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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-13-066
Date: August 2013

 

Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Performance Testing - Axial Load Deformation Relationships

REFERENCES

  1. Adams, M., Nicks, J., Stabile, T., Wu, J., Schlatter, W., and Hartmann, J., "Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System Interim Implementation Guide". Report, FHWA-HRT-11-026, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2011a.

  2. Adams, M.T., Lillis, C.P., Wu, J.T.H., and Ketchart, K., "Vegas Mini Pier Experiment and Postulate of Zero Volume Change," Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Geosynthetics, Nice, France, 2002, pp. 389-394.

  3. ASTM D7181, "Standard Test Method for Consolidated Drained Triaxial Compression Test for Soils," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011.

  4. Adams, M.T., Ketchart, K., and Wu, J.T.H., "Mini Pier Experiments: Geosynthetic Reinforcement Spacing and Strength as Related to Performance," Geotechnical Special Publication 165, Geosynthetics in Reinforcement and Hydraulic Applications, Geo-Denver 2007, ASCE, Denver, CO, 2007.

  5. Adams, M., Nicks, J., Stabile, T., Wu, J., Schlatter, W., and Hartmann, J., "Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System Synthesis Report," Report, FHWA-HRT-11-027, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2011b.

  6. Juran, I., Guermazi, A., Chen, C.L. and Ider, M.H., "Modeling and simulation of load transfer in reinforced soils: Part 1".International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 12(2), John Wiley and Sons, 2005, pp. 141-155.

  7. Ketchart, K. and Wu, J.T.H. "Performance Test for Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil including Effects of Preloading," Report, FHWA-RD-01-018, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2001. <http://www.tfhrc.gov/structur/gtr/01-018.pdf >, retrieved on December 6, 2012.

  8. Elton, D.J. and Patawaran, M.A.B., "Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Reinforcement Tensile Strength from Tests of Geotextile Reinforced Soil," Technical Report, Alabama Highway Research Center, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 2005.

  9. Wu, J.T.H., Adams, M., Pham, T.Q., Lee, S.H., and Ma, C.Y., "A generic soil-geosynthetic composite test," International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 6(1), 2012, pp. 103-116.

  10. AASHTO, "LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Edition 5," Report, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, 2012.

  11. Wu, J.T.H., Pham, T.Q., and Adams, M.T., "Composite Behavior of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil (GRS) Mass," Report, FHWA-HRT-10-077, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2010.

  12. Wu, J.T.H. and Pham. T.Q., "Load-Carrying Capacity and Required Reinforcement Strength of Closely-Spaced Soil-Geosynthetic Composites," ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 139(1), Reston, VA, 2013.

  13. ASTM D3080, "Standard Test Method for DIRECT Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004.

  14. ASTM D4595, "Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Geotextiles by the Wide-Width Strip Method," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 4.13, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2006, pp. 40-50.

  15. AASHTO T-99, "Standard test methods for moisture density relations of soils and soil aggregate mixtures using 5.5 lb rammer and 12 in. drop. Standard specifications for highway materials and methods of sampling and testing," American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, 2011.

  16. ASTM D4253, "Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000.

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  20. ASTM D4632, "Standard Test Method for Grab Breaking Load and Elongation of Geotextiles, Annual Book of ASTM Standards," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008.

  21. Briaud J.-L., "Introduction to Soil Moduli," Geotechnical News, June 2001, BiTech Publishers Ltd, Richmond, BC, Canada, 2001. (geotechnicalnews@bitech.ca).

  22. Adams, M.T., "Performance of a Prestrained Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Bridge Pier," International Symposium on Mechanically Stabilized Backfill, Wu, J.T.H. (ed), Denver, Balkema, 1997, pp. 35-53.

  23. Wu, J.T.J., Ketchart, K., and Adams, M. "GRS Bridge Piers and Abutments," FHWA Research Report, FHWA-RD-00-038, FHWA, McLean, VA, 2000.

  24. Meyerhof, G.G., "The ultimate capacity of foundations on slopes," Procs., 4th Int. Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Found. Engrg., London, August, London, England, 1957, pp. 384-386.

  25. Pham, T.Q., "Investigating Composite Behavior of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Mass," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado, Denver CO, 2009.

  26. NAVFAC, "Soil Mechanics Design Manual 7.01," Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Alexandria, VA, 1986.

  27. Gibson, R.E., "Some results concerning displacements and stresses in a non-homogeneous elastic half space," Geotechnique, Vol. 17, 1967, pp. 58-67.

  28. Poulos, H.G. and Davis, E.H., "Elastic Solutions for Soil and Rock Mechanics," John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1974.

  29. Samtani, N.C., Nowatzki, E.A., and Mertz, D.R., "Selection of Spread Footings on Soils to Support Highway Bridge Structures," Report, FHWA-RC/TD-10-001, FHWA Resource Center, Matteson, IL, 2010.

  30. Nicks, J.E., Adams, M., Wu, J., "A new approach to the design of closely spaced geosynthetic reinforced soil for load bearing applications," TRB Annual Compendium of Papers, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC., 2013a.

  31. VanBuskirk, C.D., "Adoption and Implementation of GRS design concepts," 19th Vancouver Geotechnical Society Symposium, Vancouver Geotechnical Society, Vancouver, Canada, 2010.

  32. Nicks, J.E., Adams, M.T., and Alzamora, D.A., "Implications of MSE Connection Criteria for Frictionally Connected GRS Structures," Proceedings of Geosynthetics 2013, Long Beach, CA, 2013b.

  33. Wu, J.T.H., Lee, K.Z.Z., Helwany, S.B., and Ketchart, K., "Design and Construction Guidelines for GRS Bridge Abutment with a Flexible Facing," Report, No. 556, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Washington, DC, 2006.

  34. Bathurst, R.J. and Benjamin, D.J., "Failure of a Geogrid-Reinforced Soil Wall," Report, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1990, pp. 109-116.

  35. Barker, R.M., Duncan, J.M., Rojiani, K.B., Ooi, P.S.K., Tan, C.K., and Kim, S.G., "Manuals for the Design of Bridge Foundations," NCHRP Report 343, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1991.

  36. Paikowsky, S.G., Canniff, M.C., Lesny, K., Kisse, A., Amatya, S., and Muganga, R., "LRFD design and construction of shallow foundations for highway bridges," NCHRP Report 651, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2010.

  37. Kulicki, J.M., Prucz, Z., Clancy, C.M., Mertz, D.R., and Nowak, A.S., "Final Report for NCHRP Project 20-7/186: Updating the Calibration Report for AASHTO LRFD Code," Report, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC., 2007

  38. Benjamin, C.V.S., Bueno, B.S., Lodi, P.C. and Zornberg, J.G., "Installation and ultraviolet exposure of geotextiles," Fourth European Geosynthetics Conference, EuroGeo4, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 8-10 September, 2008, pp. 18.

  39. Grouni, H.N. and Nowak, A.S., "Calibration of the Ontario Bridge Design Code 1983 Edition," Canadian Journal of Civil Engrg. 11(4), 1984: pp. 760-770

  40. Paikowsky, S. G., with contributions from Birgisson, B., McVay, M., Nguyen, T., Kuo, C., Baecher, G., Ayyab, B., Stenersen, K., O’Malley, K., Chernauskas, L., and O’Neill, M., "Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for Deep Foundations, NCHRP (Final) Report 507," Report, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2004.

  41. Bathurst, R.J., Allen, T.M., and Nowak, A.S., "Calibration concepts for load and resistance factor design (LRFD) of reinforced soil walls," Canadian Geotechnical Journal, NRC Canada, Volume 45, 2008, pp. 1,377-1,392.

 

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