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INFORMATION: Updated Interim Guidance on Mobile Source Air Toxic Analysis in NEPA Documents
Date: October 18, 2016
In Reply Refer To:
Acting Director, Office of Natural Environment
Federal Lands Highway Division Engineers
The purpose of this memorandum is to update the December 2012, Interim Guidance that advised Federal Highway (FHWA) Division Offices on when and how to analyze Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSAT) within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review process for proposed highway projects.
This update was prompted by recent changes in the emissions model required for conducting emissions analysis. In 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released MOVES2014,1 the latest major update of the Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) vehicle emissions model, and started a 2-year grace period to phase in the requirement of using MOVES2014 for transportation conformity analysis. Beginning October 7, 2016, project sponsors should use MOVES2014 (or minor revisions such as MOVES2014a,2 which is the most recent version of MOVES released by EPA) to conduct emissions analysis for both transportation conformity determinations and for NEPA purposes.
This Updated Interim Guidance incorporates new analysis conducted using MOVES2014a. Based on FHWA’s analysis using MOVES2014a, diesel particulate matter (diesel PM) remains the dominant MSAT of concern for highway projects. We have also provided an update on the status of scientific research on air toxics. This Updated Interim Guidance supersedes the December 2012 Interim Guidance and should be referenced in NEPA documentation.
Controlling air toxic emissions became a national priority with the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, whereby Congress mandated that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulate 188 air toxics, also known as hazardous air pollutants. The EPA assessed this expansive list in its rule on the Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Mobile Sources (Federal Register, Vol. 72, No. 37, page 8430, February 26, 2007), and identified a group of 93 compounds emitted from mobile sources that are part of EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).3 In addition, EPA identified nine compounds with significant contributions from mobile sources that are among the national and regional-scale cancer risk drivers or contributors and non-cancer hazard contributors from the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA).4 These are 1,3-butadiene,acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, diesel particulate matter (diesel PM), ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, naphthalene, and polycyclic organic matter. While FHWA considers these the priority mobile source air toxics, the list is subject to change and may be adjusted in consideration of future EPA rules.
According to EPA, MOVES2014 is a major revision to MOVES2010 and improves upon it in many respects. MOVES2014 includes new data, new emissions standards, and new functional improvements and features. It incorporates substantial new data for emissions, fleet, and activity developed since the release of MOVES2010. These new emissions data are for light- and heavy-duty vehicles, exhaust and evaporative emissions, and fuel effects. MOVES2014 also adds updated vehicle sales, population, age distribution, and vehicle miles travelled (VMT) data. MOVES2014 incorporates the effects of three new Federal emissions standard rules not included in MOVES2010. These new standards are all expected to impact MSAT emissions and include Tier 3 emissions and fuel standards starting in 2017 (79 FR 60344), heavy-duty greenhouse gas regulations that phase in during model years 2014-2018 (79 FR 60344), and the second phase of light duty greenhouse gas regulations that phase in during model years 2017-2025 (79 FR 60344). Since the release of MOVES2014, EPA has released MOVES2014a. In the November 2015 MOVES2014a Questions and Answers Guide,5 EPA states that for on-road emissions, MOVES2014a adds new options requested by users for the input of local VMT, includes minor updates to the default fuel tables, and corrects an error in MOVES2014 brake wear emissions. The change in brake wear emissions results in small decreases in PM emissions, while emissions for other criteria pollutants remain essentially the same as MOVES2014.
Using EPA’s MOVES2014a model, as shown in Figure 1, FHWA estimates that even if VMT increases by 45 percent from 2010 to 2050 as forecast, a combined reduction of 91 percent in the total annual emissions for the priority MSAT is projected for the same time period.
FHWA PROJECTED NATIONAL MSAT EMISSION TRENDS 2010 – 2050
FOR VEHICLES OPERATING ON ROADWAYS
USING EPA’s MOVES2014a MODEL
Note: Trends for specific locations may be different, depending on locally derived information representing vehicle-miles travelled, vehicle speeds, vehicle mix, fuels, emission control programs, meteorology, and other factors
Source: EPA MOVES2014a model runs conducted by FHWA, September 2016.
Diesel PM is the dominant component of MSAT emissions, making up 50 to 70 percent of all priority MSAT pollutants by mass, depending on calendar year. Users of MOVES2014a will notice some differences in emissions compared with MOVES2010b. MOVES2014a is based on updated data on some emissions and pollutant processes compared to MOVES2010b, and also reflects the latest Federal emissions standards in place at the time of its release. In addition, MOVES2014a emissions forecasts are based on lower VMT projections than MOVES2010b, consistent with recent trends suggesting reduced nationwide VMT growth compared to historical trends.
Air toxics analysis is a continuing area of research. While much work has been done to assess the overall health risk of air toxics, many questions remain unanswered. In particular, the tools and techniques for assessing project-specific health outcomes as a result of lifetime MSAT exposure remain limited. These limitations impede the ability to evaluate how potential public health risks posed by MSAT exposure should be factored into project-level decision-making within the context of NEPA.
Nonetheless, air toxics concerns continue to arise on highway projects during the NEPA process. Even as the science emerges, the public and other agencies expect FHWA to address MSAT impacts in its environmental documents. The FHWA, EPA, the Health Effects Institute, and others have funded and conducted research studies to try to more clearly define potential risks from MSAT emissions associated with highway projects. The FHWA will continue to monitor the developing research in this field.
The NEPA requires, to the fullest extent possible, that the policies, regulations, and laws of the Federal Government be interpreted and administered in accordance with its environmental protection goals, and that Federal agencies use an interdisciplinary approach in planning and decision-making for any action that adversely impacts the environment (42 U.S.C. 4332). In addition to evaluating the potential environmental effects, FHWA must also take into account the need for safe and efficient transportation in reaching a decision that is in the best overall public interest (23 U.S.C. 109(h)). The FHWA policies and procedures for implementing NEPA are contained in regulation at 23 CFR Part 771.
The FHWA developed a tiered approach with three categories for analyzing MSAT in NEPA documents, depending on specific project circumstances:
For projects warranting MSAT analysis, all nine priority MSAT should be considered.
The types of projects included in this category are:
For projects that are categorically excluded under 23 CFR 771.117, or are exempt from conformity requirements under the Clean Air Act pursuant to 40 CFR 93.126, no analysis or discussion of MSAT is necessary. Documentation sufficient to demonstrate that the project qualifies as a categorical exclusion and/or exempt project will suffice. For other projects with no or negligible traffic impacts, regardless of the class of NEPA environmental document, no MSAT analysis is recommended. However, the project record should document in the EA or EIS the basis for the determination of no meaningful potential impacts with a brief description of the factors considered. Example language, which must be modified to correspond with local and project-specific circumstances, is provided in Appendix A.
The types of projects included in this category are those that serve to improve operations of highway, transit, or freight without adding substantial new capacity or without creating a facility that is likely to meaningfully increase MSAT emissions. This category covers a broad range of projects.
We anticipate that most highway projects that need an MSAT assessment will fall into this category. Examples of these types of projects are minor widening projects; new interchanges; replacing a signalized intersection on a surface street; and projects where design year traffic is projected to be less than 140,000 to 150,000 annual average daily traffic (AADT).
For these projects, a qualitative assessment of emissions projections should be conducted. This qualitative assessment should compare, in narrative form, the expected effect of the project on traffic volumes, vehicle mix, or routing of traffic and the associated changes in MSAT for the project alternatives, including no-build, based on VMT, vehicle mix, and speed. It should also discuss national trend data projecting substantial overall reductions in emissions due to stricter engine and fuel regulations issued by EPA. Because the emission effects of these projects typically are low, we expect there would be no appreciable difference in overall MSAT emissions among the various alternatives.
Appendix B includes example language for a qualitative assessment, with specific examples for four types of projects: (1) a minor widening project; (2) a new interchange connecting an existing roadway with a new roadway; (3) a new interchange connecting new roadways; and (4) minor improvements or expansions to intermodal centers or other projects that affect truck traffic. The information provided in Appendix B should be modified to reflect the local and project-specific situation.
In addition to the qualitative assessment, a NEPA document for this category of projects must include a discussion of information that is incomplete or unavailable for a project specific assessment of MSAT impacts, in compliance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 CFR 1502.22(b)). This discussion should explain how current scientific techniques, tools, and data are not sufficient to accurately estimate human health impacts that could result from a transportation project in a way that would be useful to decision-makers. Also in compliance with 40 CFR 150.22(b), this discussion should contain information regarding the health impacts of MSAT. See Appendix C.
This category includes projects that have the potential for meaningful differences in MSAT emissions among project alternatives. We expect a limited number of projects to meet this two-pronged test. To fall into this category, a project should:
Projects falling within this category should be more rigorously assessed for impacts. If a project falls within this category, you should contact the Office of Natural Environment (HEPN) and the Office of Project Development and Environmental Review (HEPE) in FHWA Headquarters for assistance in developing a specific approach for assessing impacts. This approach would include a quantitative analysis to forecast local-specific emission trends of the priority MSAT for each alternative, to use as a basis of comparison. This analysis also may address the potential for cumulative impacts, where appropriate, based on local conditions. How and when cumulative impacts should be considered would be addressed as part of the assistance outlined above. The NEPA document for this project should also include relevant language on unavailable information described in Appendix C.
If the analysis for a project in this category indicates meaningful differences in levels of MSAT emissions among alternatives, mitigation options should be identified and considered. See Appendix E for information on mitigation strategies.
You should also consult with HEPN and HEPE if you have a project that does not fall within any of the types of projects listed in category 3 above, but you think has the potential to substantially increase future MSAT emissions.
What we know about mobile source air toxics is still evolving. As the science progresses FHWA will continue to revise and update this guidance. The FHWA is working with Stakeholders, EPA and others to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of developing analysis tools and the applicability on the project-level decision documentation process. The FHWA wants to make project sponsors aware of the implications of the transition to the MOVES2014 model and that FHWA will be issuing updates to this interim guidance when necessary. Additional background information on MSAT-related research is provided in Appendix D.
The FHWA Headquarters and Resource Center staff, Victoria Martinez (787) 771-2524, James Gavin (202) 366-1473, and Michael Claggett (505) 820-2047, are available to provide information and technical assistance, support any necessary analysis, and limit project delays. All MSAT analysis beginning on or after October 7, 2016, should use the MOVES2014 model. Any MSAT analysis initiated prior to that date may continue to operate under the previous guidance and utilize MOVES2010. The FHWA offices and staff listed above are available to answer questions from project sponsors.
Appendix A – Prototype Language for Exempt Projects
Appendix B – Prototype Language for Qualitative Project Level MSAT Analysis
Appendix C – The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Provisions Covering Incomplete or Unavailable Information (40 CFR 1502.22) including a discussion of unavailable information for project-specific MSAT Health Impacts Analysis
Appendix D – FHWA Sponsored Mobile Source Air Toxics Research Efforts
Appendix E – MSAT Mitigation Strategies
1 Federal Register, Vol. 79, No. 194, page 60343, October 7, 2014. Available at: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-10-07/pdf/2014-23258.pdf
6 Using EPA's MOVES2014a emissions model, FHWA determined that this range of AADT would result in emissions significantly lower than the Clean Air Act definition of a major hazardous air pollutant (HAP) source, i.e., 25 tons/yr. for all HAPs or 10 tons/yr. for any single HAP. Variations in conditions such as congestion or vehicle mix could warrant a different range for AADT; if this range does not seem appropriate for your project, please consult with the contacts from HEPN and HEPE identified in this memorandum.