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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-18-044    Date:  October 2018
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-18-044
Date: October 2018

 

Safety Evaluation of Protected Left-Turn Phasing and Leading Pedestrian Intervals on Pedestrian Safety

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FOREWORD

The research documented in this report was conducted as part of the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) Evaluation of Low-Cost Safety Improvements Pooled Fund Study (ELCSI-PFS). FHWA established this PFS in 2005 to conduct research on the effectiveness of the safety improvements identified by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 500 Guides as part of the implementation of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Strategic Highway Safety Plan. The ELCSI-PFS studies provide a crash modification factor and benefit–cost economic analysis for each of the targeted safety strategies identified as priorities by the pooled fund–member States.

The research for this report evaluated the safety effects of two countermeasures with respect to vehicle–pedestrian crashes: the provision of protected or protected/permissive left-turn phasing and the provision of leading pedestrian intervals (LPIs). The strategies aim to improve pedestrian safety at intersections. Study results indicate the left-turn phasing countermeasure reduced vehicle–vehicle injury crashes but did not significantly reduce vehicle–pedestrian crashes, and the LPI countermeasure reduced vehicle–pedestrian crashes. This document is intended for safety engineers; highway designers, planners, and practitioners at State and local agencies involved with the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan implementation; and those with interests in greater intersection safety.

James S. Pol, P.E., PMP
Acting Director, Office of Safety
Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

 

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-18-044

2. Government Accession No.

 

3 Recipient's Catalog No.

 

4. Title and Subtitle

Safety Evaluation of Protected Left-Turn Phasing and Leading Pedestrian Intervals on Pedestrian Safety

5. Report Date

October 2018

6. Performing Organization Code

 

7. Author(s)

Elissa Goughnour, Daniel Carter, Craig Lyon, Bhagwant Persaud, Bo Lan, Piljin Chun, Ian Hamilton, and Kari Signor

8. Performing Organization Report No.

 

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

VHB
8300 Boone Blvd., Ste. 700
Vienna, VA 22182-2626

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

 

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61-13-D-00001

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Ave. SE
Washington, DC 20590-3660

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Safety Evaluation; August 2014–August 2018

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

HRDS-30

15. Supplementary Notes

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safety Research and Development (R&D) managed this study under the Development of Crash Modification Factors Program. The FHWA Office of Safety R&D Contracting Officer’s Program and Task Manager was Ann Do (HRDS-30).

16. Abstract

The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety effects of two countermeasures with respect to vehicle–pedestrian crashes—the provision of protected or protected/permissive left-turn phasing and the provision of leading pedestrian intervals (LPIs)—using a before–after empirical Bayesian methodology. The study used data from North American cities that had installed one or both of the countermeasures of interest, including Chicago, IL; New York City, NY; Charlotte, NC; and Toronto, ON. This study showed that the provision of protected left-turn phasing reduced vehicle–vehicle injury crashes but did not produce statistically significant results for vehicle–pedestrian crashes overall. A disaggregate analysis of the effect of protected or protected/permissive left-turn phasing on vehicle–pedestrian crashes indicated that this strategy may be more beneficial when there are higher pedestrian and vehicle volumes, particularly above 5,500 pedestrians per day. At these high-volume locations, the left-turn phasing evaluation resulted in a potential benefit–cost (B/C) ratio range of 1:15.6::1:38.9. The evaluation of LPIs showed that the countermeasure reduced vehicle–pedestrian crashes. This evaluation produced a crash modification factor of 0.87 with a potential B/C ratio range of 1:207::1:517.

17. Key Words

Leading pedestrian interval, left turn, pedestrian, low-cost, safety improvements, empirical Bayesian

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available through the National Technical Information Service,
Springfield, VA 22161.
http://www.ntis.gov

19. Security Classification
(of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classification
(of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

86

22. Price

 

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

 

 

 

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