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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-14-051    Date:  July 2014
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-14-051
Date: July 2014


Design Criteria for Adaptive Roadway Lighting


  1. U.S. Department of Transportation, Reduced Lighting on Freeways During Periods of Low Traffic Density, Publication No. FHWA-RD-86-018, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1985.

  2. Griffith, M.S., Comparison of the Safety of Lighting Options on Urban Freeways, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1994.

  3. Janoff, M.S., Staplin, L.K., and Arens, J.B., "The Potential for Reduced Lighting on Roadways," Public Roads, 50(2), 1986, pp. 33-42.

  4. ANSI/IES (2000, reaffirmed 2005), American National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting (RP-8-00), 2000 (reaffirmed 2005).

  5. Box, P.C., "IERI Project 85-67: Relationship Between Illumination and Freeway Accidents," Illuminating Engineering, 66(5), 1971, pp. 365.

  6. Box, P.C., "Major Road Accident Reduction by Illumination," Transportation Research Record 1247, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1989, pp. 32-38.

  7. Hilton, M.H., A Comparison of Full and Partial Lighting on Two Sections of Roadway (VHTRC 80-R52), Virginia Highway & Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, VA, 1980.

  8. Richards, S.H., "The Effects of Reducing Continuous Roadway Lighting to Conserve Energy: A Case Study," SAFE Journal, 9(1), 1979, pp. 24-26.

  9. Monsere, C.M., Yin, T., and Wolfe, M., Understanding the Safety Effects of Roadway Illumination Reductions, Portland State University for Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem, OR, 2007.

  10. Boyce, P.R., Fotios, S., and Richards, M., "Road Lighting and Energy Saving," Lighting Research and Technology, 41(3), 2009, pp. 245-260.

  11. Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Lighting of Roads for Motor and Pedestrian Traffic (CIE 115:2010, 2nd ed.), International Commission on Illumination, Vienna, Austria, 2010.

  12. Meyer, J., Gibbons, R., and Edwards, C., Development and Validation of a Luminance Camera (09-UL-003), National Surface Transportation Safety Center for Excellence, Blacksburg, VA, 2009, retrieved from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/VTTI/reports/Luminance_Camera_021109.pdf.

  13. Gibbons, R. and Edwards, C., Advanced Street Lighting Technologies Assessment Project-City of San Jose, prepared by Mutmansky, M., Givler, T., Garcia, J., and Clanton, N., Virginia Tech Transportation Institute, Blacksburg, VA, 2010.

  14. Denial of Petition for Rulemaking, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, 62 Fed. Reg. 184 (Sep. 23, 1997), pp. 49,663-49,664.

  15. Gibbons, R.B., Edwards, C., Williams, B., and Andersen, C.K, Informational Report on Lighting Design for Midblock Crosswalks, FHWA-HRT-08-053, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, 2008.

  16. Clanton, N., Gibbons, R., Garcia, J., and Terry, T., Evaluation of Adaptive Lighting in the City of Seattle, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, Portland, OR, in press, 2014.

  17. Hankey, J.M., Blanco, M., Gibbons, R.B., McLaughlin, S.B., and Dingus, T.A., Enhanced Night Visibility Series, Volume I: Executive Summary (FHWA HRT-04-132), FHWA, Washington, DC, 2005.

  18. Gibbons, R.B., Edwards, C.J., Bhagavathula, R., Carlson, P.J., and Owens, D.A., Visual Modeling: Exploring Relationships Between Nighttime Driving Behavior and Roadway Visibility Features (Paper 12-3783), presented at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2012.

  19. Assum, T., Bjørnskau, T., Fosser S., and Sagberg, F. "Risk Compensation-The Case of Road Lighting," Accident Analysis & Prevention, 31(5), 1999, pp. 545-553, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(99)00011-1.

  20. Lord, D., Manar, A., and Vizioli, A., "Modelling Crash-Flow Density and Crash-Flow V/C Ratio Relationships for Rural and Urban Freeway Segments," Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37, 2005, pp. 185-199.

  21. Gibbons, R.B., Hankey, J.M., and Pashaj, I., Wet Night Visibility of Pavement Markings (VTRC 05-CR4), Virginia Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, VA, October 2004.

  22. Transportation Research Board, HCM 2010: Highway Capacity Manual 2010, retrieved from http://hcm.trb.org.


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