAA. Conformity applies in areas that are nonattainment or maintenance for one or more of the NAAQS of the transportation-related pollutants: ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.). It is the major legislation that requires Federal actions to address potential environmental impacts.
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) A group of highly reactive gases that contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts. Many of the nitrogen oxides are colorless and odorless. NOx is formed when the oxygen and nitrogen in the air react with each other during combustion. The primary sources of nitrogen oxides are motor vehicles, electric utilities, and other industrial, commercial, and residential sources that burn fuels.
Nonattainment Area Geographic region of the United States that the EPA has designated as not meeting the NAAQS.
Oxygenated Gasoline Gasoline enriched with oxygen-bearing liquids to reduce CO production by permitting more complete combustion.
Ozone (O3) A pollutant that is not directly emitted from transportation sources. It is a secondary pollutant formed when HC and NOx combine in the presence of sunlight. Ozone is associated with smog or haze conditions. Although the ozone in the upper atmosphere protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays, ground-level ozone produces an unhealthy environment in which to live. Ozone is created by human and natural sources.
Particulate Matter (PM, PM2.5, PM10) Any material that exists as solid or liquid in the atmosphere. Particulate matter may be in the form of fly ash, soot, dust, fog, fumes, etc. Particulate matter can be of such a small size that it cannot be filtered by the nose and lungs. PM10 is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in size. PM2.5 is particulate matter that is less than 2.5 microns in size. A micron is one millionth of a meter.
Parts Per Million (PPM) A measure of air pollutant concentrations.
Public Participation The active and meaningful involvement of the public in the development of metropolitan transportation plans and programs.
Public Transportation Generally refers to passenger service provided to the general public along established routes with fixed or variable schedules at published fares. Related terms include: public transit, mass transit, urban transit, and paratransit.
Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) Gasoline specifically developed to reduce undesirable combustion products.
State Implementation Plan (SIP) The State air quality plan for meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (“NAAQS” or “air quality standards”). It is a compilation of legally enforceable rules and regulations prepared by a State or local air quality agency and submitted by the State’s governor to EPA for approval. A SIP is designed to achieve better air quality by attaining, making progress toward attaining, or maintaining the NAAQS.
Stationary Source Relatively large, fixed sources of emissions (e.g., chemical process industries, petroleum refining and petrochemical operations, or wood processing).
Telecommuting The substitution, either partially or completely, of transportation to a conventional office through the use of computer and telecommunications technologies (e.g., telephones, personal computers, modems, facsimile machines, electronic mail).
Transportation Conformity Process to assess the compliance of any metropolitan transportation plan, program, or project with air quality implementation plans. The conformity process is defined by the Clean Air Act and regulated by the conformity rule.
Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) Any measure that is specifically identified and committed to in the applicable implementation plan, including a substitute or additional TCM that is incorporated into the applicable SIP through the process established in the CAA Section 176(c)(8), that is either one of the types listed in Section 108 of the CAA, or any other measure for the purpose of reducing emissions or concentrations of air pollutants from transportation sources by reducing vehicle use or changing traffic flow or congestion conditions. Notwithstanding the first sentence of this definition, vehicle technology-based, fuel-based, and maintenance-based measures that control the emissions from vehicles under fixed traffic conditions are not TCMs for the purposes of transportation conformity.
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) A prioritized listing/program of transportation projects covering a period of four years that is developed and formally adopted by an MPO as part of the metropolitan transportation planning process, consistent with the metropolitan transportation plan, and required for projects to be eligible for funding under Title 23 USC and Title 49 USC Chapter 53.
Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) The sum of distances traveled by all motor vehicles in a specified region.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) VOCs come from vehicle exhaust, paint thinners, solvents, and other petroleum-based products. A number of exhaust VOCs are toxic, with the potential to cause cancer.