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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-15-065    Date:  September 2015
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-15-065
Date: September 2015


Safety Evaluation of Wet-Reflective Pavement Markings



  1. U.S. Department of Transportation. (2014) “Guidance on Treatment of the Value of a Statistical Life (VSL) in U.S. Department of Transportation Analyses—2014 Adjustment.” Memo, June 13, 2014. http://www.dot.gov/sites/dot.gov/files/docs/VSL_Guidance_2014.pdf. Accessed November 12, 2014.

  2. Minnesota Department of Transportation. (2015) “Pavement Markings & Delineation.” http://www.dot.state.mn.us/trafficeng/pavement/index.html. Accessed August 12, 2015.

  3. Carlson, P., Park, E., and Kang, D. (2013) “Investigation of Longitudinal Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity and Safety.” Transportation Research Record 2337, p. 59–66. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

  4. Smadi, O., Souleyrette, R.R., Ormand, D.J., and Hawkins, N. (2008) An Analysis of the Safety Effectiveness of Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity. 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, TRB 2008 Annual Meeting CD-ROM.

  5. Donnell, E.T., Karwa, V., and Sathyanarayanan, S. (2009) A Methodology to Explore the Relationship Between Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity and Traffic Crash Frequency on Highways in North Carolina: Application of Artificial Neural Networks and the Generalized Estimating Equations. TRB 88th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM. Washington, DC.

  6. Bahar, G., Masliah, M., Erwin, T., Tan, E., and Hauer, E. (2006) Pavement Marking Materials and Markers: Real-World Relationship Between Retroreflectivity and Safety Over Time. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Web-Only Document 92.

  7. Hauer, E. (1997) Observational Before-After Studies in Road Safety—Estimating the Effect of Highway and Traffic Engineering Measures on Road Safety. Pergamon, Oxford, UK.

  8. Office of Management and Budget. (2003). Circular A-4. https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars_a004_a-4/. Accessed August 12, 2015.

  9. Council, F., Zaloshnja, E., Miller, T., and Persaud, B. (2005) Crash Cost Estimates by Maximum Police-Reported Injury Severity within Selected Crash Geometries. FHWA-HRT-05-051, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.



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