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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-15-058    Date:  February 2017
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-15-058
Date: February 2017


Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center R&D Communication Reference Guide



Table 9 outlines the elements to include for the most used references in a report. In addition to these reference items, the following items in a report also must be cited in the text and added to the reference list:

  • advertisement

  • blog

  • broadcast

  • brochure

  • cartoon

  • conference

  • congress

  • court case

  • database

  • dictionary

  • digital file

  • digital image

  • dissertation abstract

  • dissertation

  • editorial

  • encyclopedia
  • executive order

  • Federal bill/report/rule/

  • Government publication

  • interview

  • lecture

  • letter

  • magazine

  • mailing list

  • manuscript

  • map

  • music

  • musical recording

  • newsgroup

  • newsletter
  • newsletter

  • newspaper

  • online database

  • painting

  • pamphlet

  • patent

  • photo

  • press release

  • radio

  • raw data

  • report

  • reprinted work

  • review

  • scholarly project

  • software

  • television

  • thesis


It is important to use recoverable or accessible information in a document so that readers can find the original source from a reference. Personal emails or personal telephone conversations that are not published are normally added within the text or as a footnote and not a reference.(4)

Table 9. Reference information and examples.

Reference Elements to Include Example of Text for Reference List
Publication Author
Year of publication
Publication number
Publisher name
Publisher city and State
Optional page numbers
Optional URL of Web page (such as www.xyz.com/xxx/xxx.htm)
1. Jonas, P.G. and Scharosch, D.L. (1972). Ultrasonic Inspection of Butt Welds in Highway Bridges, Report No. CA–HY–MR–6210–1–72–36, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA.
Web page/
social media/
Author of Web page (if evident)
Year of publication
Name of Web page
Type of Web page (i.e., “Web page” or “Blog” or “Twitter comment”)
Publisher of Web page
Publisher city and State
URL of Web page (such as www.xyz.com/xxx/xxx.htm)
Date that the Web page was last accessed
2. Federal Highway Administration. (2006). “What’s New.” (website) McLean, VA. Available online: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/research/whatsnew.htm, last accessed August 13, 2016.
Workshop or meeting Author
Year of publication or presentation
Meeting name
Meeting sponsor
Meeting city and State
Optional URL of Web page (such as www.xyz.com/xxx/xxx.htm)
3. Gibbons, R., Andersen, C., and Hankey, J. (2005). “The Wet Night Visibility of Pavement Markings: A Static Experiment.” Presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
Article Article’s Author
Article title
Year of publication
Periodical Title
Page Number Range
Publisher name
Publisher city and State
Optional URL of Web page (such as www.xyz.com/xxx/xxx.htm)
4. Shiffrin, R. and Schneider, W. (1977). “Controlled and Automatic Human Information Processing: II. Perceptual Learning, Automatic Attending, and a General Theory.” Psychological Review, 84, pp.127–190, American Psychological Association, Philadelphia, PA.
Map Map title
Type: Map or Chart
Source Title
Advanced Info, Publication Info, Pages
Website Title
Date Published
Date Accessed
Person Accessed
5. “Washington, DC.” Map. Google Maps. Washington, DC. August 18, 2016. Accessed August 18, 2016. http://maps.google.com/xyz.xyz.
Scale: 1:24,000 ft



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