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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-02-034
Date: September 2005

Long-Term Pavement Performance Materials Characterization Program: Verification of Dynamic Test Systems With An Emphasis On Resilient Modulus

ALTERNATIVE TEXT

Figures

Figure 1. Graph. Example electrical schematic of voltage divider.

This figure is an electrical schematic of the resistive voltage divider necessary to divide the high voltage output from the function generator and generate the millivolt signal. This schematic is only to be used when the function generator does not have a low voltage output that follows the high voltage. The input to this circuit is the voltage from the function generator (not shown in this figure). The circuit simply consists of a resistor from which the high voltage output is obtained from the top of the resistor divider. This relatively high voltage is then fed to the unconditioned channel (reference) or the oscilloscope for monitoring. The low voltage output is obtained from the bottom of the resistor divider and this signal is used as the input signal to the conditioned channel being tested.

Return to Chapter 3

Figure 2. Chart. Example of micrometer reading versus displacement.

This figure displays an example plot of micrometer deformation in millimeters on the X-axis versus deformation device readings in millimeters on the Y-axis. Both X- and Y-axes range from negative 3.000 to 3.000 millimeters with 1-millimeter increments and cross at the zero origin. A regression line, Y = 0.99364 times X plus 0.00149, is fitted to the data points with coefficient of determination (R squared) equal to 0.999. The regression line appears to be straight, about thirty degrees counterclockwise from the X-axis; going from the third quadrant, passing through the origin, into the first quadrant.

Return to Chapter 4

Figure 3. Graph. Sample 445 newtons proving ring loading pattern.

This figure shows an example graph of 445 newtons proving ring load pattern. Time interval for the proving ring load to be applied is on the horizontal X-axis ranging from 0 to 500 seconds with 100-second increments. Proving ring load in newtons is on the vertical Y-axis ranging from 0 to 450 newtons with 50-newton increments. In the chart, a sinusoidal (pulse) line with increasing amplitude starts from the origin. The pulse-like line has multiple peaks increasing from 50 newtons to 450 newtons during the time interval between 5 and 400 seconds.

Return to Chapter 4

Figure 4. Graph. Example of proving ring versus load cell check.

In this figure, proving ring load in newtons is the horizontal X-axis ranging from 0 to 400 newtons with 100-newton increments. Load cell load in newtons is the vertical Y-axis ranging from 0 to 400 newtons with 50-newton increments. In the chart, an approximately 30-degree solid straight line (replicate 1) falls in between the dashed upper and lower limit lines.

Return to Chapter 4

Figure 5. Graph. Example of proving ring versus LVDT check.

In this figure, proving ring load deformation in millimeters is the horizontal X-axis ranging from 0 to 2.5 millimeters with 0.5 millimeters increment. Load cell load deformation in millimeters is the vertical Y-axis ranging from 0 to 2.5 millimeters with 0.5 millimeters increment. In the chart, an approximately 40-degree solid straight line (replicate 1) falls in between the dashed upper and lower limit lines.

Return to Chapter 4

Figure 6. Graph. Example of load pulse analysis.

Time interval for the 445 newton proving ring load to be applied is the horizontal X-axis ranging from 24.92 to 25.08 seconds with 0.02-second increments. Proving ring load in newtons is the vertical Y-axis ranging from 0 to 450 newtons with 50-newton increments. In the chart, an actual pulse data line, denoted by solid diamond dots, starts at 50 newtons around 24.94 seconds, peaks at 400 newtons around 24.99 seconds, and drops to 50 newtons around 25.04 seconds. The theoretical pulse line, denoted by blank diamond dots, closely approximates the actual data line. Both the actual and theoretical pulse lines fall within the maximum and minimum acceptance band limits.

Return to Chapter 4

Figure 7. Graph. Example of deformation response analysis.

In this figure, time is on the horizontal X-axis ranging from 0.48 to 0.62 seconds with 0.02-second increments. Deformation is on the vertical Y-axis ranging from 0 to 0.18 millimeters with 0.02-millimeter increments. In the chart, the theoretical deformation line is a single pulse falling in between the maximum and minimum acceptance bands. The actual deformation pulse line skews to the left with most of its data points falling out of the acceptance band limits.

Return to Chapter 4

Figure 8. Graph Sample results of dynamic haversine check, 445 newton load cell.

In this figure, cyclic load in newtons is on the horizontal X-axis ranging from 0 to 300 newtons with 50-newton increments. Deformation in millimeters is on the vertical Y-axis ranging from 0 to 0.45 millimeters with 0.05 millimeters increments. In the chart, two approximately 30-degree data lines (deformation inside transducer and outside transducer) fall in between the dashed upper (positive 5 percent) and lower (negative 5 percent) limit lines.

Return to Chapter 4

Figure 9. Graph. Example of system dynamic response check of 445 newton proving ring, 1 hertz.

In this figure, time in seconds is on the horizontal X-axis ranging from 0 to 2 seconds with 0.5-second increments. Newtons is on the vertical Y-axis ranging from 0 to 400 newtons with 50-newton increments. In the chart, a sine pulse line, starting at 0 seconds and 225 N, goes up and down for 2 seconds.

Return to Chapter 4

Figure 10. Graph. Example of load versus time check.

In this figure, time interval for the 445 newton proving ring load to be applied is on the horizontal X-axis ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 seconds with 0.05-second increments. Proving ring load in newtons is the vertical Y-axis ranging from 0 to 900 newtons with 100-newton increments. In the chart, an actual pulse data line peaks at 750 newtons around 0.46 seconds, which closely matches the theoretical pulse line. Both the actual and theoretical pulse lines fall within the maximum and minimum acceptance band limits.

Return to Chapter 5

Figure 11. Graph. Example of deformation response analysis, type 1.

In this figure, time is on the horizontal X-axis ranging from 0.48 to 0.62 seconds with 0.02-second increments. Deformation is the vertical Y-axis ranging from 0 to 0.18 millimeters with 0.02 millimeters increments. In the chart, the theoretical deformation line is a single pulse falling in between the maximum and minimum acceptance bands. The actual deformation pulse line skews to the left with most of its data points falling out of the acceptance band limits.

Return to Chapter 5

Figure 12. Graph Example of P46 type 1 (base/subbase) results.

In this figure, deviator stress is on the horizontal X-axis ranging from 0 to 300 kilopascals with 50-kilopascal increments. Resilient modulus in kilopascals is on the vertical Y-axis ranging from 0 to 400,000 kilopascals with 50,000-kilopascal increments. In the chart, five 15 to 30-degree straight data lines, going from lower left to upper right, cascade from the upper right to the lower left. The middle points of the five data lines fall on 330,000, 275,000, 225,000, 150,000, and 100,000 kilopascals, respectively.

Return to Chapter 5

Figure 13. Form. Sample checklist for base/subbase proficiency procedure.

The checklist includes the following key items:

  1. Equipment availability.
  2. Electronic systems performance verification check.
  3. Calibration check and overall system performance verification procedure.
  4. Type I (base/subbase) proficiency check including, E.G., specimen is compacted according to P46 protocol and moisture content with plus or minus 3 percent of specified.

Return to Chapter 5

Figure 14. Form. Sample form 1—data collection channel check.

Key items in form 1 include:

  1. Inspection date.
  2. Laboratory name.
  3. Equipment model.
  4. Channel designation.
  5. Input voltage amplitude.
  6. Table for data collection channels including:
    1. Input frequency in hertz.
    2. Input voltage
    3. Data acquisition recorded voltage.
    4. Data acquisition derived input-output delay.

Return to Chapter 4

Figure 15. Form. Sample form 2—determination of load cell zero reading.

Key items in form 2 include:

  1. Inspection date.
  2. Laboratory name.
  3. Equipment model.
  4. Table for load cell zero reading including:
    1. Load cell description.
    2. Model and serial numbers.
    3. Vendor.
    4. Capacity.
    5. Sensitivity
    6. Maximum zero value.
    7. Strain indicator error.
    8. Gauge factor on strain indicator.
    9. Balance range.
    10. Balance pot.
    11. Measured zero value.
    12. Load cell zero values within specified tolerances?
    13. Last calibration date.

Return to Chapter 5

Figure 16. Form. Example form 3—load cell check.

Key items in form 3 include:

  1. Inspection date.
  2. Laboratory name.
  3. Equipment model.
  4. Table for load cell check including:
    1. Nominal load.
    2. Dial gauge reading.
    3. Proving ring load level.
    4. Laboratory load cell.
    5. Ratio of proving ring to load cell readings.

Return to Chapter 5

Figure 17. Form. Sample form 4—dynamic load versus deformation check.

Key items in form 4 include:

  1. Inspection date.
  2. Laboratory name.
  3. Equipment model.
  4. Table for load versus deformation including:
    1. Nominal target load.
    2. Mean applied load.
    3. Mean LVDT reading.
    4. R subscript V equals Y subscript max divided by Y subscript min 1.1.
    5. Point within plus or minus 5 percent?

Return to Chapter 5

Figure 18. Form. Sample form 5—triaxial cell check.

Key items in form 5 include:

  1. Inspection date.
  2. Laboratory name.
  3. Equipment model.
  4. Triaxial chamber: Type 1 or 2 (circle one).
  5. Table for triaxial chamber including:
    1. Time interval for the load applied.
    2. Pressure levels 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

Return to Chapter 5

Figure 19. Form. Sample form 6—environmental chamber check.

Key items in form 6 include:

  1. Inspection date.
  2. Laboratory name.
  3. Equipment model.
  4. Table for environmental chamber including:
    1. Time interval for the load applied.
    2. Temperature levels 1, 2, and 3.

Return to Chapter 5

Figure 20. Form. Sample form 7—checklist for proficiency procedure.

The checklist includes the following key items:

  1. Equipment availability.
  2. Electronic systems performance verification check.
  3. Calibration check and overall system performance verification procedure.
  4. Type 1 (base/subbase) proficiency check including:
    1. Specimen is compacted according to P46 protocol.
    2. Moisture content with plus or minus 3 percent of specified, etcetera.
  5. Type 2 (subgrade) proficiency check including:
    1. Specimen is compacted according to P46 protocol.
    2. Moisture content with plus or minus 0.5 percent of specified, etcetera.

Return to Chapter 5

Figure 21. Form. Sample form 8—checklist for asphalt proficiency procedure.

The checklist includes the following key items:

  1. Equipment availability.
  2. Electronic systems performance verification check.
  3. Calibration check and overall system performance verification procedure.
  4. Asphalt proficiency testing including:
    1. Sample preparation.
    2. Core examination and thickness test performed, etcetera.
  5. Creep compliance testing.
  6. Resilient modulus testing.
  7. Strength testing.
  8. Calculations.
  9. Completion of data forms.
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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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