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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-17-008     Date:  December 2017
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-17-008
Date: December 2017


Evaluation of Promoting Roadside Revegetation: An Integrated Approach to Establishing Native Plants

Appendix C. Annotated Bibliography

BLM, California State Office. (2001). 1745—Native Plant Materials Manual. www.blm.gov/style/medialib/blm/ca/pdf/pa/botany.Par.87693.File.dat/1745-Manual.pdf

This manual gives practitioners policy guidance on the use of native plants and plant seed in restoration and other revegetation projects on BLM lands under the jurisdiction of the California State Office.(32)

BLM Ecoregional Plant Programs—NativePlant Materials Development Program. www.blm.gov/programs/natural-resources/native-plant-communities/native-seed-and-plant- material-development

This website provides tools to assist in the collection and dissemination of information on native plant materials and design and implementation of effective revegetation projects. The major goals of this effort are to increase the availability of native plant materials and to provide the knowledge and technology required for their use in restoring diverse native plant communities across different ecoregions in the United States.(33)

BLM. (2008). H17402 Integrated Vegetation Management. https://www.blm.gov/sites/blm.gov/files/uploads/Media_Library_BLM_Policy_Handbook_H-1740-2.pdf

Chapter 8—Using Native Plants details guidance on using native plants for revegetation projects on BLM lands. It describes recommended native plant priorities, treatment design considerations, and plant material sources.(34)

Colorado DOT. (2014). Innovative Vegetation Practices for Construction Site Plant Establishment. https://trid.trb.org/View/1235104

This study reviews Colorado state transportation department’s specifications, guidelines, processes, and compliance for construction site revegetation. It identifies ways in which site stabilization can be accelerated, improved, or optimized using innovative techniques that take into account specific habitat conditions and the difficulties present in transportation construction and planning.(35)

Colorado Natural Areas Program, Colorado State Parks, and Colorado Department of Natural Resources. (October 1998). Native Plant Revegetation Guide for Colorado. https://cpw.state.co.us/Documents/CNAP/RevegetationGuide.pdf

The Native Plant Revegetation Guide for Colorado provides readers with recommendations on selecting, planting, and marinating native plant species in Colorado for a variety of revegetation needs. It emphasizes a basic understanding of Colorado’s natural communities and the processes involved in establishing native species in those communities.(36)

Department of the Interior. (2000). Native Plant Revegetation Manual for Denali National Park and Preserve. http://alaska.usgs.gov/products/pubs/2000/2000_Densmore_VanderMeer_Dunkle_USGS_ITR_2000-0006.pdf

This manual, which is based on a long history of research at Denali National Park and Preserve, describes methods that practitioners should use to revegetate subarctic sites with native plants. Authors also present data collected over several years for two revegetation projects, which entailed the testing of 46 native plant species.(37)

Department of the Interior. Native Species Revegetation Plan for Pelekane Bay Watershed Management Project. https://data.doi.gov/dataset/native-species-revegetation-plan-for-pelekane- bay-watershed-management-project

This plan describes biological and physical management practices that can reduce land-based sediments inputs into Hawai’ i’s Pelekane Bay. It discusses recommendations for protecting native species in the Pelekane Bay watershed, as well as accomplishments in doing so.(38)

Dorner, Jeanette. (November 2002). An introduction to using native plants in restoration projects. www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/Native_Plant_Materials/documents/intronatplant.pdf

This document provides guidance related to the use of native plants in restoration projects covering planning, site preparation, planting, and maintenance.(39)

DNR, Alaska (2008). A Revegetation Manual for Alaska. http://dnr.alaska.gov/ag/akpmc/pdf/RevegManual.pdf

The purpose of this manual is to provide revegetation guidance using native plants and seed. Created by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources and used by the Alaska Department of Transportation, the manual focuses on the revegetation of sites for the purpose of erosion control and the techniques employed for success vegetation of disturbed sites. Non-native species are discussed; however, the manual does place emphasis on the benefits of native species stating that native plants are more adaptable to the environmental conditions and provide a more attractive appearance compared with introduced species.(40)

DOT, Arizona. FHWA. (2012). Evaluation of Salvage and Replanted Native Plants on ADOT Projects.

This report documents the outcomes of Arizona Department of Transportation research into the factors contributing to the long-term high survival and good health of saguaro cacti transplanted as part of roadside revegetation projects. A height of less than 12 ft., few arms, and shallow planting are factors cited as contributing to higher survival and good health.(41)

DOT, California. Roadside Management Toolbox Native and Non-Irrigated Vegetation. www.dot.ca.gov/hq/LandArch/16_la_design/guidance/roadside_safety_tb/detail-niv.htm

The California Transportation Roadside Management Toolbox, among other maintenance related items, offers details on how practitioners can successfully incorporate native vegetation into roadside revegetation projects in California.(42)

DOT, California. University of California, Davis. (2008). Vegetation Conversion to Desirable Species along Caltrans Rights-of-Ways.

This study evaluates ways to convert existing, annual non-native species to native, perennial species along roads in California. The motivation for doing so according to the authors is that native, perennial grass stands can be relatively weed-resistant over long time periods.(43)

DOT, Colorado (2014) – Landscape Architecture Manual. https://www.codot.gov/business/designsupport/bulletins_manuals/cdot-landscape-architecture-manual-2014

This manual focuses on natural resources and provides guidelines for mitigation measures, assessment procedures, design details, environmental resources and engineering principles that can be used on transportation projects in Colorado.(44)

DOT, Florida. (2009). A Guide for Roadside Vegetation Management. http://www.fdot.gov/research/Completed_Proj/Summary_MNT/FDOT_BDK75_977-11_rpt.pdf

This document offers guidelines for roadside vegetation establishment and management in Florida. It encourages the use of native plants, mentioning the reduced maintenance, lower costs, and beneficial ecological outcomes associated in doing so.(45)

DOT, Florida. Native Wildflowers on Roadside of Central and South Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep138

This two-page guide developed by the Florida DOT provides for easy identification of native wildflowers commonly found along roadsides. It includes photos of flowers, information about their lifecycles, and the types of habitats in which Florida wildflowers can be found.(46)

DOT, Idaho. (2014). Native Plants for Roadside Revegetation: Field Evaluations and Best Practices Identification.


The Idaho DOT prefers to utilize native species for roadside revegetation given the desirable environmental, economic, and safety outcomes that can be achieved. This guide provides practical information for improving roadway revegetation in Idaho.(47)

DOT, Illinois. Roadside Maintenance. http://www.idot.illinois.gov/transportation-system/environment/roadside-maintenance

The Illinois DOT considers native vegetation and prairie habitat for maintenance activities, maintaining a prairie inventory with information related to protecting prairie habitat. This website is a portal where users can find technical reports and information approaches to avoid invasive species.(48)

DOT, Indiana. Hoosier Roadside Heritage Program. https://secure.in.gov/indot/2583.htm

The Indiana DOT’s (INDOT) Hoosier Roadside Heritage Program website describes the agency’s activities and programs to promote and incorporate native plants and wildflowers into Indiana’s roadside landscapes. Users can find information on INDOT’s seed list and mowing and vegetation management policies.(49)

DOT, Iowa. Iowa Living Roadway Trust Fund. www.iowadot.gov/lrtf/

The Iowa State legislature established the Living Roadway Trust Fund, administered by the Iowa Dot. This grant program provides funding for roadside vegetation management. This fund ensures that roadside vegetation is preserved, planted, and maintained; visually interesting; ecologically integrated; and useful for many purposes.(50)

DOT, Minnesota. (2008). Best Practices Handbook for Roadside Vegetation Management. www.lrrb.org/pdf/200820.pdf

This handbook from the Minnesota DOT focuses on the installation and maintenance of native vegetation for roadside revegetation in Minnesota.(51)

DOT, Minnesota. University of Minnesota, St Paul. (2008). Improved Methodologies for the Inoculation of Prairie Legumes in Roadside/Revegetation Settings.

This technical report describes the results from a field study on five different seed inoculation treatments in Minnesota. Major findings pointed to the need for higher than normal inoculation rates in the state.(52)

DOT, Minnesota. (2010). Native Seed Mix Design for Roadsides. www.dot.state.mn.us/environment/erosion/pdf/native-seed-mix-dm.pdf

Minnesota DOT’s Native Seed Mix Design and Roadsides describes the processes and strategies that practitioners should use to revegetate roadsides in Minnesota.(53)

DOT, Missouri. (2003). Roadside Vegetation Management. www.modot.org/services/documents/roadsidevegmgt5-03.pdf

Missouri DOT’s Roadside Vegetation Management is a guide describing the processes and strategies that practitioners should use to revegetate roadsides in Missouri. The benefits of using native vegetation are discussed.(54)

DOT, Nebraska. (2014). NDOR Roadside Vegetation Establishment and Management. www.roads.nebraska.gov/media/4016/veg-manual.pdf

Nebraska DOR’s Roadside Vegetation Establishment and Management describes the processes and strategies that practitioners should use to revegetate roadsides in Nebraska. The guide notes a preference for using native species given improved environmental outcomes.(55)

DOT, North Carolina. Guidelines for Planting within Highway Right-of-Way. www.ncdot.gov/doh/operations/dp_chief_eng/roadside/design/graphics/PlantingGuidelines.pdf

North Carolina DOT’s Guidelines for Planting within Highway Right-of-Way describes the processes and strategies that practitioners should use to revegetate roadsides in North Carolina.(56)

DOT, Texas. (2013). Roadside Vegetation Management Manual. http://onlinemanuals.txdot.gov/txdotmanuals/veg/veg.pdf

Texas DOT’s Roadside Vegetation Management Manual describes the processes and strategies that practitioners should use to revegetate disturbed roadsides in Texas.(57)

DOT, Texas. FHWA. (2014). Turf-Type and Early Maturing Annual Ryegrass to Establish Perennial Vegetation: Technical Report. http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/0-6620-S.pdf

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is not currently recommended by Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) as a roadside revegetation nurse crop because its late maturity and height are too competitive for establishing perennial or spring plant mixtures. Two available genotypes used for turf that could be seeded with perennial grasses/legumes and annual wildflowers are Panterra V and Hanamiwase. Panterra V is turf-type annual ryegrass developed for home lawns while Hanamiwase is an early maturity annual ryegrass that produces seed in February and March. Both the turf-type and early-maturing annual ryegrasses could be less competitive for nutrients, moisture, and sunlight while providing adequate cover. Appropriate warm-season perennial grasses/legumes and wildflower mixes specified by TxDOT were planted as treatments in each of four regions to evaluate these annual ryegrass genotypes, seeding rates, and mowing influences. Additionally, similar treatments were installed at five locations in a roadway implementation trial. The turf-type and early-maturing ryegrasses proved to be both competitive and persistent when used as nurse crops for warm-season perennials with mature heights similar to the annual ryegrass varieties used in the past.(58)

DOT, Washington State. (2014). Roadside Manual, Chapter 800 Vegetation. www.wsdot.wa.gov/publications/manuals/fulltext/M25-30/Roadside.pdf

Washington State DOT (WSDOT) has found that use of native plants planted in the right locations is integral to an ecologically sound vegetation design and management program. The agency’s Roadside Classification Plan, which is described in this chapter of the Roadside Manual, provides guidance for the installation of native plants, including the State-required creation of revegetation plans, which a WSDOT landscape architect reviews during a project’s design phase.(59)

FHWA. (January 2011). Current and Innovative Solutions to Roadside Revegetation Using Native Plants: A Domestic Scan Report. www.nativerevegetation.org/pdf/B1422_Roadside_revegetation_Report_complete.pdf

This report provides a summary of the 2009 scan tour of roadside revegetation practices. The national revegetation experts participating in the scan found that the revegetation process is a multifaceted, interdisciplinary process with interconnected technical and non-technical aspects. The scan team recommended that a project revegetation plan be developed for roadside revegetation projects so that all aspects, which are of similar importance, are adequately addressed.(7)

FHWA. (2007). The Greening of Public Roadsides. www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/07nov/01.cfm

This article describes FHWA’s approach to establishing native plants along roadsides. It also promotes the availability of the Roadside Revegetation materials that FHWA and the Forest Service developed in partnership.(60)

FHWA. (2007). A Manager’s Guide to Roadside Revegetation Using Native Plants. www.nativerevegetation.org/pdf/resource_materials/02_managers_guide.pdf

This FHWA publication summarizes the concepts described in Roadside Revegetation: An Integrated Approach to Establishing Native Plants in a manner intended to be accessible to managers versus field-level practitioners. The document is a reference that managers can consult as their engineers plan, design, and implement roadside revegetation projects.(9)

Herold, J., Lowe, Z., and Dukes, J. (2014). Integrated Vegetation Management for INDOT Roadsides. http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/jtrp/1550/

This report presents results from a study to assess outcomes after applying different herbicide mixtures to roadside revegetation projects. Researchers found evidence suggesting that ecological and economic outcomes are improved when native vegetation is used for highway revegetation projects.(61)

Jinxing, Zhou, Jun, Yang, Gong, and Peng. (2008). Constructing a green railway on the Tibet Plateau: Evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation measures. www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13619209

This study describes results from an analysis of different revegetation approaches used following the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway. Researchers found that railway construction resulted in minimal vegetation and soil disturbances. They also found evidence suggesting that mitigation measures involving the translocation of original vegetation mats after disturbance on a large scale at high altitude were not successful.(62)

Kingery, Robson. (2006). Native Plants for Idaho Roadside Restoration and Revegetation Programs. http://itd.idaho.gov/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/RP171Roadside_Revegetation.pdf

This document, funded in part by the Idaho Department of Transportation, focuses on native plants. Written for transportation maintenance officials and others interested in native plant restoration along transportation corridors, the guide provides detailed information for a selection of native plants.(63)

Kuennen, Tom. (2013). Integrating Roadside Vegetation and Erosion Control. https://trid.trb.org/Results?txtKeywords=Integrating+Roadside+Vegetation+and+Erosion+Control#/ View/1258212

This article details how several State transportation departments have introduced vegetation management into their integrated roadside management programs.(64)

Mack Blackwell National Rural Transportation Center, Research and Innovative Technology Administration. (2012). The Development of Novel and Non-Invasive Germplasm Selections Native to Arkansas for Highway Re-Vegetation Projects.

This research project aimed to develop best management practices for using plant species native to Arkansas for roadside revegetation efforts in the State. Twenty-seven native, perennial species were evaluated, all of which were found to have high transplant survival rates and to be tolerant of extreme seasonal conditions.(65)

Native Plant Network. https://npn.rngr.net/

This website is a resource for practitioners who grow forest and conservation seedlings to access for state-of-the-practice information, as well as information on points of contact at other organizations with similar native revegetation interests.(66)

Nebraska Department of Roads. (2014). Fertilizer Effects on Attaining Vegetation Requirements.

This report presents results from a Nebraska Department of Roads research project to assess different substrate and fertilization approaches on road construction revegetation sites. Using topsoil purchased locally and Department of Roads planting protocols, practitioners applied fertilizer immediately after seeding to a site and then monitored results compared to a control site. Results suggest that there was no benefit to applying a nitrogen or phosphorus fertilizer; grass cover was lower where fertilizer was applied.(67)

North Carolina State University, Raleigh. (2007). The Establishment Success of Native Versus Non- Native Herbaceous Seed Mixes on a Revegetated Roadside in Central Texas.

This report presents the results of a study to compare the establishment characteristics of three seed mixes along Texas roadsides. Researchers found highly significant evidence suggesting that native-only grass and forb species seed mixes performed better after spring and summer sowing than standard, non-native species seed mixes. The authors recommended that using native-only seed mixes can reduce the potential for negative ecological outcomes related to revegetation projects.(68)

NPS. (2004). Acadia National Park Revegetation Program. http://irmafiles.nps.gov/reference/holding/486242?accessType=DOWNLOAD

This document inventories the revegetation methods and progress for nine revegetation sites planted or maintained in Acadia National Park in 2004. That summer, volunteer groups and the Acadia Youth Conservation Corps worked alongside park staff to restore native vegetation after construction and trail maintenance projects. The effort included mapping revegetation sites and establishing a monitoring plan.(69)

NPS. CD Workbook for Planning, and Specifications for Ecological Restoration. www.georgewright.org/0735hassell.pdf

This document describes successful approaches to writing ecological specifications for ecology restoration on NPS lands. It is intended to help NPS staff plan, design, and write specifications for ecological restoration projects given the unique governance structures of parklands. Its recommendations are based on case histories of past NPS ecological restoration projects.(70)

NPS. Pipe Spring National Monument Revegetation Panel. www.nps.gov/pisp/learn/photosmultimedia/revegetation-panel.htm

This summary describes an effort at Pipe Spring National Monument to establish a native vegetation plot similar to how the grasslands in the area may have looked prior to the 1850s. Practitioners expect reintroducing native species will promote plant diversity in the region.(71)

NPS. (2008). Rocky Mountain National Park Revegetation Evaluation. www.nps.gov/romo/learn/management/upload/revegetation.pdf

This document is a one-page summary of results from an NPS research project to compare three different revegetation methods. Results suggested that in instances where funds are not constrained, a combined approach of seeding and transplanting is most effective. Seeding was found to be the most cost-effective approach when financial resources are limited.(72)

Richardson, Robert. (forthcoming). Improving Vegetation Management Practices and Cost Effectiveness on North Carolina Roadsides. https://trid.trb.org/Results?txtKeywords=Improving+Vegetation+Management+Practices+and+Cost+Effectiveness+on+North+Carolina+Roadsides#/View/1235320

This research aimed to identify target management species on NCDOT roadsides; develop current and comprehensive guidelines for woody vegetation management; revise and update NCDOT vegetation management guidelines; and develop maintenance procedures for the long-term management of native warm season grasses.(73)

Roadside Environment Committee, Australia Resources and Case Studies. www.lgnsw.org.au/policy/roadside-environmental-management/resources-and-case-studies

The NSW Environmental Trust has funded an update of the Managing Roadsides guidelines documents, which cover assessment, planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Specific case studies show how councils in Australia have used their funding to undertake priority roadside vegetation management.(74)

USFS. (2012). Native Plant Materials Policy. www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/Native_Plant_Materials/documents/NativePlantMaterialsPolicy_Sept2012.pdf

This document presents the Forest Service’s policy for promoting the use of native plants in revegetation projects, specifically on USFS lands. The policy instructs practitioners to give native plant materials “primary consideration”when they are deciding which plant material to use for USFS land management projects.(75)



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