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Federal Highway Administration > Publications > Research > Structures > Critical Literature Review of High-Performance Corrosion Reinforcements in Concrete Bridge Applications

Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-4-093
Date: July 2004

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  1. Virmani, Y.P, Jones, W.R., and Jones, D.H., Public Roads, Vol. 84(3), 1984, p. 96.

  2. Koch, G.H., Brongers, P.H., Thompson, N.G., Virmani, Y.P, and Payer, J.H., Corrosion Costs and Prevention Strategies in the United States, Report No. FHWA-RD-01-156, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, March 2002.

  3. Yunovich, M, Thompson, N.G., and Virmani, Y.P., "Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks," Paper No. 03309 presented at CORROSION/03, San Diego, CA, March 10-14, 2003.

  4. Hausmann, D.A., Materials Protection, Vol. 6(10), 1967, p. 19.

  5. Li, L. and Sagüés, A.A., Corrosion, Vol. 57, 2001, p. 19.

  6. Sandberg, P. and Larsson, J., "Chloride Binding in Cement Pastes in Equilibrium with Synthetic Pore Solutions," in Chloride Penetration in Concrete Structures," Nordic Miniseminar, Göteborg, January 1993, Ed. L.-O. Nilsson (Chalmers Tekniska Hogskola, Göteborg), 1993, p. 98.

  7. Tritthart, J., Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 19, 1989, p. 683.

  8. Glass, G.K. and Buenfeld, N.R., "Chloride Threshold Levels for Corrosion-induced Deterioration of Steel in Concrete," Paper No. 3 presented at RILEM International Workshop on Chloride Penetration into Concrete, Saint Rémy-les-Chevreuse, France, October 15-18, 1995.

  9. Bentur, A., Diamond, S, and Berke, N.S., Steel Corrosion in Concrete, E&FN Spon, London, UK, 1997, pp. 15-16.

  10. Code of Federal Regulations, Section 650.305, "Frequency of Inspections," U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, April 1, 2002 revision.

  11. Tutti, K., Corrosion of Steel in Concrete, Report No. 4, Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, 1982.

  12. Virmani, Y.P. and Clemena, G.G., Corrosion Protection: Concrete Bridges, Report No. FHWA-RD-98-088, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, September 1998.

  13. Powers, R.G. and Kessler, R., Corrosion Evaluation of Substructure, Long Key Bridge, Corrosion Report No. 87-9A, Florida Department of Transportation, Gainesville, FL, 1987.

  14. Powers, R.G., Corrosion of Epoxy-Coated Rebar, Keys Segmental Bridges Monroe County, Report No. 88-8A, Florida Department of Transportation, Gainesville, FL, August, 1988.

  15. Zayed, A.M. and Sagues, A.A., "Corrosion of Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete," Paper No. 386 presented at CORROSION/89, New Orleans, LA, April 21, 1989.

  16. Gustafson, D.P., "Epoxy Update," Civil Engineering, Vol. 58, No. 10, 1988, pp. 38-41.

  17. Houston, J.T., Atimay, E., and Ferguson, P.M., Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel Embedded in Structural Concrete, Report No. CFHR-3-5-68-112-1F, Center for Highway Research, University of Texas, Austin, TX, 1972.

  18. Ryell, J. and Richardson, B.S., Cracks in Concrete Bridge Decks and Their Contribution to Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel and Prestressed Cables, Report No. IR51, Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Commission, Ontario, Canada, 1972.

  19. Bamforth, P.B., "Definition of Exposure Classes and Concrete Mix Requirements for Chloride Contaminated Environments," Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete, Eds: Page, C.L., Treadaway, K.W.J., and Bamforth, P.B., Society of Chemical Industry, London, UK, 1996, p. 176.

  20. Howell, K.M. and Tinnea, J.S., "Corrosion Investigation and Mitigation of Reinforcing Steel Viaducts," Paper No. 00797 presented at CORROSION/00, Orlando, FL, March 26-31, 2000.

  21. Bamforth, P.B. and Price, W.F., "Factors Influencing Chloride Ingress into Marine Structures," Concrete 2000, Eds: Dhir, R.K. and Jones, M.R., E&FN Spon, London, UK, 1993, p. 1105.

  22. Standard Recommended Practice RP0290-2000, "Impressed Current Cathodic Protection of Reinforcing Steel in Atmospherically Exposed Concrete Structures," NACE International, Houston, TX, 2000.

  23. Miller, J.B., "Structural Aspects of High Powered Electrochemical Treatment of Reinforced Concrete," in Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Steel in Concrete," Ed. R.N. Swamy, Elsevier Applied Science, London, UK, 1994, p. 29.

  24. State-of-the-Art Report 01101, "Electrochemical Chloride Extraction from Steel Reinforced Concrete," NACE International, Houston, TX, 2001.

  25. Andrade, C. and Macias, A., "Galvanized Reinforcement in Concrete," in Surface Coatings-2, Ed. A.D. Wilson, .W. Nicholson, and H.J. Posser, Elsevier Applied Science, London, UK, p. 137.

  26. Andrade, C., Holst, J.D., Nurenberger, U., Whiteley, J.D., and Woodman, N., Protection Systems for Reinforcement, CEB Information Bulletin No. 211, Switzerland, 1992.

  27. Bower, J.E., Friedersdorf, L.E., Heuhart, B.H., Marder, A.R., and Juda, A.I., Application of Stainless Steel and Stainless-Clad Reinforcing Bars in Highway Construction, Report No. HWA-PA-2000-011+96-31(04), Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, University Park, PA, November 27, 2000.

  28. Wheat, H.G. and Deshpande, P.G., "Alternative Reinforcement Materials for Concrete-A State of the Art Review," Paper No. 01652 presented at CORROSION/01, Houston, TX, March 11-16, 2001.

  29. McDonald, J.B., Pfiefer, D.F., and Blake, G.T., The Corrosion Performance of Inorganic-, Ceramic-, and Metallic-Clad Reinforcing Bars and Solid Metallic Reinforcing Bars in Accelerated Screening Tests, Report No. FHWA-RD-96-085, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, October 1996.

  30. Stainless Steel in Concrete-State of the Art Report, European Federation of Corrosion Publication No. 18, Ed. U. Nürnberger, Institute of Materials, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996.

  31. A615/A615M "Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement," Annual Book of Standards, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 2004.

  32. Wilde, B.E., "A Critical Appraisal of Some Popular Laboratory Electrochemical Tests for Prediction the Localized Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel in Sea Water," Corrosion, Vol. 28, 1972, p. 283.

  33. Galvele, J.R., "Transport Processes and the Mechanism of Pitting of Metals," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 123, April 1976, p.464-474.

  34. Galvele, J.R., "Transport Processes in Passivation Breakdown-II. Full Hydrolysis of the Metal Ions," Corrosion Science, Vol. 21(8), 1981, p.551-579.

  35. Muller, I.L. and J.R. Gavele, "Pitting Potential of High Purity Aluminum Alloys-II. Al-Mg and Al-Zn Alloys," Corrosion Science, Vol. 17, 1977, p. 995-1007.

  36. Hurley, M.F. and Scully, J.R., "Chloride Threshold Levels in Clad 316L and Solid 316LN Stainless Steel Rebar," Paper No. 02224 presented at CORROSION/02, Denver, CO, 2002.

  37. Bertonini, L., Bolzoni, T., Pastore, P., and Pedeferri, P., "Behavior of Stainless Steel in Simulated Concrete pore Solution," British Corrosion Journal, Vol. 31, 1996, p. 218.

  38. Sorensen, B., Jensen, P.B., and Maahn, E., "The Corrosion Properties of Stainless Steel Reinforcement," in Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete, Ed. C.L. Page et al., Elsevier, London, UK, 1990, pp. 601-605.

  39. Nurnberger, U., Beul, W., and Onuseit, G., "Corrosion Behavior of Welded Stainless Reinforced Steel in Concrete," Otto-Graf-Journal, Vol. 4, 1993, p. 225.

  40. Treadaway, K.W.J., "Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement in Concrete Construction," Materials Preservation Group, Society of Chemical Industry, London, UK, 1978.

  41. Treadaway, K.W.J., Cox, R.N., and Brown, B.L., "Proceedings," Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 1, Vol. 86, 1989, p. 305.

  42. Callaghan, B.G. and Hearn, I.R., "The Use of 3Cr12 as Reinforcing in Concrete," paper presented to the South African Corrosion Institute, Cape Town, South Africa, April 1989.

  43. McDonald, J.B., Pfiefer, D.F., and Sherman, M.R., Corrosion Evaluation of Epoxy-Coated, Metallic-Clad, and Solid Metallic Reinforcing Bars in Concrete, Report No. FHWA-RD-98-153, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, December 1998.

  44. Hope, B.B., Some Corrosion Aspects of Stainless Steel Reinforcement in Concrete Bridges, Report No. MI-181, Ontario Ministry of Transportation, November 24, 2000.

  45. Clemeña, G.G and Virmani, Y.P., "Comparison of the Corrosion Resistance of Selected Metallic Reinforcing Bars for Extension of Service Life of Future Concrete Bridges in Outdoor Concrete Blocks," Paper No. 03298 presented at CORROSION/03, San Diego, CA, March 16-20, 2003.

  46. Rasheeduzzafar, Dakhil, F.H., Bader, M.A., and Khan, M.M., "Performance of Corrosion Resisting Steels in Chloride-Bearing Concrete," ACI Materials Journal, September-October, 1992, p. 439.

  47. Flint, G.N. and Cox, R.N., "The Resistance of Stainless Steel Partly Embedded in Concrete to Corrosion by Seawater," Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 40, 1988, p. 13.

  48. Miller, R.L., Hartt, W.H., and Brown, R.P., "Stary Current and Galvanic Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete," Materials Performance, Vol. 15(5), 1976, p. 20.

  49. Darwin, D., Browning, J., Balma, J., Ji, J., Gong, L., Nguyen, T.V., and Locke, C.E., "Corrosion Resistant Reinforcing Steel," paper presented at the Concrete Bridge Conference, Chicago, IL, Oct. 9, 2002,.

  50. Pfeifer, D.W. and Scali, M.J., "Concrete Sealers for Protection of Bridge Substructures," National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 244, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, December 1981.

  51. Jenkins, J.F., Validation of Nitronic 33 in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete, Report No. TN-1764, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, July 1986.

  52. Darwin, D., Browning, J., Nguyen, T.V., and Locke, C.E., Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of a High Strength, High Chromium Reinforcing Steel for Concrete, Report No. SD2001-05-F, South Dakota Department of Transportation, Pierre, SD, March 2002.

  53. Lopez, J., New Jersey Department of Transportation, unpublished research.

  54. Ansley, M.H., Investigation into the Structural Performance of MMFX Reinforcing, Florida Department of Transportation Structures Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL, September 2002.

  55. Cui, F. and Sagüés, A.A., "Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Clad Rebar," Paper No. 01645 presented at CORROSION/01, Houston, TX, March 11-16, 2001.

  56. Cui, F. and Sagüés, A.A., "Corrosion Performance of Stainless Steel Clad Reinforcing Bar in Concrete," Paper No. 03310 presented at CORROSION/03, San Diego, CA, March 16-20, 2003.

  57. "Pier in Progreso, Mexico: Inspection Report Evaluation of the Stainless Steel Reinforcement," RAMBOLL Consulting Engineers and Planners, Denmark, March 1999.

  58. Castro-Borges, P., de Rincón, O.T, Moreno, E.I., Torres-Acosta, A.A., Martínez-Madrid, M., and Knudsen, A., "Performance of a 60-Year-Old Concrete Pier with Stainless Steel Reinforcement," Materials Performance, Vol. 41(10), 2002, p. 50.

  59. McDonald, D.B., Sherman, M.R., Pfeifer, D.W., and Virmani, Y.P., "Stainless Steel Reinforcing as Corrosion Protection," Concrete International, May 1995.

  60. Ip, A.K.C, Pianca, F., and Hope, B.B, "Application of Stainless Steel Reinforcement for Highway Bridges in Ontario," paper presented at the CONSEA Conference, Norway, 1998.

  61. Hope, B.B., Some Corrosion Aspects of Stainless Steel Reinforcement in Concrete, Report No. MI-181, Ontario Ministry of Transportation, November 24, 2000.

  62. Pianca, F., Assessment of Stainless Steel Clad Reinforcement for Ministry Use, Concrete Section, Materials Engineering and Research Office, Ontario Ministry of Transportation, December 2000.


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