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Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-15-007    Date:  November 2015
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-15-007
Date: November 2015


Multiple Sources of Safety Information From V2V and V2I: Redundancy, Decision Making, and Trust - Safety Message Design Report

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Vehicles and roadways of the future will employ advanced communications technologies to facilititate applications to make driving safer, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly. The safety benefits will largely be achieved by communicating relevant safety information to the driver. The Human Factors for Connected Vehicles research program is focused on understanding, assessing, planning for, and counteracting the effects of signals or system-generated messages that take a driver’s eyes off the road (visual distraction), the driver’s mind off the driving task (cognitive distraction), and the driver’s hands off the steering wheel (manual distraction). The overall goal of this research is to support the introduction of this technology as a benefit to all transportation users.

The research described in this report provides some intial design guidance for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety messages as well as some limited guidance for vehicle-to-vehicle systems. This report primarily uses existing transportation safety research, as well as research from related domains. This information can be used by connected-vehicle system designers and other State transportation department personnel to develop and implement V2I applications, to make sure these systems work effectively and safely within a larger vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, and vehicle-to-device environment. In this way, these findings will help make the interaction of roadway and vehicle systems safer, reduce the likelihood of crashes and injuries, and increase safety for all roadway users.

Monique R. Evans, P.E.
Director, Office of Safety
Research and Development


This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.


Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.


2. Government Accession No. 3 Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Multiple Sources of Safety Information from V2V and V2I: Redundancy, Decision Making, and Trust—Safety Message Design Report

5. Report Date

November 2015

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

Christian M. Richard, Justin F. Morgan, L. Paige Bacon, Justin S. Graving, Gautam Divekar, and Monica G. Lichty

8. Performing Organization Report No.


9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Battelle Seattle Research Center
1100 Dexter Avenue North, Suite 400
Seattle, WA 98109

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Safety Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Interim Report; Oct 2012–
May 2014

14. Sponsoring Agency Code


15. Supplementary Notes
16. Abstract

This report is part of the Human Factors for Connected Vehicles (HFCV) research program, whose goal is to minimize driver workload by eliminating connected vehicle (CV) device-related distractions. The research described in this document is part of an effort to develop initial design guidance for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety messages provided using driver-infrastructure interfaces and driver-vehicle interfaces. Existing HFCV research, in addition to research from related domains, was used to develop this preliminary design guidance. The target audiences for this information are CV system designers and other State transportation department personnel involved in the development and implementation of V2I applications that provide safety information. The design topics are divided into two sets. The first set is composed of general topics providing background information and covers issues that apply across multiple V2I applications. The second set includes topics focusing on specific V2I applications. The general objective of the guidance information is to assist in the coordination of V2I and vehicle-to-vehicle displays and messages to safely support driver information needs and decision making. This information may serve as a resource for the development of guidelines that address V2I system-related human factors design issues in future versions of NCHRP 600: Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems.

17. Key Words

Human Factors Connected Vehicle Program, Connected Vehicles, Design Guidance, Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, Vehicle-to-Vehicle, Driver-Infrastructure Interfaces, Driver-Vehicle Interfaces, Human Factors, Driver Behavior, Safety, V2X

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classification
(of this report)


20. Security Classification
(of this page)


21. No. of Pages


22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors

* SI is the symbol for the International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380. (Revised March 2003)

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

AASHTOAmerican Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials  
CICAS-SLTACooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System-Signalized Left Turn Assist  
CICAS-SSACooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System-Stop Sign Assist  
CICAS-VCooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System to Prevent Violations  
CMSChangeable message sign  
ConOpsConcept of operations  
CSWCurve speed warning  
CVConnected vehicle  
DCWSDynamic curve warning system  
DIIDriver-infrastructure interface  
DSRCDedicated short-range communication  
DVIDriver-vehicle interface  
HFCVHuman Factors for Connected Vehicles  
HFGHuman Factors Guidelines for Road Systems  
ISDIntersection sight distance  
ITEInstitute of Transportation Engineers  
ITSIntelligent transportation systems  
LCVLarge combination vehicle  
LEDLight-emitting diode  
LTAPLeft turn across path  
LTAP-ODLeft turn across path—opposite direction  
MUTCDManual on Uniform Traffic Devices  
NASS-GESNational Automotive Sampling System-General Estimates System  
OVWOverweight vehicle warning  
PCIPedestrian crossing intersection  
POVPrincipal other vehicle  
PRTPerception reaction time  
RLVIRed light violator indication  
RLVWRed light violation warning  
RSERoadside equipment  
SLTASignalized left turn assist  
SPaTSignal phase and timing  
SSAStop sign assist  
SWIWSpot weather information warning  
SWIW-RSSpot weather information warning-reduced speed  
TCDTraffic control device  
V2XVehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, and vehicle-to-device  



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