U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
202-366-4000


Skip to content
FacebookYouTubeTwitterFlickrLinkedIn

Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

 
REPORT
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-16-007    Date:  January 2016
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-16-007
Date: January 2016

 

Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP) Program Protocols, Version 1

Long-Term Bridge Performance Program Logo

Concrete—Abrasion
LTBP Protocol #: FLD-DC-VIC-006


1.

Data Collected

 
1.1 Description and location of abrasion damage on concrete bridge elements.  

2.

Onsite Equipment and Personnel Requirements

 
2.1 Equipment:  
2.1.1 PRE-PL-LO-004, Personal Health and Safety Plan.  
2.1.2 Ladder, access platform, snooper, bucket truck, man lift, and/or high-reach equipment (if necessary).  
2.1.3 Waders or a boat (if necessary).  
2.1.4 Sounding hammer.  
2.1.5 Wire brush or hand broom.  
2.1.6 Tape measure.  
2.1.7 6-ft folding rule.  
2.1.8 Measuring wheel.  
2.1.9 Laser measuring device (optional).  
2.1.10 Slide caliper.  
2.1.11 Temporary marker.  
2.1.12 Digital camera.  
2.1.13 Pencil, sketch pad, and clipboard.  
2.2 Personnel: PRE-PL-LO-005, Personnel Qualifications.  

3.

Methodology

 
3.1 Use the data collection grid (FLD-OP-SC-001, Data Collection Grid and Coordinate System for Bridge Decks) to locate defects on the deck.  
3.2 Use the segmentation and numbering system (FLD-OP-SC-002, Structure Segmentation and Element Identification System) to locate and document defects by the unique element identifier.  
3.3 Use FLD-OP-SC-003, Determination of Local Origins for Elements, to establish a local origin on each element of the superstructure and substructure. Establish the two relevant coordinate axes for each face of each element being evaluated.  
3.4 Cleaning: Use the wire brush or hand broom to clean the concrete element by brushing away any debris so any defects are visible.  
3.5 Measuring, recording, and evaluating characteristics of abraded areas of the concrete  
3.5.1 Mark the limits of each abraded area on the element with a temporary marker, and mark the corners of a rectangle that encompasses the maximum length and maximum width of the area of the abraded area.  
3.5.2 Measure and record the dimensions of each abraded area at its maximum length and width.  
3.5.2.1 If the abraded area is on the deck, determine and record the coordinates of the four corners of the rectangle using x-, y-, and z-coordinates from the rectangular grid system created using FLD‑OP‑SC‑001, Data Collection Grid and Coordinate System for Bridge Decks.
3.5.2.2 For each abraded area on other concrete elements, document which superstructure or substructure element and on what area of the element the sulfate attack is located. Using the element local origin as point (0,0,0), determine and record the coordinates of the four corners of the rectangle.
3.5.3 For each instance of exposed steel reinforcement and/or tendons or strands:  
3.5.3.1 Record the type and unique element identifier of the superstructure element where the steel reinforcement and/or tendons or strands are exposed.
3.5.3.2 Mark the length of the exposed steel reinforcement and tendons or strands with a temporary marker and photograph the damage.
3.5.3.3 Measure the length of the exposed steel reinforcement and/or tendons or strands.
3.5.4 Document the location of exposed steel reinforcement and/or tendons or strands by determining and recording the coordinates of the beginning and the end of the affected portion of the element.  
3.5.5 Clean with a wire brush, and measure and record the amount of section loss in the exposed steel reinforcement and/or tendons or strands (if applicable). If necessary, the original cross-section can be obtained from the existing documentation for the bridge (PRE-ED-BD-001, Plans and Specifications for Bridge Design and Construction).  
3.6 Documenting defects:  
3.6.1 Take photographs of defects using FLD-DC-PH-002, Photographing for Documentation Purposes, and create a photo log.  
3.6.2 Use sketches as needed to document abrasion and supplement the photographs.  
3.7 Storing data, documents, and images:  
3.7.1 FLD-DS-LS-001, Data, Document, and Image Storage—Local, for local storage.  
3.7.2 FLD-DS-RS-001, Data, Document, and Image Storage—Remote, for remote storage.  
3.8 Reporting: Transfer all metadata, data, documents, and images to Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and/or upload all metadata, data, documents, and images into the Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP) Bridge Portal.  

4.

Data Collection Table

 
4.1 Table:  
# Field Name Data Type Accuracy Unit Field Description Row Color
1 State
Text
 
 
State Code; e.g., Virginia = VA
Green
2 NBI structure number
Text
 
 
Item 8, structure number; from NBI Coding Guide
Green
3 Structure name
Text
 
 
Descriptive name for the bridge; e.g., Route 15 SB over I–66
Green
4 Protocol name
Text
 
 
Title of the protocol
Green
5 Protocol version
Text
Month and year
 
Month and year the protocol version was published; e.g., May 2015
Green
6 Personnel performing data collection activities
Text
 
 
First name(s) Last name(s)
Green
7 Date data were collected
Text
Exact date
 
mm/dd/yyyy
Green
For Abraded Areas on the Deck
Pink
8 Location of defect: span number
Text
 
 
Example: Span 1; evaluate each span individually and record data on each individual defect
Blue
9 Location of defect on the deck
Text
 
 
Describe the location of defect on the deck e.g., lane number, right or left shoulder
Yellow
10 Location of corner 1
Number
1
in.

(x,y) coordinates of the four corners of a rectangle encompassing the deteriorated area

Yellow
11 Location of corner 2
Number
1
in.
Yellow
12 Location of corner 3
Number
1
in.
Yellow
13 Location of corner 4
Number
1
in.
Yellow
14 Maximum length defect
Number
1
in.
Measured parallel to the x-axis
Yellow
15 Maximum width of defect
Number
1
in.
Measured parallel to the y-axis
Yellow
16 Maximum depth of defect
Number
0.125
in.
 
Yellow
17 Defect photos and sketches
Number
0.125
in.
Document typical abraded areas with photos and/or sketches
Yellow
18 Comments
Text
 
 
 
Orange
For Abraded Areas on a Superstructure or Substructure Element
Pink
19 Location of the defect: element type and identifier
Text
 
 
Example: Pier column P1A; evaluate each element individually and record data on each individual defect
Blue
20 Location of the defect on the element
Text
 
 
Example: upstream face of the column
Yellow
21 Location of corner 1
Number
1
in.
(x,y,z) coordinates of the four corners of a rectangle encompassing the deteriorated area
Yellow
22 Location of corner 2
Number
1
in.
Yellow
23 Location of corner 3
Number
1
in.
Yellow
24 Location of corner 4
Number
1
in.
Yellow
25 Maximum length of the defect
Number
1
in.
 
Yellow
26 Maximum width of the defect
Number
1
in.
 
Yellow
27 Maximum depth of the defect
Number
0.125
in.
 
Yellow
28 Defect photos and sketches
BLOB
 
 
Document typical corroded areas with photos and/or sketches
Yellow
29 Comments
Text
 
 
 
Orange
For Exposed Steel Reinforcement and/or Tendons/Strands
Pink
30 Location of the defect: element type and identifier
Text
 
 
Example: Girder 1A: evaluate each element individually and record data on each individual defect
Blue
31 Location of the defect on the element
Text
 
 
Example: bottom flange of the girder
Yellow
32 Condition of reinforcement and/or prestressing strands/tendons
Text
 
 
Steel reinforcement and/or prestressing strands or tendons not exposed, Visible corroded section, Loss of section, and/or Other (specify under comments)
Yellow
33 Location of the beginning of the defect: x-coordinate
Number
1
in.
Measured from the element local origin to the beginning of the defect
Yellow
34 Location of the end of the defect: x-coordinate
Number
1
in.
Measured from the element local origin to the end of the defect
Yellow
35 Length of defect
Number
1
in.
 
Yellow
36 Defect photos and sketches
BLOB
 
 
Document typical defects with photos and/or sketches
Yellow
37 Comments
Text
 
 
 
Orange
4.2 Table Key:  
Column Descriptions
#
Sequential number of data item
Field Name
Data field name
Data Type
Type of data, such as text, number, predefined list, binary large object (BLOB), or PDF file
Accuracy
Accuracy to which the data are recorded
Unit
Unit in which a measurement is taken and recorded
Field Description
Commentary on the data or list of items in a predefined list
Row Color Key
Green
Data items only entered once for each protocol for each day the protocol is applied
Pink
Logical breakdown of data by elements or defect types (not always used)
Blue
Data identifying the element being evaluated or the type of defect being identified
Yellow
LTBP data reported individually for each element or defect identified
Orange
Comments on the data collection or data entered

5.

Criteria for Data Validation

 
5.1 Compare measurements with measurements from previous inspections of the same structure to make sure that values make sense.  
5.2 Compare measurements with photo documentation to make sure results shown in photos are consistent with items measured.  
5.3 If an element’s condition is improved when compared to the condition documented in a previous inspection, check with the State department of transportation to determine if any maintenance, repair, and/or bridge preservation actions have occurred. If so, document these maintenance, repair, and/or bridge preservation actions using appropriate protocols.  

6.

Commentary/Background

 
6.1 This protocol guides visual inspection of the damage caused by abrasion.  
6.2 Abrasions are often found on substructure elements in the waterway within the wet zone. This abrasion is due to debris, transported by the flow of water, striking or grinding against the concrete surface. Concrete superstructures may see abrasion in cases where low freeboard exists over tidal waterways.  
6.3 Concrete surfaces abraded by waterborne debris are typically rough and may contain localized depressions that sometimes expose the reinforcing steel.  
6.4 Mechanical abrasion consists of a progressive removal of aggregates and matrix on concrete surfaces, caused by debris or rolling and grinding against a concrete surface.  
6.5 During the visual inspection, if reinforcing steel is visible, observe and notate corrosion and section loss. A visual inspection of concrete substructure elements below the waterline may be needed.  

7.

References

 
7.1 LTBP Protocols:  
7.1.1 PRE-PL-LO-004, Personal Health and Safety Plan.  
7.1.2 PRE-PL-LO-005, Personnel Qualifications.  
7.1.3 PRE-ED-BD-001, Plans and Specifications for Bridge Design and Construction.  
7.1.4 FLD-OP-SC-001, Data Collection Grid and Coordinate System for Bridge Decks.  
7.1.5 FLD-OP-SC-002, Structure Segmentation and Element Identification System.  
7.1.6 FLD-OP-SC-003, Determination of Local Origins for Elements.  
7.1.7 FLD-DC-PH-002, Photographing for Documentation Purposes.  
7.1.8 FLD-DS-LS-001, Data, Document, and Image Storage—Local.  
7.1.9 FLD-DS-RS-001, Data, Document, and Image Storage—Remote.  
7.2 External:  
7.2.1 FHWA-NHI-12-053, Bridge Inspector’s Reference Manual, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2012.  

 

 

 

Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000
Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center | 6300 Georgetown Pike | McLean, VA | 22101