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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-95-197
Date: December 1996

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations: Comparable Systems Analysis


In-Vehicle Routing and Navigation Systems (IRANS)


  1. This subsystem has received the most attention in ITS applications. IRANS provides drivers with information about how to get from one place to another, and may include information on traffic operations and recurrent and non-recurrent urban traffic congestion. Seven functional components have been identified that have applications in both ATIS and CVO. They are:

    1. Trip planning.
    2. Multi-mode travel coordination and planning.
    3. Pre-drive route and destination selection.
    4. Dynamic route selection.
    5. Route guidance.
    6. Route navigation.
    7. Automated toll collection.

Two functional components were identified as CVO-specific:

    1. Route scheduling.
    2. Computer-aided dispatch.

These IRANS components are described in greater detail below:

Trip Planning

Trip planning is the route planning of long, multiple-destination journeys that may involve identifying scenic routes and historical sites, as well as coordinating hotel accommodations, restaurants, and vehicle services information.


Table 1. ATIS/CVO functional characteristics.




  Trip Planning ATIS and CVO
  Multi-Mode Travel Coordination ATIS and CVO
  Pre-Drive Route and Destination Selection ATIS and CVO
  Dynamic Route Selection ATIS and CVO
IRANS Route Navigation ATIS and CVO
  Route Guidance ATIS and CVO
  Automated Toll Collection ATIS and CVO
  Route Scheduling (CVO-Specific) CVO
  Computer-Aided Dispatch (CVO-Specific) CVO
  Broadcast Services/Attractions ATIS and CVO
IMSIS Services/Attractions Directory ATIS and CVO
  Destination Coordination ATIS and CVO
  Message Transfer ATIS and CVO
  Roadway SignðCGuidance ATIS and CVO
ISIS Roadway SignðCNotification ATIS and CVO
  Roadway SignðCRegulatory ATIS and CVO
  Immediate Hazard Warning ATIS and CVO
  Roadway Condition Information ATIS and CVO
IVSAWS Automatic Aid ATIS and CVO
  Manual Aid Request ATIS and CVO
  Vehicle Condition Monitoring ATIS and CVO
  Cargo and Vehicle Monitoring (CVO-Specific) CVO
  Fleet Resource Management CVO
CVO-Specific Dispatch CVO
  Regulatory Administration CVO
  Regulatory Enforcement CVO


Multi-Mode Travel Coordination and Planning

Coordination information is provided to the driver on different modes of transportation (e.g., buses, trains, and subways) in conjunction with driving a vehicle. This information might include real-time updates of actual bus arrival times and anticipated travel times.

Pre-Drive Route and Destination Selection

This function allows the driver to select any destination and/or route before departure. The characteristics for the pre-drive selections include entering and selecting the destination, departure time, and route to the destination. System information might include real-time or historical congestion information, estimated travel time, and routes that optimize parameters such as time or distance.

Dynamic Route Selection

Dynamic route selection refers to any route selection system that operates while the vehicle is not in PARK. This capability includes the presentation of updated traffic and incident information that might affect the driver's route selection. In addition, the system would alert the driver if she or he makes an incorrect turn and leaves the planned route. Dynamic route selection can generate a new route that accommodates the driver's new position.

Route Guidance

This capability includes turn-by-turn and/or directional information. This information can be in the form of a highlighted route on an electronic map, icons indicating turn directions on a HUD, or voice guidance.

Route Navigation

Route navigation provides information to help the driver to a selected destination; however, it does not include route guidance. It might include presenting an in-vehicle electronic map with streets, direction orientation, current location of vehicle, destination location, and location of services or attractions. Route navigation provides information typically found on paper maps.

Automated Toll Collection

This system would allow a vehicle to travel through a toll roadway without the need to stop to pay tolls; tolls would be deducted automatically from the driver's account as the vehicle is driven past toll collection areas.

Route Scheduling (CVO-Specific)

Route scheduling offers coordination of numerous driver-entered destinations to minimize travel time or to accommodate delivery schedules.

Computer-Aided Dispatch (CVO-Specific)

This is a computer-aided system that assists the dispatcher in generating routes that coordinate multiple stops that are defined or entered by the dispatcher. This function may indicate which fleet vehicle is best suited for a particular destination based on information such as type of cargo, location of vehicle, and delivery/pick-up time.





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