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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-03-031
Date: JUNE 2003

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Distress Identification Manual for The LTPP (Fourth Revised Edition)

Chapter 2. Distresses for Pavements With Jointed Portland Cement Concrete Surfaces

This section covers jointed (plain and reinforced) portland cement concrete-surfaced pavements (JCP), including jointed concrete overlays on PCC pavements.

Each of the distresses has been grouped into one of the following categories:

  1. Cracking
  2. Joint Deficiencies
  3. Surface Defects
  4. Miscellaneous Distresses

Table 2 summarizes the various types of distress and unit of measurement. Some distresses also have defined severity levels.

 

TABLE 2. Jointed Concrete-Surfaced Pavement Distress Types

  DISTRESS TYPE UNIT OF MEASURE DEFINED SEVERITY LEVELS?
 
1. Corner Breaks
Number Yes
 
2. Durability Cracking ("D" Cracking)
Number of Slabs, Square Meters Yes
 
3. Longitudinal Cracking
Meters Yes
 
4. Transverse Cracking Number
Meters Yes
 
5a. Transverse Joint Seal Damage
Number Yes
 
5b. Longitudinal Joint Seal Damage
Number, Meters No
 
6. Spalling of Longitudinal Joints
Meters Yes
 
7. Spalling of Transverse Joints
Number, Meters Yes
 
8a. Map Cracking
Number, Square Meters No
 
8b. Scaling
Number, Square Meters No
 
9. Polished Aggregate Square
Square Meters No
 
10. Popouts
Not Measured N/A
 
11. Blowups
Number No
 
12. Faulting of Transverse Joints and Cracks
Millimeters No
 
13. Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff
Millimeters No
 
14. Lane-to-Shoulder Separation
Millimeters No
 
15. Patch/Patch Deterioration
Number, Square Meters Yes
 
16. Water Bleeding and Pumping
Number, Meters No

A. Cracking

This section includes the following types of distresses:

  1. Corner Breaks
  2. Durability Cracking ("D" Cracking)
  3. Longitudinal Cracking
  4. Transverse Cracking

Figure 47 illustrates the proper measurement of crack width and width of spalling for cracks and joints.

FIGURE 47.  Measuring Widths of Spalls and Cracks in Jointed Concrete Pavement, Schematic drawing of the procedure for measuring widths of spalls and cracks in jointed concrete pavement.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in layers from the side, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a center line in the middle and edge stripe and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing shows a spalled crack, a spalled joint, and two cracks in the pavement.  The lane in the lower part of the drawing shows the same spalled crack, spalled joint and cracks as viewed from above.  The spalled crack runs along the entire width of the lane, with the spalled area across approximately one-half of the lane.  The spalled joint is located close to the center line and the size is approximately one-fourth of the width of the lane.  The two cracks vary; the first runs across the entire lane with no spalling, and the second runs through the wheel path with no spalling.  Vertical lines and arrows at the widest point of the spalls and cracks in both lanes indicate the area that should be measured to determine crack width.

FIGURE 47
Measuring Widths of Spalls and Cracks in Jointed Concrete Pavement

1. CORNER BREAKS

Description

A portion of the slab separated by a crack, which intersects the adjacent transverse and longitudinal joints, describing approximately a 45-degree angle with the direction of traffic. The length of the sides is from 0.3 m to one-half the width of the slab on each side of the corner.

Severity Levels

LOW
Crack is not spalled for more than 10 percent of the length of the crack; there is no measurable faulting; and the corner piece is not broken into two or more pieces and has no loss of material and no patching.

MODERATE
Crack is spalled at low severity for more than 10 percent of its total length; or faulting of crack or joint is < 13 mm; and the corner piece is not broken into two or more pieces.

HIGH
Crack is spalled at moderate to high severity for more than 10 percent of its total length; or faulting of the crack or joint is ≥ 13 mm; or the corner piece is SYMBOL broken into two or more pieces or contains patch material.

How to Measure

Record number of corner breaks at each severity level. Corner breaks that have been repaired by completely removing all broken pieces and replacing them with patching material (rigid or flexible) should be rated as a patch. If the boundaries of the corner break are visible, then also rate as a high severity corner break. Note: This does not affect the way patches are rated. All patches meeting the size criteria are rated.

FIGURE 48.  Distress Type JCP 1 - Corner Breaks, Schematic drawing of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 1 - corner breaks.  The drawing shows one lane of a pavement surface as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line at the top and a jointed shoulder edge at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  Another joint runs across the entire width of the lane; a crack runs diagonally across the lane from the mid slab area of this joint at a 45-degree angle to the jointed shoulder edge forming a triangular pattern at the corner of the two joints.

FIGURE 48
Distress Type JCP 1—Corner Breaks

FIGURE 49.  Distress Type JCP 1 - Low Severity Corner Break, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 1 - low severity corner break.  The photo shows a corner break with no spalling, visible faulting, or fragmentation into more than one piece between two intersecting joints in the road.  The size of the break is approximately 1500 mm wide and 1000 mm long as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph.

FIGURE 49
Distress Type JCP 1—Low Severity Corner Break

FIGURE 50.  Distress Type JCP 1 - Moderate Severity Corner Break, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 1 - moderate severity corner break.  The photo shows a corner break between two intersecting joints in the road with no visible faulting or fragmentation into more than one piece, but with spalling up to approximately 50 mm wide along approximately one-fourth of its length.  The size of the break is approximately 1000 mm wide and 800 mm long as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph.

FIGURE 50
Distress Type JCP 1—Moderate Severity Corner Break

 

2. DURABILITY CRACKING ("D" CRACKING)

Description

Closely spaced crescent-shaped hairline cracking pattern.

Occurs adjacent to joints, cracks, or free edges; initiating in slab corners. Dark coloring of the cracking pattern and surrounding area.

How to Measure

Record number of slabs with "D" cracking and square meters of area affected at each severity level. The slab and affected area severity rating is based on the highest severity level present for at least 10 percent of the area affected.

Severity Levels

LOW
"D" cracks are tight, with no loose or missing pieces, and no patching is in the affected area.

MODERATE
"D" cracks are well-defined, and some small pieces are loose or have been displaced.

HIGH
"D" cracking has a well-developed pattern, with a significant amount of loose or missing material. Displaced pieces, up to 0.1 m2, may have been patched.

FIGURE 51.  Distress Type JCP 2 - Durability Cracking (D Cracking), Schematic drawing of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 2 - durability cracking (D Cracking).  The drawing shows one lane of a pavement surface as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line at the top, a jointed shoulder edge at the bottom, and four slabs divided by three joints across the entire width of the lane.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  Approximately twenty crescent-shaped lines along the edges and corners of the joint between Slab 1 and Slab 2 represent well-developed cracks with a significant amount of loose and missing material, indicating high severity D cracking.  Approximately twenty crescent-shaped lines along the edges and corners of the joint between Slab 2 and Slab 3 represent well-developed cracks with no loose or missing material, indicating moderate severity D cracking.  Approximately ten crescent-shaped lines along the edges and corners of the joint between Slab 3 and Slab 4 represent tight cracks with no loose or missing material, indicating low severity D cracking.

FIGURE 51
Distress Type JCP 2—Durability Cracking ("D" Cracking)

FIGURE 52.  Distress Type JCP 2 - Moderate Severity D Cracking with Well-Defined Pattern, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 2 - moderate severity D Cracking with well-defined pattern.  The photo shows well-developed crescent-shaped cracking in the pavement at four corners formed by the intersection of two joints.  One of the joints is discolored and missing material for about 95 percent of the length visible in the photo.

FIGURE 52
Distress Type JCP 2—Moderate Severity "D" Cracking with Well-Defined Pattern

FIGURE 53.  Distress Type JCP 2 - High Severity D Cracking with Loose and Missing Material, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with high severity D Cracking with loose and missing material. The photo shows well-developed crescent-shaped cracking in the pavement at the four corners formed by the intersection of the centerline joint and crossing lane-wide joint, and at the two corners where the lane-wide joint intersects with the shoulder.  Both joints are discolored with a significant amount of loose and missing material.  The surface  where the joint meets the edge stripe at the shoulder has completely deteriorated.

FIGURE 53
Distress Type JCP 2—High Severity "D" Cracking with Loose and Missing Material

3. LONGITUDINAL CRACKING

Description

Cracks that are predominantly parallel to the pavement centerline.

Severity Levels

LOW
Crack widths < 3 mm, no spalling and no measurable faulting; or well-sealed and with a width that cannot be determined.

MODERATE
Crack widths ³ 3 mm and < 13 mm; or with spalling < 75 mm; or faulting up to 13 mm.

HIGH
Crack widths ³ 13 mm; or with spalling ³ 75 mm; or faulting ³ 13 mm.

FIGURE 54.  Distress Type JCP 3 - Longitudinal Cracking, Schematic drawing of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 3 - longitudinal cracking.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth along the width of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing shows two spalled areas of one long crack in the wheel path on one slab between two lane-wide joints, parallel to the center line.  The lane in the lower part of the drawing shows the same crack with two spalls that extend through approximately one-fifth of the crack's length, and a corner break as viewed from above.  Vertical lines and arrows at the widest point of the spalls and cracks in both lanes indicate the area that should be measured to determine spall width and crack width.

FIGURE 54
Distress Type JCP 3—Longitudinal Cracking

How to Measure

Record length in meters of longitudinal cracking at each severity level. Also record length in meters of longitudinal cracking with sealant in good condition at each severity level.

FIGURE 55.  Distress Type JCP 3 - Low Severity Longitudinal Cracking, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 3 - low severity longitudinal cracking.  The photo shows two lanes of a divided highway with a  pavement crack that has no visible spalling or faulting along the wheel path of the lane closest to and parallel to the shoulder.  The size of the crack is approximately 1500 mm long as indicated by the scale pictured in the center of the photograph.

FIGURE 55
Distress Type JCP 3—Low Severity Longitudinal Cracking

FIGURE 56.  Distress Type JCP 3 - Moderate Severity Longitudinal Cracking, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 3 - moderate severity longitudinal cracking.  The photo shows two lanes of highway with a well-developed pavement crack with spalling along the lane closest to and parallel to the shoulder.  The size of the crack is approximately 2500 mm long as indicated by the scale pictured in the center of the photograph.

FIGURE 56
Distress Type JCP 3—Moderate Severity Longitudinal Cracking

FIGURE 57.  Distress Type JCP 3 - High Severity Longitudinal Cracking, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 3 - high severity longitudinal cracking.  The photo shows a lane of highway with a well-developed pavement crack with extensive spalling that extends through three slabs and crosses two lane-wide joints.  The direction of the crack is mostly parallel to the shoulder, with some areas of irregularity.  The size of the crack is approximately 4500 mm long as indicated by the scale pictured in the center of the photograph.

FIGURE 57
Distress Type JCP 3—High Severity Longitudinal Cracking

 

4. TRANSVERSE CRACKING

Description

Cracks that are predominantly perpendicular to the pavement centerline.

Severity Levels

LOW
Crack widths < 3 mm, no spalling and no measurable faulting; or well-sealed and the width cannot be determined.

MODERATE
Crack widths ³ 3 mm and < 6 mm; or with spalling < 75 mm; or faulting up to 6 mm.

HIGH
Crack widths ³ 6 mm; or with spalling ³ 75 mm; or faulting ³ 6 mm.

FIGURE 58. Distress Type  JCP 4 - Transverse Cracking, Schematic drawing of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 4 - Transverse Cracking.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth along the width of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom, and with two joints across the width of the lane.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing shows two spalled areas of one long crack across the width of the lane.  The lane in the lower part of the drawing shows the same crack with the two spalls that extend through approximately half of the crack's length. There is a second crack with no spalling across the width of the lane.  There is a third perpendicular crack with no spalling that extends from the edge joint to the pavement joint close to the center line.  Arrows and lines indicate how to measure the triangular shape formed by the perpendicular crack, with E as the width from the point where the crack reaches the joint to the edge joint, and F as the length along the edge joint from the point where the crack starts to the pavement joint.  There is a note that indicates that the measurement of E is greater than the width of the crack divided by 2, which is greater than the measurement of F.  Vertical lines and arrows at the widest point of the spalls and cracks in both lanes indicate the area that should be measured to determine spall width and crack width.

FIGURE 58
Distress Type JCP 4—Transverse Cracking

How to Measure

Record number and length of transverse cracks at each severity level. Rate the entire transverse crack at the highest severity level present for at least 10 percent of the total length of the crack. Length recorded, in meters, is the total length of the crack and is assigned to the highest severity level present for at least 10 percent of the total length of the crack.

Also record the length, in meters, of transverse cracking at each severity level with sealant in good condition. The length recorded, in meters, is the total length of the well-sealed crack and is assigned to the severity level of the crack. Record only when the sealant is in good condition for at least 90 percent of the length of the crack.

FIGURE 59. Distress Type JCP 4 - Moderate Severity Transverse Cracking, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 4 - moderate severity transverse cracking.  The crack extends across the entire lane from the edge stripe to the center line and the crack width is approximately 5 mm, as indicated by the scale pictured in the center of the photograph.  The crack has a spalled area in each wheel path that is  approximately 50 mm wide.

FIGURE 59
Distress Type JCP 4—Moderate Severity Transverse Cracking

FIGURE 60.  Distress Type JCP 4 - High Severity Transverse Cracking, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 4 - high severity transverse cracking.  The crack extends across the entire lane from the edge stripe to the center line and the crack width is approximately 12 mm, as indicated by the scale pictured in the center of the photograph.  The crack has a spalled area in each wheel path and one in the center of the lane both approximately 75 mm wide.

FIGURE 60
Distress Type JCP 4—High Severity Transverse Cracking

 

B. Joint Deficiencies

This section includes the following types of distresses:

5a. Transverse Joint Seal Damage
5b. Longitudinal Joint Seal Damage
6. Spalling of Longitudinal Joints
7. Spalling of Transverse Joints

 

5. JOINT SEAL DAMAGE

Description

Joint seal damage is any condition which enables incompressible materials or water to infiltrate the joint from the surface. Typical types of joint seal damage are:

5a. TRANSVERSE JOINT SEAL DAMAGE

Severity Levels

LOW
Joint seal damage as described above exists over less than 10 percent of the joint.

MODERATE
Joint seal damage as described above exists over 10-50 percent of the joint.

HIGH
Joint seal damage as described above exists over more than 50 percent of the joint.

How to Measure

Indicate whether the transverse joints have been sealed (yes or no). If yes, record number of sealed transverse joints at each severity level. Any joint seal with no apparent damage is considered to be low severity.

5b. LONGITUDINAL JOINT SEAL DAMAGE

Severity Levels

None.

How to Measure

Record number of longitudinal joints that are sealed (0, 1, 2). Record total length of sealed longitudinal joints with joint seal damage as described above. Individual occurrences are recorded only when at least 1 m in length.

JOINTED PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE SURFACES

FIGURE 61.  Distress Type JCP 5 - Low Severity Joint Seal Damage, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 5 - low severity joint seal damage.  The area of the joint pictured is approximately 800 mm long as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph. The loss of sealant extends over less than 10% of the joint.

FIGURE 61
Distress Type JCP 5—Low Severity Joint Seal Damage

FIGURE 62.  Distress Type JCP 5 - Moderate Severity Joint Seal Damage, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 5 - moderate severity joint seal damage.  The area of the joint pictured is approximately 800 mm long as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph. The loss of sealant and cohesive failure extends over approximately 25% of the joint.

FIGURE 62
Distress Type JCP 5—Moderate Severity Joint Seal Damage

 

6. SPALLING OF LONGITUDINAL JOINTS

Description

Cracking, breaking, chipping, or fraying of slab edges within 0.3 m from the face of the longitudinal joint.

Severity Levels

LOW
Spalls < 75 mm wide, measured to the face of the joint, with loss of material, or spalls with no loss of material and no patching.

MODERATE
Spalls 75 mm to 150 mm wide, measured to the face of the joint, with loss of material.

HIGH
Spalls > 150 mm wide, measured to the face of the joint, with loss of material or is broken into two or more pieces or contains patch material.

How to Measure

Record length in meters of longitudinal joint affected at each severity level. Only record spalls that have a length of 0.1 m or more. Spalls that have been repaired by completely removing all broken pieces and replacing them with patching material (rigid or flexible) should be rated as a patch. If the boundaries of the spall are visible, then also rate as a high severity spall. Note: All patches meeting size criteria are rated as patches.

Joint Deficiencies

FIGURE 63.  Distress Type JCP 6 - Spalling of Longitudinal Joints, Schematic drawing of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 6 - spalling of longitudinal joints. The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth along the width of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom, and with two joints across the width of the lane.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing shows one spalled area with two cracks along the joint, and one cracked area that is 0.3 m wide.  Vertical lines and arrows at the widest point of the spalls and cracks in both lanes indicate the area that should be measured to determine spall width and crack width.  The lane in the lower part of the drawing shows the same spall and crack that extend the length of the center line joint. There are two other cracks along the center line joint; a note indicates that these, as well as the least severe area of the spall, are not counted because they are outside the section limits.

FIGURE 63
Distress Type JCP 6—Spalling of Longitudinal Joints

FIGURE 64.  Distress Type JCP 6 - Low Severity Spalling of Longitudinal Joint, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 6 - low severity spalling of longitudinal joint.  The area of the joint pictured is approximately 800 mm long as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph. The spalling and fraying of the slab edge, up to approximately 75 mm, extend over approximately 50% of the joint.

FIGURE 64
Distress Type JCP 6—Low Severity Spalling of Longitudinal Joint

FIGURE 65.  Distress Type JCP 6 - High Severity Spalling of Longitudinal Joint, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 6 - high severity spalling of longitudinal joint. The area of the joint pictured is approximately 2.5 m long and 2 m wide as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph. The spalled area extends along the joint over an area of the pavement that is approximately 500 mm and 250 mm wide. Substantial breaking and chipping are visible on the pavement surface.

FIGURE 65
Distress Type JCP 6—High Severity Spalling of Longitudinal Joint

 

6. SPALLING OF TRANSVERSE JOINTS

Description

Cracking, breaking, chipping, or fraying of slab edges within 0.3 m from the face of the transverse joint.

Severity Levels

LOW
Spalls < 75 mm wide, measured to the face of the joint, with loss of material, or spalls with no loss of material and no patching.

MODERATE
Spalls 75 mm to 150 mm wide, measured to the face of the joint, with loss of material.

HIGH
Spalls > 150 mm wide, measured to the face of the joint, with loss of material, or broken into two or more pieces, or contains patch material.

How to Measure

Record number of affected transverse joints at each severity level. A joint is affected only if the total length of spalling is 10 percent or more of the length of the joint. Rate the entire transverse joint at the highest severity level present for at least 10 percent of the total length of the spalling. Record length in meters of the spalled portion of the joint at the assigned severity level for the joint. Spalls that have been repaired by completely removing all broken pieces and replacing them with patching material (rigid or flexible) should be rated as a patch. If the boundaries of the spall are visible, then also rate as a high severity spall. Note: All patches meeting size criteria are rated as patches.

FIGURE 66.  Distress Type JCP 7 - Spalling of Transverse Joints, Schematic drawing of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 7 - spalling of transverse joints.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth along the width of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom, and with two joints across the width of the lane.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing shows one spalled area with two cracks along the joint, and one cracked area that is 0.3 m wide.  Vertical lines and arrows at the widest point of the spalls and cracks in both lanes indicate the area that should be measured to determine spall width and crack width.  The lane in the lower part of the drawing shows the spalling and cracking that extend the length of each of three joints.  The first joint shows spalling and cracking of low severity extending along 1 m of the joint length, and high severity of 1 m of its length.  The second joint shows spalling and cracking of low severity extending along 2 m of the joint length.  The third joint shows spalling and cracking of moderate severity extending along 3 m of the joint length and low severity extending along  0.5 m of its length.

FIGURE 66
Distress Type JCP 7—Spalling of Transverse Joints

FIGURE 67.  Distress Type JCP 7 - Moderate Severity Spalling of Transverse Joint, Far View, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 7 - moderate severity spalling of transverse joint, far view.  The area of the joint pictured extends from the center line joint to the shoulder. Spalling of approximately 75 to 100 mm in width, as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph, extends over approximately 30% of the joint

FIGURE 67
Distress Type JCP 7—Moderate Severity Spalling of Transverse Joint, Far View

FIGURE 68.  Distress Type JCP 7 - Moderate Severity Spalling of Transverse Joint, Close-up View, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 7 - moderate severity spalling of transverse joint, close-up view.  The area of the joint pictured is approximately 800 mm long as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph. The spalled area is approximately 75 mm wide and 300 mm long.

FIGURE 68
Distress Type JCP 7—Moderate Severity Spalling of Transverse Joint, Close-up View

 

C. Surface Defects

This section includes the following types of distresses:

8a. Map Cracking
8b. Scaling
9. Polished Aggregate
10. Popouts

8. MAP CRACKING AND SCALING

8a. MAP CRACKING

Description

A series of cracks that extend only into the upper surface of the slab. Larger cracks frequently are oriented in the longitudinal direction of the pavement and are interconnected by finer transverse or random cracks.

Severity Levels

Not applicable.

How to Measure

Record the number of occurrences and the square meters of affected area.

8b. SCALING

Description

Scaling is the deterioration of the upper concrete slab surface, normally 3 mm to 13 mm, and may occur anywhere over the pavement.

Severity Levels

Not applicable.

How to Measure

Record the number of occurrences and the square meters of affected area.

FIGURE 69.  Distress Type JCP 8a - Map Cracking, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 8a - map cracking.  Hundreds of interlocking surface cracks are visible throughout the pavement, however, the pavement appears to be smooth with no loss of materials.

FIGURE 69
Distress Type JCP 8a—Map Cracking

FIGURE 70.  Distress Type JCP 8b - Scaling, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 8b - scaling.  Approximately 75% of the surface of the pavement has deteriorated, with the smooth surface worn away to expose the rougher aggregate layer.

FIGURE 70
Distress Type JCP 8b—Scaling

FIGURE 71.  Distress Type JCP 8b - Scaling, Close-up View, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 8b - scaling, close-up view.  Deterioration is evident throughout the surface of the pavement, with the smooth surface worn away in varying degrees to expose the rougher aggregate layer.  The area of deterioration pictured is approximately 30 cm long by 20 wide, as indicated by the 10-cm scale shown at the bottom of the photograph.

FIGURE 71
Distress Type JCP 8b—Scaling, Close-up View

9. POLISHED AGGREGATE

Description

Surface mortar and texturing worn away to expose coarse aggregate.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. However, the degree of polishing may be reflected in a reduction of surface friction.

How to Measure

Record square meters of affected surface area.

NOTE: Diamond grinding also removes the surface mortar and texturing. However, this condition should not be recorded as polished aggregate, but instead, be noted by a comment.

FIGURE 72.  Distress Type JCP 9 - Polished Aggregate, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 9 - polished aggregate.  Surface mortar and texturing have been worn away to expose coarse aggregate.

FIGURE 72
Distress Type JCP 9—Polished Aggregate

10. POPOUTS

Description

Small pieces of pavement broken loose from the surface, normally ranging in diameter from 25 mm to 100 mm, and depth from 13 mm to 50 mm.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. However, severity levels can be defined in relation to the intensity of popouts as measured below.

How to Measure

Not recorded in LTPP surveys.

FIGURE 73.  Distress Type JCP 10 - Popouts, Schematic drawing of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 10 - popouts.  The drawing shows a lane of a pavement surface, as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  Twenty-six popouts are located at irregular intervals throughout the lane.  There are also two close-up diagrams of popout areas 1 and 2 in the lane.  Area 1 displays the method for measuring the size of popouts, and contains 2 measurable popouts that are greater than 25 mm in size and 1 non-measurable popout that is less than 25 mm in size.  Vertical lines and arrows at the widest point of the popout indicate the area that should be measured.  Area 2 displays the method for determining the count that is representative of the section by showing a 1 m square area with 2 popouts, indicating that there are 2 popouts per square meter.

FIGURE 73
Distress Type JCP 10—Popouts

FIGURE 74.  Distress Type JCP 10 - A Popout, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 10 - popout.  The area of the pavement pictured is approximately 700 mm long, as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph. There are several popouts visible in the photograph that are approximately 25-50 mm in diameter, and 15-25 mm in depth.

FIGURE 74
Distress Type JCP 10—A Popout

 

D. Miscellaneous Distresses

This section includes the following distresses:

11. Blowups
12. Faulting of Transverse Joints and Cracks
13. Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff
14. Lane-to-Shoulder Separation
15. Patch/Patch Deterioration
16. Water Bleeding and Pumping

11. BLOWUPS

Description

Localized upward movement of the pavement surface at transverse joints or cracks, often accompanied by shattering of the concrete in that area.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. However, severity levels can be defined by the relative effect of a blowup on ride quality and safety.

How to Measure

Record the number of blowups.

FIGURE 75.  Distress Type JCP 11 - Blowups, Schematic drawing of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 11 - blowups.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth along the length of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom, and with two joints across the width of the lane.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing shows that the pavement structure has been completed broken apart in 3 places to form 2 sections of pavement, one on either side of the pavement joint that are no longer level with the rest of the pavement structure.  The edges of the broken sections have localized upward movement at the joint.  The lane in the lower part of the drawing shows that the same two blowups extend across the entire lane from the edge joint to the center line joint, and there is additional cracking within the blowups.

FIGURE 75
Distress Type JCP 11—Blowups

FIGURE 76.  Distress Type JCP 11 - A Blowup, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 11 - blowup.  A high severity blowup with significant shattering of the concrete across two lanes is pictured.  There is upward movement at the pavement joint, especially at the line between the two lanes, and approximately 100-150 mm of the pavement joint depth is exposed due to loss of concrete in the inner wheel path near the center line joint.

FIGURE 76
Distress Type JCP 11—A Blowup

 

12. FAULTING OF TRANSVERSE JOINTS AND CRACKS

Description

Difference in elevation across a joint or crack.

Severity Level

Not applicable. Severity levels could be defined by categorizing the measurements taken. A complete record of the measurements taken is much more desirable, however, because it is more accurate and repeatable than are severity levels.

How to Measure

Record in millimeters, to the nearest millimeter: 0.3 m and 0.75 m from the outside slab edge (approximately the outer wheel path). For a widened lane, the wheel path location will be 0.75 m from the outside lane edge stripe. At each location, three measurements are made, but only the approximate average of the readings is recorded.

If the "approach" slab is higher than the "departure" slab, record faulting as positive (+); if the approach slab is lower, record faulting as negative (-).

Faulting on PCC pavements is to be measured using a FHWA-modified Georgia Faultmeter. A representative reading from three distinct measurements at each location is to be used and recorded on sheet 6.

When anomalies such as patching, spalling, and corner breaks are encountered, the faultmeter should be offset to avoid the anomaly. The maximum offset is 0.3 m. A null value ("N") should be recorded and entered into the database when the surveyor is unable to take a measurement due to an anomaly.

Surveyors must ensure that they have a working faultmeter with fully charged batteries prior to beginning a survey on a jointed PCC test section. Complete faulting measurements and survey sheet 6 at the beginning of the distress survey to ensure that this data is collected.

Point distance measurements entered on sheet 6 for joints and transverse cracks should be consistent between surveys of the same test section to an accuracy of less than 0.5 m. Evaluate newly observed distresses and point distance differences for previously identified distresses of 0.5 m and greater with a metric tape measure. Note: The precise start point of surveys must be clearly identified in the field.

Distress Type JCP 12—Faulting of Transverse Joints and Cracks

FIGURE 77
Distress Type JCP 12—Faulting of Transverse Joints and Cracks

FIGURE 78.  Distress Type JCP 12 - Faulting of Transverse Cracks, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 12 - faulting of transverse cracks.  The picture shows a transverse crack with associated spalling and corner breaks that extend across two lanes of the pavement.

FIGURE 78
Distress Type JCP 12—Faulting of Transverse Cracks

 

13. LANE-TO-SHOULDER DROPOFF

Description

Difference in elevation between the edge of slab and outside shoulder; typically occurs when the outside shoulder settles.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. Severity levels can be defined by categorizing the measurements taken. A complete record of the measurements taken is much more desirable, however, because it is more accurate and repeatable than are severity levels.

How to Measure

Measure at the longitudinal construction joint between the lane edge and the shoulder.

Record to the nearest millimeter at 15.25-m intervals along the lane-to-shoulder joint.

If the traveled surface is lower than the shoulder, record as a negative (-) value.

FIGURE 79.  Distress Type JCP 13 - Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff, Schematic drawing of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 13 - lane-to-shoulder dropoff.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth across the width of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing outlines how to measure dropoff, the difference in elevation between the edge of the slab and the outside shoulder.  Horizontal lines and arrows at the longitudinal construction joint between the lane edge and the shoulder indicate the area that should be measured.  The lower part of the drawing shows the area of the lane being measured.

FIGURE 79
Distress Type JCP 13—Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff

FIGURE 80. Distress Type JCP 13 - Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 13 - lane-to-shoulder dropoff.  A dropoff from the lane edge to the shoulder is indicated by a space of approximately 25 mm visible underneath a six-ft. straightedge measure laid across the road edge.

FIGURE 80
Distress Type JCP 13—Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff

 

14. LANE-TO-SHOULDER SEPARATION

Description

Widening of the joint between the edge of the slab and the shoulder.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. Severity levels can be defined by categorizing the measurements taken. A complete record of the measurements taken is much more desirable, however, because it is more accurate and repeatable than severity levels.

How to Measure

Record to the nearest millimeter at intervals of 15.25 m along the lane-to-shoulder joint. Indicate whether the joint is well-sealed (yes or no) at each location.

Note: A null value ("N") should be recorded and entered into the database when the surveyor is unable to take a measurement due to an anomaly such as sealant or patch material.

FIGURE 81.  Distress Type JCP 14 - Lane-to-Shoulder Separation, Schematic drawing of distress type JCP 14 - lane-to-shoulder separation in jointed portland cement concrete pavement.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth across the width of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing outlines how to measure separation, the space between the lane and the shoulder pavement.  Vertical lines and arrows at the lane-to-shoulder joint indicate the area that should be measured.  The lower part of the drawing shows the area of the lane being measured.

FIGURE 81
Distress Type JCP 14—Lane-to-Shoulder Separation

FIGURE 82. Distress Type JCP 14 - Poorly Sealed Lane-to-Shoulder Separation, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 14 - poorly sealed lane-to-shoulder separation.  The seal filling the separation between the lane edge and the shoulder is deteriorating, with evident cracking, bleeding, and aggregate loss.

FIGURE 82
Distress Type JCP 14—Poorly Sealed Lane-to-Shoulder Separation

FIGURE 83.  Distress Type JCP 14 - Well-Sealed Lane-to-Shoulder Separation, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 14 - well-sealed lane-to-shoulder separation.  The seal filling the separation between the lane edge and the shoulder is in good condition, with little evident deterioration.

FIGURE 83
Distress Type JCP 14—Well-Sealed Lane-to-Shoulder Separation

 

15. PATCH/PATCH DETERIORATION

Description

A portion, greater than 0.1 m2, or all of the original concrete slab that has been removed and replaced, or additional material applied to the pavement after original construction.

Severity Levels

LOW
Patch has low severity distress of any type; and no measurable faulting or settlement; pumping is not evident.

MODERATE
Patch has moderate severity distress of any type; or faulting or settlement up to 6 mm; pumping is not evident.

HIGH
Patch has a high severity distress of any type; or faulting or settlement ³ 6 mm;pumping may be evident.

FIGURE 84.  Distress Type JCP 15 - Patch/Patch Deterioration, Schematic drawing of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 15 - patch/patch deterioration.  The drawing shows a lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  Two rectangular patches are depicted: the first is an asphalt concrete patch that extends across approximately 65% of the lane width; the second is a portland cement concrete patch that extends across the width of the lane and has been reinforced with new transverse joints at both ends

FIGURE 84
Distress Type JCP 15—Patch/Patch Deterioration

FIGURE 85.  Distress Type JCP 15 - Small, Low Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 15 - small, low severity asphalt concrete patch. The rounded patch is approximately 250 mm in diameter, as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph.

FIGURE 85
Distress Type JCP 15—Small, Low Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch

How to Measure

Record number of patches and square meters of affected surface area at each severity level, recorded separately by material type—rigid versus flexible. For slab replacement, rate each slab as a separate patch and continue to rate joints.

Note: All patches meeting size criteria are rated.

FIGURE 86.  Distress Type JCP 15 - Large, Low Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 15 - large, low severity asphalt concrete patch.  The L-shaped patch extends across two lanes, and low severity deterioration of the patch, including cracking and loss of materials, is visible at the edges of the patch.

FIGURE 86
Distress Type JCP 15—Large, Low Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch

FIGURE 87.  Distress Type JCP 15 - Large, Low Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 15 - large, low severity asphalt concrete patch.  The rectangular patch extends across two lanes and across the edge stripe to the shoulder.   High severity deterioration of the patch, including cracking, spalling, scaling and loss of materials, is visible across large sections of the patch.

FIGURE 87
Distress Type JCP 15—Large, High Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch

FIGURE 88.  Distress Type JCP 15 - Large, Low Severity Portland Cement Concrete Patch, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 15 - large, low severity portland cement concrete patch.  The rectangular patch extends across one lane, and is reinforced with transverse joints at both ends.  Low severity deterioration of the patch, including cracking and spalling, is visible around the edges of the transverse joints.

FIGURE 88
Distress Type JCP 15—Large, Low Severity Portland Cement Concrete Patch

 

16. WATER BLEEDING AND PUMPING

Description

Seeping or ejection of water from beneath the pavement through cracks. In some cases, detectable by deposits of fine material left on the pavement surface, which were eroded (pumped) from the support layers and have stained the surface.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. Severity levels are not used because the amount and degree of water bleeding and pumping changes with varying moisture conditions.

How to Measure

Record the number of occurrences of water bleeding and pumping and the length in meters of affected pavement with a minimum length of 1 m.

Note. The combined length of water bleeding and pumping cannot exceed the length of the test section.

FIGURE 89.  Distress Type JCP 16 - Water Bleeding and Pumping, Color photograph of jointed portland cement concrete pavement with distress type JCP 16 - water bleeding and pumping.  The picture shows one lane of pavement with water seeping up from beneath the pavement through numerous transverse and block cracks.  Deposits of fine material that have been pumped from the support layers are visible on the pavement surface

FIGURE 89
Distress Type JCP 16—Water Bleeding and Pumping

 

 

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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