Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home   |   Pavements Home
Report
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-053
Date: September 2005

Long-Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology - The Concrete Pavement Road Map: Volume II, Tracks

Track 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)

TRACK 7 (RC) OVERVIEW

For nearly 15 years, the concrete pavement industry has confronted both facts and perceptions about concrete pavement construction under high-speed traffic conditions. While the industry's record is generally positive, perceptions still determine concrete use in many situations. The traffic growth data presented in chapter 1 in the first volume of the CP Road Map show that, despite the gains made in the past decade, concrete pavements across the country will continue to be in need of rehabilitation under high-speed traffic conditions.

The next generation of construction and rehabilitation tools combines the software and hardware required to simulate system design and predict problems that might surface during high-speed construction. Highspeed computer simulation can troubleshoot a pavement's response to environmental changes, as well. Effective construction management, however, remains critical for meeting the goals and objectives of this track.

Future high-speed construction challenges the industry to move away from slipform paving and identify ways to make precast construction a more viable alternative. Precast modular construction not only might replace ultrahigh-speed construction but also improve product quality and extend the paving system. Research in this track will include:

Some high-speed construction issues also are investigated in other research tracks, and those efforts will be coordinated closely with those in this track. For example, track 1 (Performance-Based Concrete Pavement Mix Design System) and track 3 (High-Speed Nondestructive Testing and Intelligent Construction Systems) contain many elements required in a high-speed option.

The following introductory material summarizes the goal and objectives for this track and the gaps and challenges for its research program. A phasing chart is included to show the approximate sequencing of the problem statements in the track. A table of estimated costs provides the projected cost range for each problem statement, depending on the research priorities and scope determined in implementation. The problem statements, grouped into subtracks, follow.

Track Goal

This track will explore new and existing products and technologies that facilitate high-speed rehabilitation and construction of PCC pavements.

Track Objectives
  1. Develop planning and simulation tools that allow contractors, designers, and owner-agencies to identify potential problems before construction begins and to identify the most efficient processes.
  2. Explore and refine precast and modular pavement technology for new construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance.
  3. Refine fast-track construction technologies and techniques, and synthesize them into best practice guidelines for contractors, designers, and owner-agencies.
  4. Provide the means for all contractors, designers, and owner-agencies to learn about new high-speed construction and rehabilitation products and technologies.
Research Gaps
Research Challenges
Research Track 7 (RC) Phasing

The horizontal bar chart in figure 7 shows the approximate time phasing of the problem statements in this track grouped by subtrack across 10 years. The phasing information here is a summary of the approximate phasing included with the full written description of each problem statement in this track.

View alternative text

Click to enlarge or view alternative text

Figure 7. Bar Chart. Track 7 (RC) subtrack and problem statement phasing chart.

Research Track 7 (RC) Estimated Costs

Table 36 shows the estimated costs for this research track.

Table 36. Research track 7 (RC) estimated costs.
Problem Statement Estimated Cost
Subtrack RC 1. Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation
RC 1.0. Framework for Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation (Subtrack RC 1) $350 k
RC 1.1. Paving Process Simulations and Constructability Review $1 M-$2 M
RC 1.2. Traffic Management Simulations $500 k-$1 M
RC 1.3. Virtual Construction Simulations $500 k-$1 M
Subtrack RC 2. Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements
RC 2.0. Framework for Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements (Subtrack RC 2) $400 k
RC 2.1. Refinement of Precast Posttensioned Concrete Pavement Technology $500 k-$1 M
RC 2.2. Precast Concrete Pavements for Slab Replacement $500 k-$1 M
RC 2.3. Lightweight Precast Concrete Pavements $250 k-$500 k
RC 2.4. Precast Joints for Joint Replacement $500k-$1 M
RC 2.5. Precast Quiet Pavement Surfaces $500k-$1 M
Subtrack RC 3. Fast-Track Concrete Pavements
RC 3.0. Framework for Fast-Track Concrete Pavements (Subtrack RC 3) $400 k
RC 3.1. Synthesis of Practice for Accelerated (Fast-Track) Paving $250 k-$500 k
RC 3.2. Accelerated Paving Techniques $500 k-$1 M
RC 3.3. Accelerated Hydration Methods $500 k-$1 M
RC 3.4. Accelerated Concrete Pavement Restoration Techniques $500 k-$1 M
Subtrack RC 4. Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation
RC 4.0. Framework for Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation (Subtrack RC 4) $150 k
RC 4.1. Workshops on Fast-Track Concrete Paving $1 M-$2 M
RC 4.2. Workshops on Precast and Modular Concrete Pavement Solutions $1 M-$2 M
RC 4.3. Workshops on Rehabilitation and Construction Simulation and Modeling $500 k-$1 M
RC 4.4. Web-Based Training for Implementation of Rehabilitation and Construction Research $500 k-$1 M
Track 7 (RC)
Total $10.3 M-$20.3 M
Track Organization: Subtracks and Problem Statements

Track 7 (RC) problem statements are grouped into four subtracks:

Each subtrack is introduced by a brief summary of the subtrack's focus and a table listing the titles, estimated costs, products, and benefits of each problem statement in the subtrack. The problem statements follow.

SUBTRACK RC 1. REHABILITATION AND CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND SIMULATION

This subtrack frames new and innovative ways to conduct high-speed rehabilitation and construction, relying on the creative use of simulation tools. Table 37 provides an overview of this subtrack.

Table 37. Subtrack RC 1 overview.
Problem Statement Estimated Cost Products Benefits
RC 1.0. Framework for Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation (Subtrack RC 1) $350 k A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack. An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
RC 1.1. Paving Process Simulations and Constructability Review $1 M-$2 M Easy-to-use paving process simulation tools (software) and a constructability review manual for concrete paving. New tools that contractors and owner-agencies can use to simulate the paving process before construction, allowing them to identify potential problems and optimize equipment and materials; a constructability review manual for concrete paving that will allow owner-agencies to assess rationally the potential for success of a given construction plan.
RC 1.2. Traffic Management Simulations $500 k-$1 M Easy-to-use traffic management simulation tools (software). New tools that contractors, designers, and owner-agencies can use to simulate different traffic management scenarios before construction, allowing them to identify potential problems and select the optimal traffic management scenario.
RC 1.3. Virtual Construction Simulations $500 k-$1 M Construction simulation software that considers both the paving process and traffic management. New tools that will allow contractors, designers, and owner-agencies to simulate the entire construction process virtually before actual construction, allowing them to identify potential problems.
Problem Statement RC 1.0. Framework for Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation (Subtrack RC 1)
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 1. Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation
Approximate Phasing: Years 1-3
Estimated Cost: $350 k
Subtrack RC 1 (Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation) provides a set of research problem statements that will culminate in a significantly improved state of the art and practice. As the funding becomes available, an initial effort will be necessary to develop a framework for the research to be accomplished within this subtrack.
Tasks:
  1. Examine the problem statements in subtrack RC 1 (Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation), modify as appropriate, and divide them into specific, manageable contracts.
  2. Arrange the contracts in a carefully sequenced plan that reflects a logical progress of research and available funding.
  3. Expand each of the broad research problem statements included in the subtrack into a detailed research plan with specific objectives, tasks, and funding recommendations.
  4. Review and provide direction for the various research contracts underway to ensure that they fulfill their objectives and allow future contracts to use their results. Guide the additional work required if a contract fails to achieve its objectives and additional work is necessary.
Benefits: An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
Products: A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack.
Implementation: This research will provide the organization and validation essential for the success of this subtrack. Implementation of this problem statement will set the stage for the rest of the problem statements in subtrack RC 1 (Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation).
Problem Statement RC 1.1. Paving Process Simulations and Constructability Review
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 1. Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation
Approximate Phasing: Years 4-9
Estimated Cost: $1 M-$2 M
Recent projects, such as the 55-hour weekend reconstruction of I-10 near Pomona, CA, have demonstrated the viability of rapid pavement reconstruction. This and similar projects have also demonstrated the need for advanced planning and preparation to ensure project success under strict time constraints. Advanced planning will ensure optimal construction staging, equipment utilization, mixing procedures, and hauling processes. Time-motion and production-cost analyses are two examples of analysis techniques that can be used for this type of optimization. A formal constructability review manual will be developed to assist in better planning. Rehabilitation and construction process simulations, which incorporate time-motion and production-cost analyses, will be a powerful tool for optimizing project planning and preparation to ensure the success of time-restrictive pavement construction and rehabilitation. Simulations will allow contractors and transportation agencies to analyze the flow of rehabilitation or new construction projects well in advance of actual construction, anticipating potential problems that may prevent the time requirements from being met.
Tasks:
  1. Identify construction process simulation techniques/models currently available (such as those used in the bridge and building industries). Identify problems or limitations of current simulation techniques/models based on contractor/agency experience.
  2. Identify existing constructability review techniques and guidelines.
  3. Evaluate the current simulation techniques and constructability review guidelines for their applicability to concrete paving projects.
  4. Identify agency and contractor needs for expedited pavement construction (e.g., typical rehabilitation or construction timeframes required).
  5. Identify constraints for expedited pavement construction (e.g., equipment limitations, concrete mix characteristics, and construction staging).
  6. Develop simulation techniques/models that account for both contractor/agency requirements and constraints, building on the successes of existing simulation models.
  7. Develop a case study that demonstrates the simulation technique/model on an actual construction project.
  8. Refine the simulation techniques/models as needed based on the case study.
  9. Develop a constructability review manual for concrete paving, employing peer review and revision during the development process.
Benefits: New tools that contractors and owner-agencies can use to simulate the paving process before construction, allowing them to identify potential problems and optimize equipment and materials; a constructability review manual for concrete paving that will allow owner-agencies to assess rationally the potential for success of a given construction plan.
Products: Easy-to-use paving process simulation tools (software) and a constructability review manual for concrete paving.
Implementation: This research will result in easy-to-use tools (i.e., software and a constructability review manual) for contractors, designers, and owner-agencies to perform rehabilitation and construction process simulations and reviews.
Problem Statement RC 1.2. Traffic Management Simulations
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 1. Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation
Approximate Phasing: Years 4-8
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
Traffic management is a crucial aspect of any pavement rehabilitation/construction project but is particularly important for rapid rehabilitation and construction projects where construction often is conducted under traffic. Rapid rehabilitation/construction work under traffic burdens both the highway agency and contractor to produce a high-quality pavement while minimizing traffic delay and maximizing traffic safety. In some cases, the option of a long life pavement is ruled out for such projects because of skepticism that it can be built with minimal user delays. Moreover, in certain situations, user costs and delays can outweigh all other considerations for pavement construction, reconstruction, or rehabilitation. In these cases, special steps must be taken to minimize lane closures and reduced traffic access. Proper traffic management better ensures the safety of workers and helps minimize traffic congestion during construction. However, developing a traffic management plan to satisfy both objectives is extremely difficult and often very costly. Generally, traffic management plans are developed for a specific project based on previous experience within a localized region. Thus, for similar project circumstances across the country, significant variance in traffic handling options can and does occur. Many agencies employ lessthan- optimal approaches to managing traffic, which result in extra costs, safety concerns, and significant user delays. A solution to this problem would be to develop techniques or models for simulating different traffic management scenarios based on the requirements of individual projects. These techniques/models will allow the contractor or owner-agency to simulate different traffic management strategies well in advance of construction, allowing them to identify problems and select the optimal strategy.
Tasks:
  1. Identify traffic management techniques/models currently used by owner-agencies.
  2. Identify problems or limitations of current techniques/models based on contractor/agency experience.
  3. Identify agency constraints for traffic management (e.g., typical rehabilitation or construction timeframe, and restrictions on traffic diversion).
  4. Identify viable models for user cost prediction of traffic management and life cycle cost models for concrete pavements.
  5. Develop simulation techniques/models that account for both contractor/agency requirements and constraints.
  6. Develop a case study that demonstrates the simulation technique/model on an actual construction project.
  7. Refine the simulation techniques/models as needed based on the case study.
  8. Develop agency/contractor interactive alternative models.
Benefits: New tools that contractors, designers, and owner-agencies can use to simulate different traffic management scenarios before construction, allowing them to identify potential problems and select the optimal traffic management scenario.
Products: Easy-to-use traffic management simulation tools (software).
Implementation: This research will result in easy-to-use tools (i.e., software) that contractors, designers, and owner-agencies can use for traffic management simulations.
Problem Statement RC 1.3. Virtual Construction Simulations
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 1. Rehabilitation and Construction Planning and Simulation
Approximate Phasing: Years 8-10
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
Recently, a number of industries have been turning to simulation tools to assess potential issues that could arise during the execution of industry processes. A notable example is the aerospace industry, which conducts numerous tests of aircraft and aircraft components using virtual simulations. In these simulations, the components are “assembled” using computers, and the process is monitored at critical points and compared to threshold values. Stresses, for example, are compared to strengths. Time is recorded, and efficiency statistics derived. This research will explore and synthesize this technology and others like it in the hope of applying the same concepts to the concrete pavement construction process. The virtual simulations will consider both the paving process and traffic management strategies to optimize not only the construction process, but also the total cost, including user costs. The simulations will allow contractors and owner-agencies to perform virtual simulations of a complete concrete pavement construction or rehabilitation project to evaluate overall costs, identify problems, and determine an optimal construction process.
Tasks:
  1. Identify and evaluate existing virtual simulation models used in different industries.
  2. Evaluate aspects of existing virtual simulation models applicable to concrete pavement construction and rehabilitation simulation models.
  3. Develop a virtual simulation model that considers both the paving or rehabilitation process and the traffic management strategy.
  4. Develop a case study that applies the virtual simulation model to an actual construction project.
  5. Refine the virtual simulation model as needed based on the case study.
Benefits: New tools that will allow contractors, designers, and owner-agencies to simulate the entire construction process virtually before actual construction, allowing them to identify potential problems.
Products: Construction simulation software that considers both the paving process and traffic management.
Implementation: This research will result in easy-to-use tools (i.e., software) that contractors, designers, and owner-agencies can use for virtual construction simulations.

SUBTRACK RC 2. PRECAST AND MODULAR CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

This subtrack organizes the entire modular concrete pavement concept so that it can be used for both high-speed and high-durability situations. Table 38 provides an overview of this subtrack.

Table 38. Subtrack RC 2 overview.
Problem Statement Estimated Cost Products Benefits
RC 2.0. Framework for Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements (Subtrack RC 2) $400 k A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack. An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
RC 2.1. Refinement of Precast Posttensioned Concrete Pavement Technology $500 k-$1 M Design standards, specifications, and best practice guides for precast, prestressed (posttensioned) concrete pavement. Best practice guidelines for precast, prestressed concrete pavement technology, helping owner-agencies develop design standards and specifications.
RC 2.2. Precast Concrete Pavements for Slab Replacement $500 k-$1 M Design standards, specifications, and best practice guidelines for using precast concrete in full-depth slab replacement. Best practice guidelines for using precast panels in full-depth slab replacement.
RC 2.3. Lightweight Precast Concrete Pavements $250 k-$500 k Recommendations for weightreducing technologies for precast concrete pavement. Exploration of possible weightreducing technologies for precast concrete pavement.
RC 2.4. Precast Joints for Joint Replacement $500 k-$1 M Design standards, specifications, and best practice guidelines for using precast panels for joint replacements. Best practice guidelines for using precast concrete panels for joint replacement.
RC 2.5. Precast Quiet Pavement Surfaces $500 k-$1 M Recommendations for noise-reducing techniques for precast concrete pavement surfaces. Exploration of noise-reducing techniques that may not be viable for conventional concrete pavements but that can be incorporated into precast concrete pavements.
Problem Statement RC 2.0. Framework for Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements (Subtrack RC 2)
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 2. Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 1-3
Estimated Cost: $400 k
Subtrack RC 2 (Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements) provides a set of research problem statements that will culminate in a significantly improved state of the art and practice. As the funding becomes available, an initial effort will be necessary to develop a framework for the research to be accomplished within this subtrack.
Tasks:
  1. Examine the problem statements in subtrack RC 2 (Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements), modify as appropriate, and divide them into specific, manageable contracts.
  2. Arrange the contracts in a carefully sequenced plan that reflects a logical progress of research and available funding.
  3. Expand each of the broad research problem statements included in the subtrack into a detailed research plan with specific objectives, tasks, and funding recommendations.
  4. Review and provide direction for the various research contracts underway to ensure that they fulfill their objectives and allow future contracts to use their results. Guide the additional work required if a contract fails to achieve its objectives and additional work is necessary.
Benefits: An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
Products: A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack.
Implementation: This research will provide the organization and validation essential for the success of this subtrack. Implementation of this problem statement will set the stage for the rest of the problem statements in subtrack RC 2 (Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements).
Problem Statement RC 2.1. Refinement of Precast, Posttensioned Concrete Pavement Technology
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 2. Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 2-6
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
Precast concrete offers a durable, lasting solution for rapid construction of PCC pavement. A 1998 feasibility study, completed by the Center for Transportation Research at the University of Texas at Austin, concluded that precast, prestressed concrete pavement was a viable option for large-scale rapid reconstruction of PCC pavements. The concept that resulted from the feasibility study incorporates both pretensioning and posttensioning in the precast panels to reduce the required slab thickness as well as improve the durability of the finished pavement. Subsequent implementation studies resulted in the construction of precast, prestressed pavement demonstration projects in California and Texas. Despite the successes of these demonstration projects, however, refinements to the concept are needed for precast, prestressed concrete to become readily accepted as an expedited construction technique for PCC pavements. These refinements may include modifications to design details, fabrication processes, and construction techniques to make precast, prestressed concrete an economical alternative for expedited pavement construction. This research will aim to develop a refined concept that is incorporated easily into current PCC pavement practices and to familiarize owner-agencies with this technology.
Tasks:
  1. Evaluate all aspects of previously constructed precast, prestressed concrete pavement demonstration projects (i.e., design details, fabrication, construction, performance, and cost).
  2. Refine details and processes so that precast, prestressed pavement can meet the construction timeframe requirements of owner-agencies.
  3. Work with precast concrete and concrete paving industries to make precast concrete pavement an economically viable alternative to other fast-track PCC paving techniques.
  4. Familiarize contractors and owner-agencies with precast, prestressed concrete pavement construction technology.
  5. Develop specifications, design standards, and/or best practice guidelines for precast, prestressed concrete pavement.
  6. Construct precast, prestressed concrete pavement test sections under stringent (e.g., overnight, weekend) time constraints.
Benefits: Best practice guidelines for precast, prestressed concrete pavement technology, helping owner-agencies develop design standards and specifications.
Products: Design standards, specifications, and best practice guides for precast, prestressed (posttensioned) concrete pavement.
Implementation: This research will be used to develop design standards, specifications, and best practice guidelines for precast, prestressed (posttensioned) concrete pavement.
Problem Statement RC 2.2. Precast Concrete Pavements for Slab Replacement
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 2. Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 3-7
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
Precast concrete offers a durable, lasting solution for rapid full-depth slab replacement for PCC pavement. Recent projects in Colorado, Michigan, New York, and Virginia have demonstrated the viability of using precast concrete panels for rapid full-depth repairs of PCC pavement. The success of these projects has emphasized the need to make this technology available to all owner-agencies and contractors for rapid repair projects. This research will evaluate the performance of the different construction techniques used on previous projects. Recommendations and specifications then can be developed to help contractors and owner-agencies incorporate precast concrete pavement into common fast-track pavement rehabilitation practices. The recommendations and specifications should cover all aspects of precast pavement construction, including precast panel fabrication, construction staging, existing pavement removal, base preparation, and panel installation.
Tasks:
  1. Evaluate performance of existing precast concrete pavement rehabilitation projects.
  2. Develop specifications and design standards for precast pavement.
  3. Make precast concrete an economically viable alternative to current fast-track rehabilitation techniques.
  4. Familiarize contractors and owner-agencies with precast pavement technology and construction practices.
Benefits: Best practice guidelines for using precast panels in full-depth slab replacement.
Products: Design standards, specifications, and best practice guidelines for using precast concrete in full-depth slab replacement.
Implementation: This research will result in design standards, specifications, and best practice guidelines for using precast concrete in full-depth slab replacements.
Problem Statement RC 2.3. Lightweight Precast Concrete Pavements
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 2. Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 7-10
Estimated Cost: $250 k-$500 k
Recently, several projects throughout the United States have demonstrated the viability of using precast concrete panels for large-scale pavement construction and full-depth pavement rehabilitation. One key cost component of precast concrete panels is transportation. Precast panels used for current projects can weigh in excess of 22.67 metric tons (25 short tons) sometimes requiring special permits to transport. One way to improve the efficiency of precast concrete pavement transportation is to reduce the weight of the precast panels. Reducing panel weight by as little as 20 percent may permit the shipment of more panels on each truck or eliminate the need for a special permit. Technology such as lightweight aggregates and hollow-core panels have been used successfully by the precast industry for buildings and bridge decks, but have yet to be applied to precast pavement panels. This research will incorporate these technologies into precast concrete pavement practices.
Tasks:
  1. Identify potential weight-reducing technologies for precast concrete pavement panels.
  2. Evaluate the benefits versus costs of incorporating weight-reducing technology into precast concrete pavement practice, including evaluation of durability issues associated with weight-reducing technologies.
  3. Recommend weight-reducing techniques for precast concrete pavement practice.
Benefits: Exploration of possible weight-reducing technologies for precast concrete pavement.
Products: Recommendations for weight-reducing technologies for precast concrete pavement.
Implementation: This research will result in recommendations for weight-reducing technologies for precast concrete pavement.
Problem Statement RC 2.4. Precast Joints for Joint Replacement
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 2. Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 5-9
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
Recent projects in Colorado, Michigan, and New York have demonstrated the viability of using precast concrete panels for joint replacement. Often, heavily faulted joints, which have lost subbase support due to pumping, cannot simply be ground smooth or retrofitted with dowel bars. In these cases, it is necessary to replace the joint completely to restore subbase support and load transfer between faulted slabs. Unfortunately, these joint replacements often are required on heavily trafficked pavements that can only be closed to traffic overnight or over a weekend. Precast concrete offers a durable, long-lasting solution that permits construction overnight or over a weekend. This research will examine the performance of different precast concrete joint replacement techniques and familiarize contractors and owner-agencies with these techniques so they can be incorporated into common practice.
Tasks:
  1. Document construction practices and performance of current precast concrete joint replacement techniques.
  2. Develop design standards, specifications, and/or best practice guidelines for owner-agencies to incorporate into current practice.
  3. Familiarize contractors and owner-agencies with precast concrete joint replacement technology.
Benefits: Best practice guidelines for using precast concrete panels for joint replacement.
Products: Design standards, specifications, and best practice guidelines for using precast panels for joint replacements.
Implementation: This work will be coordinated closely with that in track 6 (Innovative Concrete Pavement Joint Design, Materials, and Construction). This research will result in precast concrete joint replacement specifications, design standards, and best practice recommendations.
Problem Statement RC 2.5. Precast Quiet Pavement Surfaces
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 2. Precast and Modular Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 5-10
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
Pavement noise, or the noise generated by tires on a pavement surface, is an important consideration in PCC pavement construction, particularly in urban areas. Different surface textures are being examined constantly for their effectiveness in reducing pavement noise. Unfortunately, many of the most promising surface textures are difficult to construct properly in the field. Precast concrete pavement panels, however, are cast in a controlled environment, affording a great deal of flexibility with surface texture. New surface texture technologies, such as extruded channels, currently are being evaluated abroad. While such textures may be difficult to construct in the field, they can be easy to incorporate into precast pavement panels. This research will identify new surface textures that show promise for reducing pavement noise and evaluate the feasibility of incorporating them into precast pavement panels.
Tasks:
  1. Identify surface texture techniques that have been shown to reduce pavement noise.
  2. Evaluate the feasibility of incorporating these surface textures into precast pavement panels versus conventional (slipform or fixed-form) PCC construction.
  3. Evaluate the benefits versus costs of using precast panels with noise-reducing surface texture for PCC pavement construction.
  4. Develop case studies or pilot projects that incorporate noise-reducing surface textures into precast pavement and evaluate their effectiveness.
Benefits: Exploration of noise-reducing techniques that may not be viable for conventional concrete pavements but that can be incorporated into precast concrete pavements.
Products: Recommendations for noise-reducing techniques for precast concrete pavement surfaces.
Implementation: This research will be used to evaluate the viability of precast pavement with specialized, noise-reducing surface textures versus conventional pavement construction with conventional surface textures.

SUBTRACK RC 3. FAST-TRACK CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

This subtrack examines four specific issues related to the next generation of fast-track paving and fasttrack CPR techniques. Table 39 provides an overview of this subtrack.

Table 39. Subtrack RC 3 overview.

Problem Statement Estimated Cost Products Benefits
RC 3.0. Framework for Fast-Track Concrete Pavements (Subtrack RC 3) $400 k A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack. An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
RC 3.1. Synthesis of Practice for Accelerated (Fast- Track) Paving $250 k-$500 k Synthesis of the current state of the practice for accelerated paving techniques. One-stop shopping for different accelerated paving techniques.
RC 3.2. Accelerated Paving Techniques $500 k-$1 M Possible new mix design recommendations for accelerated paving mixes and guidelines for use, including maturity methods. Development of more economical, nonproprietary, fast-track paving mixes and guidelines for use.
RC 3.3. Accelerated Hydration Methods $500 k-$1 M New techniques for accelerating the hydration process in PCC. More rapid achievement of target strength values (e.g., opening), which in turn can shorten the duration of a project.
RC 3.4. Accelerated Concrete Pavement Restoration Techniques $500 k-$1 M Best practice guidelines for accelerated CPR techniques. Best practice guidelines for accelerated CPR techniques.
Problem Statement RC 3.0. Framework for Fast-Track Concrete Pavements (Subtrack RC 3)
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 3. Fast-Track Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 1-3
Estimated Cost: $400 k
Subtrack RC 3 (Fast-Track Concrete Pavements) provides a set of research problem statements that will culminate in a significantly improved state of the art and practice. As the funding becomes available, an initial effort will be necessary to develop a framework for the research to be accomplished within this subtrack.
Tasks:
  1. Examine the problem statements in subtrack RC 3 (Fast-Track Concrete Pavements), modify as appropriate, and divide them into specific, manageable contracts.
  2. Arrange the contracts in a carefully sequenced plan that reflects a logical progress of research and available funding.
  3. Expand each of the broad research problem statements included in the subtrack into a detailed research plan with specific objectives, tasks, and funding recommendations.
  4. Review and provide direction for the various research contracts underway to ensure that they fulfill their objectives and allow future contracts to use their results. Guide the additional work required if a contract fails to achieve its objectives and additional work is necessary.
Benefits: An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
Products: A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack.
Implementation: This research will provide the organization and validation essential for the success of this subtrack. Implementation of this problem statement will set the stage for the rest of the problem statements in subtrack RC 3 (Fast-Track Concrete Pavements).
Problem Statement RC 3.1. Synthesis of Practice for Accelerated (Fast-Track) Paving
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 3. Fast-Track Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 2-4
Estimated Cost: $250 k-$500 k
In the mid-1980s, FHWA initiated a unique program that brought together individuals from the concrete pavement industry and State highway agencies. The goal of this program was to assess the state of the practice of fast-track (accelerated) concrete paving practices. Since then, numerous concrete paving projects have been constructed using the practices recommended under this effort. In addition, there have been significant advancements in technology, including new materials and construction techniques. For example, new fast-setting hydraulic cements currently are being employed by some agencies to place fulldepth concrete pavements over a weekend. This project will document the current state of the practice of accelerated PCC paving technology. Literature searches, surveys of transportation agencies, and interviews with contractors and owner-agencies will help establish the current state of the practice, and will document pros, cons, successes, and failures associated with different accelerated paving technologies.
Tasks:
  1. Perform a literature search to identify different accelerated paving technologies currently available.
  2. Survey transportation agencies in the United States, Canada, and abroad to determine which technologies have been used previously or currently are being used.
  3. Conduct site visits and interviews with owner-agencies to determine pros, cons, successes, and failures of different technologies.
  4. Synthesize results of the literature search, surveys, and interviews into a current state of the practice.
Benefits: One-stop shopping for different accelerated paving techniques.
Products: Synthesis of the current state of the practice for accelerated paving techniques.
Implementation: This research will produce a synthesis of the current state of the practice for accelerated paving techniques.
Problem Statement RC 3.2. Accelerated Paving Techniques
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 3. Fast-Track Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 3-7
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
A significant number of high-early strength concrete mixes have been developed and evaluated in recent years. However, some questions remain regarding the economics and long-term durability of these mixes. Many current high-early strength mixes use exotic cements and other admixtures that have not been proven for long-term durability and can be very costly. Also, these mixes generally do not account for factors such as climatic conditions during construction, curing techniques, and pavement characteristics, and thus cannot be adjusted for varying conditions. This research will evaluate current high-early strength mixes and the performance of existing pavements constructed with these mixes. The research will identify the most cost effective, nonproprietary materials and mixes for durable, fast-setting concrete suitable for paving operations. Mixes that are developed will be adjustable based on the pavement characteristics, climatic conditions, and the curing techniques available. Guidelines or software should be provided with the mix design that will recommend adjustments to the mix based on climatic conditions during construction. Additionally, maturity/strength gain characteristics for new mixes will be identified and incorporated into the recommendations so that maturity techniques can be used to monitor strength gain during construction.
Tasks:
  1. Identify current high-early strength concrete mixes used for accelerated paving.
  2. Evaluate the benefits versus costs of existing mixes, including an analysis of pavement performance.
  3. Develop new accelerated paving mixes consisting of economical, nonproprietary materials.
  4. Analyze maturity characteristics of the new paving mixes for inclusion in the guidelines.
  5. Develop guidelines and/or software for using these new mixes, including recommendations for adjustment based on climatic conditions, pavement characteristics, and curing techniques.
  6. Conduct pilot studies or field trials using the mix design and guidelines developed from the study.
Benefits: Development of more economical, nonproprietary, fast-track paving mixes and guidelines for use.
Products: Possible new mix design recommendations for accelerated paving mixes and guidelines for use, including maturity methods.
Implementation: This research will result in new, economical mix designs for accelerated paving and guidelines for using these mixes, including maturity.
Problem Statement RC 3.3. Accelerated Hydration Methods
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 3. Fast-Track Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 4-8
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
Hydration of the cementitious materials within a concrete mixture leads to strength development. Strength, in turn, drives a number of critical decisions during concrete pavement construction, including sawcutting and time to opening for traffic. A number of techniques have been advanced that could allow the hydration process to accelerate. Since an increase in mixture temperature is known to accelerate hydration, most of these techniques include heating the concrete slab. Both microwave heating and inductive heating are possible methods, with the latter involving adding metallic fibers to the concrete mixture.
Tasks:
  1. Identify technically feasible techniques for heating a concrete pavement in the field.
  2. Evaluate various techniques in the laboratory, assessing their ability to accelerate hydration and monitoring potentially adverse phenomena, such as moisture loss and differential heating.
  3. Identify a technique that demonstrates the greatest potential for the field, and apply it to a large-scale operation.
Benefits: More rapid achievement of target strength values (e.g., opening), which in turn can shorten the duration of a project.
Products: New techniques for accelerating the hydration process in PCC.
Implementation: This research will result in a technique for accelerating the hydration process that may shorten the time it takes to construct concrete pavements.
Problem Statement RC 3.4. Accelerated Concrete Pavement Restoration Techniques
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 3. Fast-Track Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 4-9
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
Rehabilitation of high-volume rigid pavements requires techniques that minimize disruption to traffic. Usually this restricts construction to nighttime. However, many techniques that have been developed and proven effective for CPR have not been evaluated fully as they pertain to accelerated construction. Research is needed to develop guidelines to help select strategies for rehabilitating high-volume rigid pavements that consider constraints such as lane closures and construction windows. Repair of UTW is one such technique that needs to be investigated, as there are no established guidelines for UTW repair under short time constraints for lane closures. Likewise, partial-depth repair of PCC pavement has shown promise, but guidelines have not been developed for this technique. Full-depth repair of CRCP is another CPR technique that requires guidelines for materials and construction practices. Additionally, environmental effects of CPR techniques must be addressed. Slurry from the diamond grinding process, for example, is considered by some State regulatory agencies to be an environmental hazard that could contaminate groundwater supply. While many States do not regard the slurry as hazardous, the concrete pavement industry needs to examine ways to contain and dispose of the slurry in response to certain State regulatory agencies' decisions. In general, all aspects of accelerated CPR techniques need to be fully documented, including materials, construction practices, and environmental effects.
Tasks:
  1. Identify common CPR techniques currently used by owner-agencies.
  2. Conduct surveys and interviews of contractors and transportation agencies to determine the current state of the practice for different CPR techniques and successes and failures for different techniques.
  3. Develop best practice guidelines for each of these techniques based on the surveys and interviews.
  4. Develop a decision matrix for agencies to use in determining applicable CPR techniques, with consideration for accelerated construction.
  5. Evaluate new CPR techniques as they are developed.
Benefits: Best practice guidelines for accelerated CPR techniques.
Products: Best practice guidelines for accelerated CPR techniques.
Implementation: This research will result in best practice guidelines for common CPR techniques.

SUBTRACK RC 4. REHABILITATION AND CONSTRUCTION EVALUATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

This subtrack provides the implementation structure for new high-speed rehabilitation and construction products and procedures. Table 40 provides an overview of this subtrack.

Table 40. Subtrack RC 4 overview.

Problem Statement Estimated Cost Products Benefits
RC 4.0. Framework for Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation (Subtrack RC 4) $150 k A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack. An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
RC 4.1. Workshops on Fast-Track Concrete Paving $1 M-$2 M Workshops on fast-track concrete paving at various locations throughout the United States. Technology transfer through workshops that are a minor investment (if any) for owneragencies.
RC 4.2. Workshops on Precast and Modular Concrete Pavement Solutions $1 M-$2 M Workshops on precast concrete paving techniques at various locations throughout the United States. Technology transfer through workshops at minimal or no cost to owner-agencies.
RC 4.3. Workshops on Rehabilitation and Construction Simulation and Modeling $500 k-$1 M Workshops on construction and traffic management simulation techniques at various locations throughout the United States. Technology transfer through workshops at minimal or no cost to owner-agencies.
RC 4.4. Web-Based Training for Implementation of Rehabilitation and Construction Research $500 k-$1 M Web-based training modules and a continuously maintained Web site for new products and technologies. Technology transfer available to anyone with access to a computer and Internet access.
Problem Statement RC 4.0. Framework for Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation (Subtrack RC 4)
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 4. Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation
Approximate Phasing: Years 1-3
Estimated Cost: $150 k
Subtrack RC 4 (Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation) provides a set of research problem statements that will culminate in a significantly improved state of the art and practice. As the funding becomes available, an initial effort will be necessary to develop a framework for the research to be accomplished within this subtrack.
Tasks:
  1. Examine the problem statements in subtrack RC 4 (Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation), modify as appropriate, and divide them into specific, manageable contracts.
  2. Arrange the contracts in a carefully sequenced plan that reflects a logical progress of research and available funding.
  3. Expand each of the broad research problem statements included in the subtrack into a detailed research plan with specific objectives, tasks, and funding recommendations.
  4. Review and provide direction for the various research contracts underway to ensure that they fulfill their objectives and allow future contracts to use their results. Guide the additional work required if a contract fails to achieve its objectives and additional work is necessary.
Benefits: An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
Products: A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack.
Implementation: This research will provide the organization and validation essential for the success of this subtrack. Implementation of this problem statement will set the stage for the rest of the problem statements in subtrack RC 4 (Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation).
Problem Statement RC 4.1. Workshops on Fast-Track Concrete Paving
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 4. Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation
Approximate Phasing: Years 2-10
Estimated Cost: $1 M-$2 M
Proven materials and technologies are currently available for fast-track concrete paving. Unfortunately, many transportation agencies are slow to adopt new techniques due to unfamiliarity with these new technologies and a lack of resources to research them. Workshops provide an ideal environment for agencies to become familiar with and receive training in new technologies. Workshops on fast-track concrete paving should cover the spectrum of proven technologies currently available, including highearly strength concrete mixes, maturity methods for strength monitoring, early-age analysis software (HIPERPAV), and others. In addition, other fast-track rehabilitation techniques, such as precast pavement technology and UTW, also should be presented.
Tasks:
  1. Compile pertinent information on existing fast-track concrete paving technologies, including case studies and the experience of various transportation agencies.
  2. Present fast-track concrete paving techniques and case studies as well as best practices to audiences of contractors, industry representatives, and transportation agencies.
  3. Develop an interactive or National Highway Institute (NHI) course on fast-track paving.
Benefits: Technology transfer through workshops that are a minor investment (if any) for owner-agencies.
Products: Workshops on fast-track concrete paving at various locations throughout the United States.
Implementation: This project will result in numerous workshops on fast-track concrete paving at various venues throughout the country.
Problem Statement RC 4.2. Workshops on Precast and Modular Concrete Pavement Solutions
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 4. Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation
Approximate Phasing: Years 2-10
Estimated Cost: $1 M-$2 M
Several projects in recent years have demonstrated different applications for precast concrete pavement. These projects have included prestressed precast concrete pavement, jointed reinforced precast concrete pavement, precast concrete for slab replacement, and precast concrete for joint replacement. Each of these projects has demonstrated successfully the various techniques for precast and modular solutions for pavements. As with many new technologies, however, transportation agencies are often slow to adopt new techniques because they are unfamiliar with these new technologies and lack resources for researching them. Workshops will provide an ideal environment for agencies to become familiar with and receive training in current precast pavement technologies.
Tasks:
  1. Compile pertinent information on existing precast concrete pavement technologies, including information on all recently completed projects.
  2. Present the different precast concrete paving applications, addressing the advantages and disadvantages of each technique to contractors, industry representatives, and transportation agencies.
Benefits: Technology transfer through workshops at minimal or no cost to owner-agencies.
Products: Workshops on precast concrete paving techniques at various locations throughout the United States.
Implementation: This project will result in numerous workshops on precast concrete paving techniques at various venues throughout the country.
Problem Statement RC 4.3. Workshops on Rehabilitation and Construction Simulation and Modeling
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 4. Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation
Approximate Phasing: Years 5-10
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
Simulation and modeling are very powerful tools for optimizing pavement construction and rehabilitation projects. Simulations allow contractors, designers, and owner-agencies to model construction operations in advance to ensure the most efficient use of equipment and materials. This allows contractors and owner-agencies to anticipate potential problems before construction begins. Simulations also allow designers and/or owner-agencies to analyze traffic management strategies to identify the most efficient strategy and minimize user impact. However, as with many new technologies, transportation agencies are often slow to adopt new techniques because they are unfamiliar with new technologies and lack resources for researching them. Workshops will provide an ideal environment for agencies to become familiar with and receive training in current simulation and modeling techniques.
Tasks:
  1. Identify construction and traffic management simulation techniques. Also, identify case studies that have used the construction and traffic management simulation techniques.
  2. Present the different construction and traffic management simulation tools and case studies, if available, to contractors, designers, and owner-agencies.
Benefits: Technology transfer through workshops at minimal or no cost to owner-agencies.
Products: Workshops on construction and traffic management simulation techniques at various locations throughout the United States.
Implementation: This project will result in numerous workshops on construction and traffic management simulation techniques at various venues throughout the country.
Problem Statement RC 4.4. Web-Based Training for Implementation of Rehabilitation and Construction Research
Track: 7. High-Speed Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation and Construction (RC)
Subtrack: RC 4. Rehabilitation and Construction Evaluation and Implementation
Approximate Phasing: Years 3-10
Estimated Cost: $500 k-$1 M
Every year, many new products and technologies are developed and made available for implementation. However, many transportation agencies are slow to adopt new products and technology because they are unfamiliar with these new technologies and lack resources to research them. Although workshops provide an opportunity for contractors and owner-agencies to learn about these new products and technologies, many agencies cannot afford to send employees to workshops or may be restricted from traveling to workshops outside their home State. Fortunately, Web-based training allows contractors, designers, and owner-agencies to explore new products and technologies from any computer with Internet access. Ondemand Web-based training can take advantage of options such as video streaming for visual demonstrations of new products and technologies.
Tasks:
  1. Compile information on products and technologies ready for implementation, including thorough descriptions, photos, and video.
  2. Develop Web-based training modules for each new product or technology.
  3. Create a Web site for accessing the training modules and maintain the Web site with updates for new products or refinements to existing products.
Benefits: Technology transfer available to anyone with access to a computer and Internet access.
Products: Web-based training modules and a continuously maintained Web site for new products and technologies.
Implementation: This project will result in Web-based training modules for new research products and technologies.

 

 


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration