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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-12-035
Date: November 2012

 

Relating Ride Quality and Structural Adequacy for Pavement Rehabilitation/Design Decisions

APPENDIX D. AVERAGE NORMALIZED DEFLECTION AND MID-DEPTH SURFACE LAYER TEMPERATURE PLOTS

D.1 GROUP 1 SECTIONS

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (March 1994 to May 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050119 in Arkansas. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 10 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 11 years. The deflection values from the falling weight deflectometer tests average around 6.0 mil over the 10-year period, and the individual test date values range from 4.9 to 7.4 mil. The highest deflection (7.4 mil) was measured in March 1994, shortly after construction of the section.

Figure 134. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 050119 (Arkansas).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (March 1994 to May 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050119 in Arkansas. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 11 years. The falling weight deflectometer testing in 1994, 1999, and 2004 was conducted during the month of March, and the mid-depth temperature is close to 60 °F for all three test dates. The lowest and highest temperature values were observed in February 1996 and May 2004 with recorded values of 27 and 82 °F, respectively.

Figure 135. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 050119 (Arkansas).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (November 1997 to June 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 480114 in Texas. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 10 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 8 years. The deflection values from the falling weight deflectometer tests average around 5.2 mil over the 7-year period, and the individual test date values range from 4.8 to 6.0 mil. The highest deflection (6.0 mil) was measured in November 1997 shortly after construction of the section.

Figure 136. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 480114 (Texas).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (November 1997 to June 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 480114 in Texas. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 8 years. The lowest and highest temperature values were observed in November 1997 and August 1999, with recorded values of 54 and 130 °F, respectively.

Figure 137. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 480114 (Texas).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (August 1998 to October 1999) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 310113 in Nebraska for three test dates: August 1995, June 1997, and October 1999. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 5 years. The three deflections range from 23 to 29 mil, with the highest value in June 1997 and the lowest in October 1999.

Figure 138. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 310113 (Nebraska).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (August 1998 to October 1999) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 310113 in Nebraska. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 5 years. The highest temperature, 103 °F, was measured on August 1995, and the lowest temperature, 59°F, was measured in October 1999.

Figure 139. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 310113 (Nebraska).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (March 1993 to April 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 010102 in Alabama. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 10 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 13 years. The deflection values from the falling weight deflectometer tests show a somewhat decreasing trend with an average deflection of around 4.5 mil over the 12-year period. The February 2004 testing registered the lowest deflection value of 2.9 mil.

Figure 140. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 010102 (Alabama).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (March 1993 to April 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 010102 in Alabama. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 13 years. The average temperature for all test dates is 87 °F, with values ranging from 64 °F in February 2004 to 104 °F in June 1995.

Figure 141. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 010102 (Alabama).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (November 1996 to September 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 390112 in Ohio for four test dates: November 1996, September 1999, April 2001, and September 2004. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 10 mil, and time is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 10 years. The deflection values increase with time, from 3.9 to 6.1 mil, over the 8-year period.

Figure 142. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 390112 (Ohio).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (November 1996 to September 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 390112 in Ohio. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 10 years. Temperature values range from 60 to 93 °F, with the lowest values recorded during November 1996 and September 1999.

Figure 143. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 390112 (Ohio).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (February 1994 to April 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 040123 in Arizona. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 10 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 12 years. Deflection remained fairly constant throughout the 11-year period, with most deflections close to 3 mil.

Figure 144. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 040123 (Arizona).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (February 1994 to April 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 040123 in Arizona. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 12 years. The average temperature is 74 °F, with actual values ranging between 59 °F in February 1999 and 94 °F in April 2003.

Figure 145. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 040123 (Arizona).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (May 1993 to April 2007) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190108 in Iowa. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 15 years. The measured deflections show a constant trend with an average of 9.3 mil over the 14-year period, with the exception of the initial test date, which has a deflection of 11.9 mil.

Figure 146. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 190108 (Iowa).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (May 1993 to April 2007) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190108 in Iowa. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 15 years. The recorded asphalt concrete temperature shows a decreasing trend between the test surveys of May 1994 and February 2001, from around 70 to 40 °F. The temperature increases to 115 °F in June 2005 and decreases to around 65 °F in April 2007.

Figure 147. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 190108 (Iowa).

D.2 GROUP 2 SECTIONS

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (March 1996 to June 2009) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 320101 in Nevada. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 14 years. The deflection values range from 6.0 to 8.7 mil and average around 7.4 mil during this 13-year period.

Figure 148. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 320101 (Nevada).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (March 1996 to June 2009) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 320101 in Nevada. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 14 years. This plot shows scattered temperature values throughout the time period, with the highest and lowest temperature values of 112 and 52 °F recorded on August 1999 and March 2005, respectively.

Figure 149. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 320101 (Nevada).

This graph shows the average temperature corrected deflection measured over time (November 2006 to July 2008) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 310106 in Ohio. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 14 years. The deflections increase from 4.7 to 10.0 mil over the 12-year period.

Figure 150. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 390106 (Ohio).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (November 2006 to July 2008) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 390106 in Ohio. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 14 years. Temperature values are scattered throughout the 12-year period, with an average of 71 °F. The highest and lowest temperatures were 97 and 48 °F, which were recorded on September 1999 and December 1997, respectively.

Figure 151. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 390106 (Ohio).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (August 1995 to July 2002) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 310117 in Nebraska. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 8 years. Deflections remained relatively constant around 11 mil from August 1995 to October 1999 and increased to 16 mil in July 2002.

Figure 152. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 310117 (Nebraska).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (August 1995 to July 2002) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 310117 in Nebraska. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 8 years. The average temperature is 98 °F, with temperatures ranging from 84 to 112 °F.

Figure 153. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 310117 (Nebraska).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (August 1995 to July 2002) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 310118 in Nebraska. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 8 years. The measured deflections range between 7.4 and 9.8 mil between August 1995 and October 1999 and increase to 17.0 mil in July 2002.

Figure 154. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 310118 (Nebraska).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (August 1995 to July 2002) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 310118 in Nebraska. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 8 years. Temperatures vary between 85 and 115 °F over the 7-year period.

Figure 155. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 310118 (Nebraska).

D.3 GROUP 3 SECTIONS

TThis graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (May 1993 to April 2007) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190101 in Iowa. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 15 years. The measured deflections are relatively consistent, varying between 12.0 and 15.2 mil over the 14-year period.

Figure 156. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 190101 (Iowa).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (May 1993 to April 2007) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190101 in Iowa. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 15 years. The temperature values vary between 34 and 113 °F throughout the 14-year period.

Figure 157. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 190101 (Iowa).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (May 1993 and June 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190103 in Iowa. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 13 years. The average deflection is 5.8 mil, with values ranging from 4 to 8 mil, except for the last test date on June 2005, which is close to 9 mil.

Figure 158. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 190103 (Iowa).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (May 1993 and June 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190103 in Iowa. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 13 years. The temperature values vary between 42 to 94 °F throughout the 12-year period.

Figure 159. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 190103 (Iowa).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (March 1994 to May 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050114 in Arkansas. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 12 years. The average deflection for the 11-year period is 7.2 mil, with most of the values close to the average except for the first one on March 1994, which is 11.1 mil.

Figure 160. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 050114 (Arkansas).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (March 1994 to May 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050114 in Arkansas. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 12 years. Falling weight deflectometer testing in 2003, 2004, and 2005 was conducted during the month of May, and the temperature on all three dates is close to 90 °F. The lowest and highest temperature values observed were 27 and 107 °F in February 1996 and April 2001, respectively.

Figure 161. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 050114 (Arkansas).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (March 1994 to May 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050116 in Arkansas. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 12 years. Deflections remained relatively constant throughout the 11-year period, with deflection values ranging between 2.80 to 3.9 mil with an average of 3.2 mil.

Figure 162. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 050116 (Arkansas).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (March 1994 to May 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050116 in Arkansas. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 12 years. Falling weight deflectometer testing in most years was conducted between March and May, and the temperature on these dates is close to 90 °F. The lowest and highest temperature values were 27 and 107 °F in February 1996 and April 2001, respectively.

Figure 163. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 050116 (Arkansas).

D.4 GROUP 4 SECTIONS

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (January 1991 to September 2008) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 5 section 040502 in Arizona. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 20 years. The deflections vary between 4.1 and 16 mil over the 17-year period, with an average of 9.7 mil.

Figure 164. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 040502 (Arizona).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (January 1991 to September 2008) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 5 section 040502 in Arizona. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 20 years. Temperatures vary between 54 and 126°F over the 17-year period, with the highest temperatures recorded in the month of September and the coldest temperatures in the month of December.

Figure 165. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 040502 (Arizona).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (August 1992 to April 2009) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 5 section 240505 in Maryland. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 18 years. The deflections vary between 5 and 8.4 mil over the 17-year period, with an average deflection of 6.5 mil.

Figure 166. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 240505 (Maryland).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (August 1992 to April 2009) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 5 section 240505 in Maryland. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 18 years. Temperatures vary between 60 and 120 °F over the 17-year period, with highest temperature recorded in July 1999 and the lowest one recorded in April 2009.

Figure 167. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 240505 (Maryland).

This graph shows the temperature-corrected average deflection measured over time (June 1991 to June 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 5 section 270509 in Minnesota. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 16 years. Deflections range between 8 and 16 mil over the 14-year period, with an average deflection of 11.9 mil.

Figure 168. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 270509 (Minnesota).

This graph shows the mid-depth asphalt concrete (AC) surface layer temperature versus time (June 1991 to June 2005) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 5 section 270509 in Minnesota. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 16 years. Temperatures range between 50 and 110 °F during the 14-year period, with the lowest temperature in September 1993 and the highest in August 1995.

Figure 169. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of AC layer, section 270509 (Minnesota).

D.5 GROUP 5 SECTIONS

This graph shows the average deflection measured over time (February 1994 and December 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 2 section 040213 in Arizona. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 12 years. Deflections vary between 4 and 7 mil during the 10-year period, with an average deflection of 5.6 mil. The only exception is the March 1995 deflection, which was 12.6 mil.

Figure 170. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 040213 (Arizona).

This graph shows the mid-depth portland cement concrete (PCC) surface layer temperature versus time (February 1994 and December 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 2 section 040213 in Arizona. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 12 years. Temperatures vary between 60 and 87 °F, with an average temperature of 66 °F.

Figure 171. Graph. Mid-Depth temperature of PCC layer, section 040213 (Arizona).

This graph shows the average deflection measured over time (November 1996 and September 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 2 section 050217 in Arkansas. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 10 years. Deflection values are between 3 and 4 mil throughout the 8-year period, with an average deflection of 3.3 mil.

Figure 172. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 050217 (Arkansas).

This graph shows the mid-depth portland cement concrete (PCC) surface layer temperature versus time (November 1996 and September 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 2 section 050217 in Arkansas. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 10 years. Temperatures vary between 49 and 100 °F throughout the 8-year period.

Figure 173. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of PCC layer, section 050217 (Arkansas).

This graph shows the average deflection measured over time (December 1996 to September 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 2 section 390205 in Ohio. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 20 mil, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 9 years. Deflections vary between 4.7 and 7.7 mil over the 
8-year period.

Figure 174. Graph. Average normalized deflection below 9,000-lb load, section 390205 (Ohio).

This graph shows the mid-depth portland cement concrete (PCC) surface layer temperature versus time (December 1996 to September 2004) for Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 2 section 390205 in Ohio. Temperature is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 150 °F, and time since construction is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 9 years. Temperatures range between 48 and 90 °F over the 8-year period. Except for the first and last dates, the temperatures range between 80 and 90 °F.

Figure 175. Graph. Mid-depth temperature of PCC layer, section 390205 (Ohio).

 


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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