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Guide for Heat-Straightening of Damaged Steel Bridge Members

Appendix III: References and Other Sources of Information

American Railway Engineering Association, “Flame Shortening Eyebars to Equalize Stresses,” Bulletin No. 460.

American Welding Society, (1996). Bridge Welding Code, ANSI/AASHTO/ AWS D1. 5-96, Miami, FL.

Avent, R.R. (1987). “Use of Heat Straightening Techniques for Repair of Damaged Steel Structural Elements in Bridges.” Final Report, Louisiana Transportation Research Center, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, La.

Avent, R.R. (1988). “Heat Straightening of Steel: From Art to Science.” Proceedings., National Steel Construction Conference. Miami Beach, June, pp. 6-21.

Avent, R.R. (1989). “Heat-Straightening of Steel: Fact and Fable.” Journal Structural Engineering., ASCE, 115(11), 2773-2793.

Avent, R.R. (1992). “Designing Heat-Straightening Repairs.” Proceedings, National Steel Construction Conference, AISC, Las Vegas, Nev., June, pp. 21-23.

Avent, R.R. (1995) “Engineered Heat Straightening Comes of Age.” Modern Steel Construction, Vol. 35, No.2, Feb., pp. 32-39.

Avent, R.R. and Brakke, B.C. (1996). “Anatomy of Steel Bridge Heat-Straightening Project” Transportation Research Record, No. 1561, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. pp. 26-36.

Avent, R.R. and Fadous, G.M. (1988). “Heat-Straightening Prototype Damaged Bridge Girders”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 15, No. 7, July pp.1631-1649.

Avent, R.R. and Fadous, G.M. (1989). “Heat-straightening Techniques for Repair of Damaged Structural Steel in Bridges,” LTRC 223, Louisiana Transportation Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA.

Avent, R.R. and Fadous, G.M., and Boudreaux, R.J. (1991). “Heat-Straightening of Damaged Structural Steel in Bridges,” Transportation Research Board, No. 1319 TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC. pp. 86-93.

Avent, R. R. and Mukai, D.(1999-a). “Fundamental Concepts of Heat-Straightening Repair for Damaged Steel Bridges,” Transportation Research Record, No. 1680, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, pp. 47-54.

Avent, R. R. and Mukai, D. (1999-b). “Planning, Designing, and Implementing of Heat-Straightening Repair of Bridges,” Transportation Research Record, No. 1680, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, pp. 55-62.

Avent, R. R., and Mukai, D. (1999-c). Heat-Straightening Repair for Damaged Steel Bridges, Vol. 1: Management, Design and Techniques, Pub. No. FHWA-HIF-00-008 (CD-ROM), Federal Highway Administration, Washington DC.

Avent, R. R., and Mukai, D. J. (2001-a). “Engineered Heat-Straightening Repairs: A Case Study,” Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 95-102, Mar/Apr, 2001

Avent, R. R., and Mukai, D. J. (2001-b). “WhatYou Should Know About Heat Straightening Repair of Damaged Steel”, Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 38, No. 1, First Quarter, pp. 27-49.

Avent, R. R., and Mukai, D. (1999). Heat-Straightening Repair for Damaged Steel Bridges, Vol. 2: Case Study, Lake Charles, La., Pub. No. FHWA-HIF-00-008 (CD-ROM), Federal Highway Administration, Washington DC.

Avent, R. R., Mukai, D. J., and Heymsfield, E., (2001). “Repair of Localized Damage in steel by Heat Straightening”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 127, No. 10, October, pp. 1121-1128.

Avent, R. R., Mukai, D. J., Robinson, P. F., and Boudreaux, R. J., (2000-a). “Heat Straightening Damaged Steel Plate Elements,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 126, No. 7, pp. 747-754.

Avent, R. R., Mukai, D. J., and Robinson, P.F. (2000-b) “Heat Straightening Rolled Shapes”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 126, No. 7, pp. 755-763.

Avent, R. R., Mukai, D. J., and Robinson, P.F., (2000-c). “Effect of Heat Straightening on Material Properties of Steel,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 188-195.

Avent, R. R., Mukai, D. J, and Robinson, P.F., (2001). “Residual Stresses in Heat-straightened steel Members,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 18-25.

Avent, R.R., Robinson, P.F., Madan, A., and Shenoy, S. (1993) “Development of Engineering Design Procedures for Heat-Straightening Repair of Damaged Structural Steel in Bridges,” LTRC 251, Louisiana Transportation Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA.

Avent, R.R., A. Madan, and Shenoy,S. (1993) “Design and Implementation of Heat-Straightening Repair for Composite Deck-Girder Bridges.” Transportation Research Record 1392, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 90-98.

Bernard, P., and Schulze, K. (1966). “Flame Straightening in Ship-Building.” Mittelunge der BEFA (Beratungsstelle fur Autogen Technik), Köln, West Germany, 17(11), 2-6 (in German).

Blodgett, O. W. (1972). “Distortion . . . How Metal Properties Affect It.” Welding Engr., 57(2), 40-46.

Boudreaux, R.J. (1987). Heat Straightening of Steel: Identifying the Important Parameters and Predicting Member Response, thesis presented to Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge, LA., in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science.

Brockenbrough, R. L. (1970-a). “Theoretical Stresses and Strains From Heat Curving.” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 96(7), 1421-1444.

Brockenbrough, R. L., (1970-b). “Criteria for Heat Curving Steel Beams and Girders.” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 96(10), 2209-2226.

Brockenbrough, R. L., and Ives, K. D. (1970). “Experimental Stress and Strains from Heat Curving.” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 96(7), 1305-1331.

Burbank, B. B. (1968). “Straightening Distorted Weldments.” Report SR-185, Report to the Ship Structure Committee, U. S. Coast Guard, Washington D. C., July.

de Bejar, L.A., Robinson, P.F., and Avent, R.R. (1992). “Risk Consistent Estimate of Heat-Straightening Applications. I: Plates.” Journal of Structural Engineering., ASCE, 118(12), 3394-3409.

de Bejar, L.A., Robinson, P.F., and Avent, R.R. (1992). “Risk Consistent Estimate of Heat-Straightening Applications. II: Beams.” Journal of Structural Engineering., ASCE, 118(12), 3440-3426.

Connor, R. J., Kaufmann, E. J., and Urban, M. J. (2008). “Heat-Straightening Repair of Damaged Steel Bridge Girders: Fatugue and Fracture Performance.” NCHRP Report No. 604, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D. C.

Ditman, O. (1961). Determination of Thermal Shrinkage in Structural Steel, thesis presented to the University of Washington, at Seattle, Wash., in partial fulfillment of requirements for Master of Science degree.

Engineering-News Record, (1959). “How Fire Destroyed and Fire Repaired Air Force Hangers,” June 18, pp. 42-43.

“Flame Buckled This Steel . . . and Flame Straightened It, part 1.” (1959) Welding Engineer., 44(2), 43.

For Chin, W. (1962). Linear Shrinkage of Steel, thesis presented to the University of Washington, at Seattle, Wash., in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science degree.

Gipson, G. S., and Ortiz, J. C. (1986). “Toward an Analytical Description of the Heat-Straightening Phenomenon-The Thermal Problem.” SECTAM XIII Proc., 772-778.

Graham, R. (1975). “Investigation of Flame Straightening Methods for Steel Structures.” Manufacturing Development Report MDR 2-32075, Boeing Co., Oct. 30.

Harrison, H. L. (1950). A Study of the Holt Method of Heat (Contraction) Straightening , thesis presented to the University of Washington, at Seattle, Wash., in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Master of Science degree.

Harrison, H. L. (1952). “Straightening Structural Members in Place.” Welding Journal, 31(5), Res. Supplement, 257s-262s.

Harrison, H. L., and Mills, B. D., Jr. (1951). “Effects of light peening on the yielding of steel.” Welding Journal, 30(5), Res. Supplement, 251s-253s.

Higgins, T. R. (1966). “Discussion on the Effects of Flame Cambering on the Bending Strengthof I-beams.” Welding Journal, 45(6), Res. Supplement, 284s-288s.

Holt, J. E. (1955). “Flame Straightening: A Friend in Need.” Welding Engineering, 40(10), 44-46, (12), 30-31.

Holt, R. E. (1965). “Flame Straightening Basics.” Welding Engineer., 50(9), 49-53.

Holt, R. E. (1971). “Primary Concepts in Flame Bending.” Welding Engineer, 56(6), 416-424.

Holt, R. E. (1977). “How to Control and Correct Warping.” Welding Design and Fabrication, 49(6), 98-102.

Horton, D. L. (1973). Heat Curved Mild Steel Wide Flange Sections: An Experimental and Theoretical Analysis, thesis presented to the University of Washington, at Seattle, Wash., in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science degree.

“How Fire Destroyed and Fire Repaired Air Force hangars.” (1959). Engineering News Record, 162(24), 50-53.

Kihara, H., Nisida, M., and Fujita, Y. (1961). “On the Residual Stresses due to spot heating.” Document No. X-267-61, Int. Inst. of Welding, Commission X, Tokoyo, Japan.

“Kinks Go Up in Flames.” (1981) Engineering News Record, 206(15), 17.

Maeda, T., and Yada, T. (1961). “Investigation of Shrinkage Due to Multiple Spot Heating.” Document No. X-268-61, Int. Inst. Of Welding, Commission X, Tokoyo, Japan.

Maeda, T., and Yada, T., (1963). “Fundamental Nature of Shrinkage Distortion Due to Spot Heating on a Rectangular plate.” Document No. X-327-63, International Institute of Welding, Commission X, Tokoyo, Japan.

Masubuchi, K. (1960). “Calculation and Measurement of Residual Stresses Due to spot heating.” Document No. X-259-60, Int. Inst. of Welding, Commission X, Tokoyo, Japan.

Mishler, H.W., Evaluation of Repair Techniques for Damaged Steel Bridge Members, Transportation Research Board, Project 12-17, FY77.

Moberg, K. L. (1979). Damage Assessment and Contraction Straightening of Steel Structures, thesis presented to the University of Washington, at Seattle, Wash., in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Master of Science Degree.

Morris, J. J. (1949). “Controlled Distortion-An aid to metal working.” Welding Journal, 28(11), 1080-1082.

Newman, E. M. (1959). “Repair of Fire Damaged Structural Steel.” Military Engineering, 9(4), 488-450.

Nicholls, J. I., and Weerth, D. E. (1972). “Investigation of Triangular Heats Applied to Mild Steel Plates.” Engineering Journal, Oct., 137-141.

“Oxyacetylene Torches Straighten Fire-Warped Steel.” (1959). Welding Engineering, Mar., 44(3), 31-34.

Pattee, H. E., Evans, R. M., and Monroe, R. E.(1969). “Flame Straightening and its Effect on Base Metal Properties.” Summary Report to Ship Structure Committee concerning first phase of Project SR-185, Straightening Distorted Weldments, Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, Ohio, Aug.

Pattee, H. E., Evans, R. M., and Monroe, R. E. (1970). “Effect of Flame and Mechanical Straightening on Material Properties of Weldments.” Summary Report on Ship Structure Committee on Project SR-185, Straightening Distorted Weldments, BattelleMemorial Inst., Columbus, Ohio.

Pfeiffer, R. (1963). “The Flame Straightening of Sheeting and Sheet Metal Structures.” Mitteilungen der BEFA, Köln, West Germany, 14(9), 1-7 (in German).

Putherickal, J. (1992). “Effects of Heat Straightening Structural Steel”, Final Report for MLR-91-3, Iowa Dept. of Transportation, Ames, Iowa.

Robinson, P.F. (1991). Behavioral Characteristics of Damaged Steel Repaired by Heat Straightening, PhD thesis, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA.

Roeder, C. W. (1985). “Use of Thermal Stress for Seismic Damage Repair.” Final Report on NSF Grant CEE-82-05260, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Wash., Oct.

Roeder, C. W. (1986). “Experimental Study of Heat Induced Deformation.” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 112(10), 2247-2262.

Roeder, C. W. (1987). “Predictions of Deformations Due to Heat Curving.” Bridges and Transmission Line Structural, ASCE, New York, N. Y., 101-110.

Rothman, R. L. (1973). “Flame Straightening Quenched and Tempered Steels in Ship Construction.” Report No. 247, Ship Structs. Committee, U. S. Coast Guard, Washington D. C.

Rothman, R. L., and Monroe, R. E. (1973). “Effect of Temperature and Strain Upon Ship Steels.” Report No. 235, Ship Structs. Committee, U. S. Coast Guard, Washington D. C.

Shanafelt, G. O., and Horn, W. G. (1984). “Guidelines for Evaluation and Repair of Damaged Steel Bridge Members.” NCHRP Report No. 271, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D. C., June.

Sharma, M., Behavior of Heat Straightened Plates Bent Along the Minor Axis, ,” thesis presented to Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering.

Thatcher, W. M. (1967). “Horizontally Curved Steel Girders-Fabrication and Design Considerations.” Engineering Journal, 4(3), 107-112.

“The shortening of eyebars to equalize the stress.” (1946). Bulletin No. 460, American Railway Engineering Assocciation, Chicago, Ill., April.

Tsalman, L. B. (1959). “Straightening Welded Structures by Heating with an Oxyacetylene Flame.” Welding Production, Cambridge, U. K., 1(5), 29-31 (in Russian).

Verma, K. and Avent, R. R., (1998) “Heat Straightening Repair for Damaged Steel Bridge Members,” Proceedings, 1998 World Steel Bridge Symposium, Chicago, IL, pp 16-1-16-12.

Watanabe, M., and Satoh, K. (1951). “On the Correction of Distortion in Welded Thin Plate Structures.” Journal of Japan Welding Society, Tokoyo, Japan, 20, 194-202 (in Japanese).

Weerth, D. E. (1971). Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Heat Curved Mild Steel, thesis presented to the University of Washington, at Seattle, Wash., in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science.

Yang, C.Y. (1986). Random Vibration of Structures. Wiley-Interscience, New York, N.Y.

Yoch, A. E. (1957). “Flame Cambering Beams for Bridges.” Welding Engineering, 42(2), 71

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Updated: 07/23/2013
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