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Publication Number: FHWAHRT09028
Date: May 2009 

Hydrodynamic Forces on Inundated Bridge DecksPDF Version (86 MB)
PDF files can be viewed with the Acrobat® Reader® FOREWORDThe Hydrodynamic Forces on Inundated Bridge Decks Study described in this report was conducted at the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) TurnerFairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) J. Sterling Jones Hydraulics Laboratory and at the Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne) Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC). The study was in response to a request of several State transportation departments asking for new design guidance to predict hydrodynamic forces on bridge decks for riverine conditions. The study included experiments (physical modeling) at the TFHRC J. Sterling Jones Hydraulics Laboratory and High Performance Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling at the Argonne National Laboratory. This report will be of interest to hydraulic engineers and bridge engineers who are involved in estimating loads for bridge decks. This report is being distributed as an electronic document through the TFHRC Web site (www.fhwa.dot.gov/research/tfhrc/). Cheryl Allen Richter Acting Director, Office of Infrastructure Research and Development Notice This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the
U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The
U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. The
U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document. Quality Assurance Statement The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides highquality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement. Technical Report Documentation Page
SI (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors Table of Contents
3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Setup and Validation
5. Deck force calculation examples List of FiguresFigure 2. Equation. Inundation ratio Figure 3. Equation. Froude number Figure 4. Diagram. Definition sketch of forces acting on bridge deck Figure 5. Equation. Drag coefficient Figure 6. Equation. Lift coefficient Figure 7. Equation. Moment coefficient Figure 8. Diagram. Dimensions of the sixgirder bridge deck Figure 9. Diagram. Dimensions of the threegirder bridge deck Figure 10. Diagram. Dimensions of the streamlined bridge deck Figure 12. Diagram. Test section of deck force analyzer showing strain gauge configuration Figure 13. Photo. Deck force analyzer system at the TFHRC hydraulics lab Figure 15. Image. Segment of bridge used for 3D model Figure 16. Diagram. Coarse meshes for STARCD^{®} simulation Figure 17. Diagram. Partially refined meshes for STARCD^{®} simulation Figure 18. Model. A rendering of the 3D sixgirder bridge deck in Fluent^{®} Figure 19. Image. Velocity profile from the 2D Fluent^{®} model Figure 20. Image. Velocity profile from the 3D Fluent^{®} model Figure 21. Diagram. Fluent^{®} unstructured mesh in the vicinity of the bridge Figure 22. Image. Velocity profile from the Fluent^{®} κε CFD model for the sixgirder bridge Figure 23. Image. PIV velocity profile for the sixgirder bridge Figure 24. Image. Velocity profile from the Fluent^{®} κε CFD model for the threegirder bridge Figure 25. Image. PIV velocity profile for the threegirder bridge Figure 26. Image. Velocity profile from the Fluent^{®} κε CFD model for the streamlined bridge Figure 27. Image. PIV velocity profile for the streamlined bridge Figure 28. Graph. Drag coefficient versus inundation ratio for the sixgirder bridge Figure 29. Graph. Lift coefficient versus inundation ratio for the sixgirder bridge Figure 30. Graph. Moment coefficient versus inundation ratio for the sixgirder bridge Figure 31. Graph. Drag coefficient versus inundation ratio for the threegirder bridge Figure 32. Graph. Lift coefficient versus inundation ratio for the threegirder bridge Figure 33. Graph. Moment coefficient versus inundation ratio for threegirder bridge Figure 34. Graph. Drag coefficient versus inundation ratio for streamlined bridge deck Figure 35. Graph. Lift coefficient versus inundation ratio for the streamlined bridge Figure 36. Graph. Moment coefficient versus inundation ratio for the streamlined bridge Figure 37. Equation. Drag coefficient fitting equation for three and sixgirder bridges Figure 38. Equation. Lift coefficient fitting equation for three and sixgirder bridges Figure 39. Equation. Moment coefficient fitting equation for all bridge types Figure 40. Equation. Drag coefficient fitting equation for the streamlined bridge Figure 41. Equation. Lift coefficient fitting equation for the streamlined bridge Figure 42. Equation. Upper fitting equation for drag coefficient as a function of h* Figure 44. Equation. Velocity, v, at h*_{crit} List of TablesTable 1. Fitting equation coefficient values for sixgirder (6g) and threegirder (3g) bridges Table 2. Fitting equation coefficient values for the streamlined bridge Table 3. Critical coefficient values by bridge type Table 4. Bridge example dimensions Table 5. Flow conditions for example design floods Table 6. High and low force coefficients for the two example floods List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
List of Symbols
