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This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-95-153
Date: November 1996

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations: Literature Review




Guidelines From Comparable Systems

Using guidelines that originate from a comparable system could pose problems. The guidelines for any system reflect the user's information needs, sensory and mental capabilities, and physical characteristics. Only those guideline characteristics that are the same may be applied to ATIS/CVO applications.

Comparable systems guidelines may, in many cases, simply provide a basis from which to research and develop a set of guidelines that are unique to ATIS/CVO systems. Some of the guidelines that provide insight into design of these systems are summarized below:

  • For navigation tasks that require a track–up alignment (e.g., localization), an ERF is best; and for tasks that require a north–up alignment (e.g., reconnaissance), a WRF is best (Williams and Wickens, 1991; Aretz, 1991). Williams and Wickens (1991) stated that a north–up alignment provides a stable alignment and could be used in situations where precise control is not critical.

  • A visual momentum display can capture the benefits of a north–up alignment in tasks that require an ERF (Aretz, 1991).

  • In many cases, a perspective display is preferred over a plan view display. In general, "natural" displays provide improvements in decision time and crash avoidance performance (Ellis et al., 1987).

  • Pilots reported being concerned about losing their flying skills when using automated technology (e.g., automated cockpits). Older people were less concerned with this loss than younger people (McClumpha et al., 1991).

  • Giving pilots the ability to tailor their individual systems to their personal preferences pays high dividends in pilot acceptance, trust, and human/electronic teamwork (Judge et al., 1991).

  • Pilots react to and handle emergency situations much quicker when the complete emergency title (versus an abbreviated title) and checklist are provided (Reising and Hartsock, 1989).

  • Researchers found that filling warning symbols, simplifying shapes, and enhancing critical features decreases search time (Blackwell and Cuomo, 1991).

  • When a 10.3–m/s (20–knot) ground speed was displayed for the lead aircraft in formation flying, it was discovered that too much guessing occurred. A ground speed of 5.1 m/s (10 knots) appeared to supply all of the information necessary for satisfactory performance. However, pilots reported that they were more confident in the lead aircraft when the lead aircraft's speed was displayed in smaller increments (Kelly, 1983).

  • Pictorial displays with an omni–directional auditory cue were preferred over speech displays in an aircraft application (Robinson and Eberts, 1987).

  • A ship collision avoidance system that facilitates threat assessment and provides some indication of avoidance maneuvers (i.e., does not prevent maneuvers) was effective in making the maneuvers more predictable (CAORF Research Staff, 1978).

  • Though the AVM benefits in support of multiple–fleet management cannot be determined with certainty, the broad signpost and triangulation methods seem to offer the best benefit/cost ratio (Ferlis and Aaron, 1977).

  • AVI systems technology should be implemented now, even in the present–generation simple systems. AVI technology will develop best through evolutionary, rather than revolutionary, developments. That is, AVI designers will gain experience by installing and operating actual systems, and better understand needed developments (Koelle, 1991).

  • A rotating pointer format for the display of altitude and airspeed information should be incorporated into a standard set of HUD symbols (Ercoline and Gillingham, 1990).

  • Novel formats, such as trend bars, should also be considered for future standard HUD symbols (Ercoline and Gillingham, 1990).

  • Image intensification offers the best and most cost–effective solution to the needs of armored fighting vehicle drivers during poor visibility conditions (Hudson, 1986).


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