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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-95-153
Date: November 1996

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations: Literature Review



This report is one of a series of nine reports produced as part of a contract designed to develop precise, detailed human factors design guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO). Among the other topics discussed in the series are functional description of ATIS/CVO, comparable systems analysis, task analysis of ATIS/CVO functions, alternate systems analysis, identification and exploration of driver acceptance, and definition and prioritization of research studies.

This report documents ATIS and CVO system objectives and performance requirements. It provides basic information regarding the range of ATIS and CVO operational capabilities, a survey of ATIS and CVO systems, a preliminary set of ATIS and CVO scenarios, and a summary of system performance requirements.

Copies of this report can be obtained through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia, 22161, telephone (703) 487-4650, fax (703) 321-8547.

Jerry Reagan, Acting Director
Office of Safety and Traffic
Operations Research and Development



This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its content or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade and manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the object of the document.



1. Report No.


2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations: Literature Review

5. Report Date

November 1996

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

T. Dingus, M. Hulse, S. Jahns, J. Alves-Foss, S. Confer, A. Rice, I. Roberts, R. Hanowski, and D. Sorenson

8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

The Center for Computer-Aided Design

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa and

National Center for Advanced Transportation Technology,

University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)


11. Contract or Grant No.


12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Safety and Traffic Operations R&D
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101–2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Resource Materials: 10/92-1/93

14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes

Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR): Joe Moyer, HSR–30, Thomas Granda, SAIC

16. Abstract

The document type of resource materials.

The purpose of Task A was to conduct a literature review of human factors–applicable articles associated with Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and ATIS–related commercial vehicle operations (CVO) systems. Specifically, Task A was to assess existing human factors guidelines to determine their applicability to ATIS systems and identify research gaps that would be filled to establish complete and comprehensive ATIS guidelines. As with any literature review, the conduct of Task A was treated as a foundation for subsequent tasks. The duration of Task A (3 months) was such that some of the literature of interest could not be obtained prior to publication of this document. Thus, the literature review does not, in effect, end with this report.

17. Key Words

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS), Commerical Vehicle Operators (CVO), User Acceptance

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)


20. Security Classif. (of this page)


21. No. of Pages


22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)













  1. Organization of objectives within this report



AAA American Automobile Association

ACS Automatic Clearance Sensing

ADIS Advanced Driver Information Systems

ADVANCE Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation Concept

AMTICS Advanced Mobile Information and Communication System

ARI Army Research Institute

ASME American Society of Civil Engineers

ATIS Advanced Traveler Information Systems

ATLAS Acquisition par Télédiffusion de Logiciels Automobiles pour les Services

ATMS Automatic Traffic Management Systems

AV Advanced Vehicle

AVC Automatic Vehicle Classification

AVCS Automatic Vehicle Control Systems

AVI Automatic Vehicle Identification

AVL Automatic Vehicle Location

AVM Automatic Vehicle Monitoring

BAC Blood alcohol concentration

CAD computer-aided dispatch

CARIN Car Information and Navigation

CB Citizens band

CD Compact Disc

CD-I Compact Disc-Interactive

CD-ROM Compact Disc-Read Only Memory

CEC Commission of European Communities

CFL Cold-cathode Fluorescent Lamp

CRT Cathode Ray Tube

CVO Commercial Vehicle Operations

DOT Department of Transportation

DRIVE Dedicated Road Infrastructures for Vehicle Safety in Europe

D-STN LCD Double-Layered Super-Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Display

EP Electronic Placarding/Bill of Lading

ERTICO European Road Transport Telematics Implementation Coordination Organization

EUREKA European Research Coordination Agency

FCC Federal Communications Commission

FHWA Federal Highway Administration

FM frequency modulation

GM General Motors

GPS Global Positioning System

HAR Highway Assistance Readout

HELP Heavy-vehicle Electronic License Plate

HFL Hot-cathode Fluorescent Lamp

HIDO Highway Industry Development Organization

HMD Helmet/Head Mounted Display

HUD Head-up Displays

IGOR Interactive Guidance on Routes

IMSIS In-Vehicle Motorist Services Information Systems

IRANS In-Vehicle Routing and Navigation Systems

IRTE Integrated Road Transport Environment

ISIS In-Vehicle Signing Information Systems

ITE Institute of Transport Engineers

ITS Intelligent Transportation System

IVHS Intelligent Vehicle Highway System

IVNS In-Vehicle Navigation Systems

IVSAWS In-Vehicle Safety Advisory and Warning Systems

JSK Japan Traffic Management and Technology Association

LCD Liquid Crystal Display

LED Light-Emitting Diode

MADD Mothers Against Drunk Driving

MC Ministry of Construction

Minerve Media Intelligent pour l'Environnement Routier du Véhicule Européen

MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MPT Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications

NASA Nation Aeronautics and Space Administration

NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

NPA National Police Agency

NTIS National Technical Information Service

OBC On-board Computing

PAR Packet Access Radio

PROMETHEUS Program for European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety

RACS Road/Automobile Communication System

RDS Radio Data System

RDS-TMC Radio Data System-Traffic Management Center

RF radio frequency

RH relative humidity

RTI Road Transport Informantics

SAE Society of Automotive Engineers

SST Spread Spectrum Transmission

STRS Shared-Trunked Radio Systems

TFD Thin Film Diodes

TFT Thin Film Transistors

TMC Traffic Management Center

TN Twisted Nematic

TRB Transportation Research Board

TWC Two-way Real-time Communication

UMTRI University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute

VFD Vacuum Fluorescent Display

VICS Vehicle Information and Control System

WFL Warm-cathode Fluorescent Lamp

WIM Weigh in Motion




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