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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-053
Date: September 2005

Long-Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology - The Concrete Pavement Road Map: Volume II, Tracks

Track 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)

TRACK 8 (LL) OVERVIEW

Long life pavements are needed to handle the congestion and traffic loading that pavements will experience in their lifetime. To meet a 30-year calendar design life, a pavement built in 2005 may need 70–100 percent more axle loads per mile than a similar pavement built in 1995. But rather than simply building pavements to handle axle loading, pavement design must address what the public sees—the time between repairs.

The research areas needed to design and build long life pavements to be developed in this track are:

The research in this track will be coordinated closely with related research integrated across the Strategic Road Map. For example, other research tracks propose the following advancements to achieve long life pavements:

This track addresses the operational conditions in which pavement performance is defined. For example, a 60-year pavement could be designed in several ways that determine its maintenance schedule:

Each of these options can be used in locations that experience light-to-moderate truck traffic today but anticipate long-term growth. However, it is not clear whether the time between fixes for already heavily loaded pavements can be extended beyond 25 years.

The following introductory material summarizes the goal and objectives for this track and the gaps and challenges for its research program. A phasing chart is included to show the approximate sequencing of the problem statements in the track. A table of estimated costs provides the projected cost range for each problem statement, depending on the research priorities and scope determined in implementation. The problem statements, grouped into subtracks, follow.

Track Goal

The problem statements in this track will identify both conventional and innovative pavement types, design features, foundations, materials, construction QC/QA, and preservation treatments that will provide long service life reliably (e.g., more than 40 years).

Track Objectives
  1. Develop clear and detailed definitions of long life pavements, including information about warrants, required maintenance, a range of low- to high-traffic roadways, and other information.
  2. Identify pavement strategies (design, foundation, restoration, and rehabilitation) for long life.
  3. Identify design and foundation features that are likely to result in long life concrete pavements.
  4. Identify restoration treatments for preserving long life concrete pavements.
  5. Identify concrete and other material tests and requirements for long life pavements.
  6. Identify QC/QA procedures that will ensure quality long life pavement construction.
  7. Construct test highways of the most promising concrete pavement types that include design features, foundations, materials, construction QC/QA, and preservation treatments that will ensure long life concrete pavements.
Research Gaps
Research Challenges
Research Track 8 (LL) Phasing

The horizontal bar chart in figure 8 shows the approximate time phasing of the problem statements in this track grouped by subtrack across 10 years. The phasing information here is a summary of the approximate phasing included with the full written description of each problem statement in this track.

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Figure 8. Track 8 (LL) subtrack and problem statement phasing chart

Research Track 8 (LL) Estimated Costs

Table 41 shows the estimated costs for this research track.

Table 41. Research track 8 (LL) estimated costs.
Problem Statement Estimated Cost
Subtrack LL 1. Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements
LL 1.0. Framework for Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements (Subtrack LL 1) $200 k
LL 1.1. Identifying Long Life Concrete Pavement Types, Design Features, Foundations, and Rehabilitation/Maintenance Strategies $800 k–$1.2 M
LL 1.2. Design Catalog for Long Life Concrete Pavements $500 k–$1 M
LL 1.3. Strategic Application of Preservation Treatments to Preserve Long Life Concrete Pavement $500 k–$700 k
Subtrack LL 2. Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements and Overlays
LL 2.0. Framework for Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements (Subtrack LL 2) $200 k
LL 2.1. Development of Quality Control/Quality Assurance Testing Standards to Ensure Long LifeConcrete Pavements $500 k–$600 k
LL 2.2. Identification of Material Requirements and Tests for Long Life Concrete Pavements $1 M–$1.5 M
LL 2.3. Design, Construct, and Evaluate Experimental Long Life Concrete Pavements $3 M–$5 M
LL 2.4. Design, Construct, and Evaluate Concrete Overlays $3 M–$5 M
Subtrack LL 3. Long Life Concrete Pavement Implementation
LL 3.1. Implementation of Long Life Concrete Pavements $800 k–$1.2 M
Track 8 (LL)
Total $10.5 M–$16.6 M
Track Organization: Subtracks and Problem Statements

Track 8 (LL) problem statements are grouped into three subtracks:

Each subtrack is introduced by a brief summary of the subtrack’s focus and a table listing the titles, estimated costs, products, and benefits of each problem statement in the subtrack. The problem statements follow.

SUBTRACK LL 1. PAVEMENT STRATEGY FOR LONG LIFE CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

This subtrack structures the approach to long life pavements from the strategic approaches to the design catalogs. The problem statements in this subtrack rely on the work conducted under track 2 (Performance- Based Design Guide for New and Rehabilitated Concrete Pavements). Table 42 provides an overview of this subtrack.

Table 42. Subtrack LL 1 overview.
Problem Statement Estimated Cost Products Benefits
LL 1.0. Framework for Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements (Subtrack LL 1) $200 k A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack. An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
LL 1.1. Identifying Long Life Concrete Pavement Types, Design Features, Foundations, and Rehabilitation/ Maintenance Strategies $800 k–$1.2 M Feasible pavement strategies and promising features for providing long life for each type of concrete pavement selected; case studies of past long life concrete pavements. Feasible pavement strategies for providing long life that will provide input throughout track 8 (Long Life Concrete Pavements).
LL 1.2. Design Catalog for Long Life Concrete Pavements $500 k–$1 M An interim design catalog of long life pavement designs (produced within 2 years of starting); contents that will be updated as more information obtained from research activities under this track becomes available. A catalog of long life pavement designs that will provide practicing engineers with the tool for designing long life, cost effective pavements with minimal restoration and rehabilitation.
LL 1.3. Strategic Application of Preservation Treatments to Preserve Long Life Concrete Pavement $500 k–$700 k Recommendations on the type, design, construction, and optimum application timing of restoration or rehabilitation treatments for extending pavements service life or indefinitely preserving the original pavement structure. Recommendations on the optimum application timing of restoration or rehabilitation treatments that will extend pavement service life or indefinitely preserve the original pavement structure; a tool for practicing engineers to use in designing long life, cost effective concrete pavements with minimal restoration.
Problem Statement LL 1.0. Framework for Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements (Subtrack LL 1)
Track: 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)
Subtrack: LL 1. Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 1–3
Estimated Cost: $200 k
Subtrack LL 1 (Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements) provides a set of research problem statements that will culminate in a significantly improved state of the art and practice. As the funding becomes available, an initial effort will be necessary to develop a framework for the research to be accomplished within this subtrack.
Tasks:
  1. Examine the problem statements in subtrack LL 1 (Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements), modify as appropriate, and divide them into specific, manageable contracts. As part of this effort, provide detailed information on the ways long life is and should be defined. Include information about all levels of traffic, from low to very high volume types of roadways and define maintenance requirements and warrants for longer life.
  2. Arrange the contracts in a carefully sequenced plan that reflects a logical progress of research and available funding.
  3. Expand each of the broad research problem statements included in the subtrack into a detailed research plan with specific objectives, tasks, and funding recommendations.
  4. Review and provide direction for the various research contracts underway to ensure that they fulfill their objectives and allow future contracts to use their results. Guide the additional work required if a contract fails to achieve its objectives and additional work is necessary.
Benefits: An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
Products: A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack.
Implementation: This research will provide the organization and validation essential for the success of this subtrack. Implementation of this problem statement will set the stage for the rest of the problem statements in subtrack LL 1 (Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements).

Problem Statement LL 1.1. Identifying Long Life Concrete Pavement Types, Design Features, Foundations, and Rehabilitation/Maintenance Strategies
Track: 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)
Subtrack: LL 1. Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 2–5
Estimated Cost: $800 k–$1.2 M
This research will identify both conventional and innovative pavement types likely to provide long life, including an evaluation of the advantages and limitations of different pavement designs for long life applications and the possible preservation strategies for each pavement type. With certain pavement types, pavement service life may be extended significantly through preservation treatments, although in some design situations, any major pavement treatment within a certain period may be unacceptable. Examples of promising design features include continuous reinforcement, widened slabs, stabilized base, positive subdrainage, large-diameter dowel bars, and uniform and stable foundations. This research will investigate various means of satisfying the long life pavement goals, considering the entire pavement life cycle and including rehabilitations where appropriate. Site conditions, such as traffic level, subgrade properties, climate, and local aggregate and material properties, significantly affect pavement performance, and feasible pavement strategies will be identified in light of such factors.
Tasks:
  1. Evaluate existing concrete pavements that claim to be long life (those currently in design by States, those inservice, and those that have been previously rehabilitated, including existing highperformance concrete sites).
  2. Identify concrete pavement design features that lend themselves to good long-term pavement performance and lower the risk of poor performance (e.g., continuous reinforcement, widened slabs, stabilized base, and large-diameter dowel bars).
  3. Evaluate the effects of the design features identified under task 1 on long-term pavement performance and develop a short list of design features that significantly affect long-term pavement performance. Use existing survival curves in these studies where available.
  4. Identify both conventional and innovative pavement types likely to provide long life. Consider at least the following:
    • Full-depth concrete for new construction.
    • Concrete overlay rehabilitation.
    • No foundation rehabilitation.
    • No pavement intrusion over its lifespan.
    • Additional thin concrete surfacing on the top.
    • Staged concrete over concrete construction that does not change the foundation.
  5. Identify the various means of satisfying the long life pavement goals by considering the entire pavement life cycle, including restorations and rehabilitations where appropriate, maintenance done to the joint, and considering that site conditions, such as traffic level, subgrade properties, climate, and local aggregate, significantly affect pavement performance. Consider also environmental sustainability.
  6. For each pavement type identified under task 1, evaluate advantages and limitations for the long life applications, including the factors identified in task 2, such as evaluating possible rehabilitation strategies for each pavement type, life cycle cost, and so on.
  7. Determine promising pavement types and strategies for providing long life based on the results of tasks 1 through 3.
Benefits: Feasible pavement strategies for providing long life that will provide input throughout track 8 (Long Life Concrete Pavements).
Products: Feasible pavement strategies and promising features for providing long life for each type of concrete pavement selected; case studies of past long life concrete pavements.
Implementation: This research will be coordinated closely with work in track 2 (Performance- Based Design Guide for New and Rehabilitated Concrete Pavements), as well as track 6 (Innovative Concrete Pavement Joint Design, Materials, and Construction). Case studies and the identification of promising types and design features developed in this research will be essential to the rest of this track.

Problem Statement LL 1.2. Design Catalog for Long Life Concrete Pavements
Track: 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)
Subtrack: LL 1. Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 2–8
Estimated Cost: $500 k–$1 M
This research will develop a catalog of long life pavement designs that lists feasible pavement design alternatives for different site conditions. The design conditions may be classified in terms of climatic region (or key climatic factors), traffic level, and subgrade or foundation type. Each design entry in the catalog will describe the structural section (base/subbase type and thickness and slab thickness), slab width, joint spacing, material requirements, and other design features, such as load transfer design and subsurface drainage. While the catalog will discuss slab thickness in relation to other design features, slab thickness will not be included in each section of the catalog, because thickness requires detailed analyses in light of all other design features and site conditions. The design catalog will instead focus on design aspects other than slab thickness. Additionally, the design catalog will provide QC/QA testing guidelines to ensure adequate construction quality for all layers and the foundation. Based on available information, an interim guide will be developed that will be updated based on the results of other research conducted under this track.
Tasks:
  1. Identify all site factors that affect pavement performance and classify the identified factors accordingly (e.g., climatic region (or key climatic factors), traffic level, and subgrade or foundation type).
  2. Identify feasible pavement design alternatives (e.g., by using existing performance models and pavement analysis tools) for different site conditions identified under task 1.
  3. Develop a catalog of long life pavement designs for the different site conditions identified under task 1. Each design entry in the catalog will describe the structural section (base/subbase type and thickness and at most a general range of slab thicknesses) and many other aspects that include slab width, joint spacing, material requirements, load transfer design, subsurface drainage, foundation stability and uniformity, and QC/QA testing guidelines to ensure adequate construction quality. The design catalog should include information on low-volume rural and urban roadways.
Benefits: A catalog of long life pavement designs that will provide practicing engineers with tools for designing long life, cost effective pavements with minimal restoration and rehabilitation.
Products: An interim design catalog of long life pavement designs (produced within 2 years of starting); contents that will be updated as more information obtained from research activities under this track becomes available.
Implementation: This research will be coordinated closely with work in track 2 (Performance- Based Design Guide for New and Rehabilitated Concrete Pavements). The research will result in a practical product for immediate use in designing long life concrete pavements.

Problem Statement LL 1.3. Strategic Application of Preservation Treatments to Preserve Long Life Concrete Pavement
Track: 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)
Subtrack: LL 1. Pavement Strategy for Long Life Concrete Pavements
Approximate Phasing: Years 3–5
Estimated Cost: $500 k–$700 k
Through strategic use of restoration and rehabilitation techniques, extending the service life of concrete pavements may be possible. This research will investigate the feasibility of applying restoration or rehabilitation treatments to preserve and further extend the service life of long life pavements. All possible alternatives should be considered, including CPR treatments and concrete overlays. The optimum application timing, based on pavement condition and rehabilitation objectives, also should be determined. Finally, the feasibility of indefinitely preserving the original pavement structure should be investigated.
Tasks:
  1. Identify all available and other potential restoration or rehabilitation treatments for the pavement types identified under problem statement LL 1.1 (Identifying Long Life Pavement Types, Design Features, Foundations, and Rehabilitation/Maintenance Strategies). Conduct field surveys of promising treatments and document case studies.
  2. Investigate the feasibility of preserving and further extending the service life of the identified pavement types by applying restoration or rehabilitation treatments.
  3. Investigate the feasibility of indefinitely preserving the original pavement structure.
  4. Recommend the optimum application timing of restoration or rehabilitation treatments, based on pavement condition, that will extend pavement service life or indefinitely preserve the original pavement structure.
  5. Prepare detailed guidelines for designers.
Benefits: Recommendations on the optimum application timing of restoration or rehabilitation treatments that will extend pavement service life or indefinitely preserve the original pavement structure; a tool for practicing engineers to use in designing long life, cost effective concrete pavements with minimal restoration.
Products: Recommendations on the type, design, construction, and optimum application timing of restoration or rehabilitation treatments for extending pavements service life or indefinitely preserving the original pavement structure.
Implementation: This research will be coordinated closely with work in track 2 (Performance- Based Design Guide for New and Rehabilitated Concrete Pavements). The research will provide a product needed to ensure that long-term preservation treatments are considered fully and available.

SUBTRACK LL 2. CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS FOR LONG LIFE CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND OVERLAYS

This subtrack addresses the materials, construction and QC requirements unique to long life concrete pavements and overlays. Table 43 provides an overview of this subtrack.

Table 43. Subtrack LL 2 overview.
Problem Statement Estimated Cost Products Benefits
LL 2.0. Framework for Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements (Subtrack LL 2) $200 k A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack. An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
LL 2.1. Development of Quality Control/Quality Assurance Testing Standards to Ensure Long Life Concrete Pavements $500 k–$600 k QC/QA procedures for assessing the overall construction quality to determine whether the construction quality can achieve long life. QC/QA guidelines that provide practicing engineers with the tools for ensuring that concrete pavements are constructed as designed, thereby reducing possible discrepancies in anticipated service life.
LL 2.2. Identification of Material Requirements and Tests for Long Life Concrete Pavements $1 M–$1.5 M Materials requirements and testing guidelines for establishing the suitability of long life pavement materials for a wide variety of climates, considering concrete, base, and other materials. Reliable requirements and testing guidelines for identifying suitable concrete materials as well as base and other materials; tools for practicing engineers that will design against possible materialrelated problems and distress.
LL 2.3. Design, Construct, and Evaluate Experimental Long Life Concrete Pavements $3 M–$5 M Design and construction of several promising concrete pavement types with appropriate design features, foundations, materials, construction, QC/QA, and preservation treatments, considering advancements from other research and development, including precast joints, and advanced materials; pavements monitored for performance over time. Design, construction, and monitoring of several promising concrete pavements that will prove the long life pavement concept, strongly encouraging implementation of other such long life projects.
LL 2.4. Design, Construct, and Evaluate Concrete Overlays $3 M–$5 M Promising concrete overlay types with appropriate design features, surface characteristics, foundations, materials, construction, QC/QA, and preservation treatments. An exceptionally strong, long life pavement with concrete overlay, combining the strengths of a solid concrete foundation with a renewable surface designed around functional requirements.

Problem Statement LL 2.0. Framework for Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements (Subtrack LL 2)
Track: 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)
Subtrack: LL 2. Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements and Overlays
Approximate Phasing: Years 1–3
Estimated Cost: $200 k
Subtrack LL 2 (Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements and Overlays) provides a set of research problem statements that will culminate in a significantly improved state of the art and practice. As the funding becomes available, an initial effort will be necessary to develop a framework for the research to be accomplished within this subtrack.
Tasks:
  1. Examine the problem statements in subtrack LL 2 (Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements and Overlays), modify as appropriate, and divide them into specific, manageable contracts.
  2. Arrange the contracts in a carefully sequenced plan that reflects a logical progress of research and available funding.
  3. Expand each of the broad research problem statements included in the subtrack into a detailed research plan with specific objectives, tasks, and funding recommendations.
  4. Review and provide direction for the various research contracts underway to ensure that they fulfill their objectives and allow future contracts to use their results. Guide the additional work required if a contract fails to achieve its objectives and additional work is necessary.
Benefits: An effective, coordinated, and productive research program.
Products: A validated, sequenced, and detailed research framework for this subtrack.
Implementation: This research will provide the organization and validation essential for the success of this subtrack. Implementation of this problem statement will set the stage for the rest of the problem statements in subtrack LL 2 (Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements and Overlays).

Problem Statement LL 2.1. Development of Quality Control/Quality Assurance Testing Standards to Ensure Long Life Concrete Pavements
Track: 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)
Subtrack: LL 2. Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements and Overlays
Approximate Phasing: Years 2–4
Estimated Cost: $500 k–$600 k
This research will establish standards for QC/QA testing to ensure long-term pavement performance. The standard will specify the type of testing to be conducted, testing procedures, testing frequency, and reporting requirements. The acceptable construction tolerances will also be specified for key construction factors, including slab thickness, joint spacing, concrete strength, joint LTE, dowel bar alignment, tie bar placement accuracy, and foundation uniformity and stability. Repairs may be permissible for certain deficiency types. In such cases, the acceptable repairs for the deficiencies also will be specified. A procedure for assessing the overall construction quality also will be developed to determine whether the construction quality can achieve long life.
Tasks:
  1. Identify the types of QC/QA testing required to ensure good long-term pavement performance. Identified testing standards will specify the type of testing to be conducted, testing procedures, testing frequency, and reporting requirements.
  2. Determine acceptable construction tolerances for key construction factors (e.g., slab thickness, joint spacing, concrete strength, joint LTE, dowel bar alignment, tie bar placement accuracy, and foundation uniformity and stability) to ensure good long-term pavement performance.
  3. Identify commonly occurring construction deficiencies and the permissible repairs that will ensure good long-term pavement performance.
  4. Develop a procedure for assessing the overall construction quality to determine whether the construction quality can achieve long life.
Benefits: QC/QA guidelines that provide practicing engineers with the tools for ensuring that concrete pavements are constructed as designed, thereby reducing possible discrepancies in anticipated service life.
Products: QC/QA procedure for assessing the overall construction quality to determine whether the construction quality can achieve long life.
Implementation: This research will ensure that long life concrete pavements are constructed with the appropriate quality and that no major construction problem will result in premature pavement failures.
Problem Statement LL 2.2. Identification of Material Requirements and Tests for Long Life Concrete Pavements
Track: 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)
Subtrack: LL 2. Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements and Overlays
Approximate Phasing: Years 2–6
Estimated Cost: $1 M–$1.5 M
Good material performance is essential for long life pavement. Materials that must perform well include concrete, a base layer, a subbase layer, tie bars, dowel bars, and deformed reinforcement. This research will document material problems that have caused premature pavement failures in the past, along with information about high-risk areas for such problems. A very long design life may not be practical in some areas due to a high risk of developing material problems. If such limitations exist, identifying the highrisk areas and materials, as well as the practical design-life limit, can optimize pavement design. Often, however, the material problem can be mitigated using various treatments and certain design features. This research will result in testing guidelines for identifying potential material problems as well as mitigation strategies.
Tasks:
  1. Identify commonly occurring material problems that have caused premature pavement failures for different pavement types, along with information about high-risk areas for such problems.
  2. Identify treatments and design features that can mitigate the identified material problem.
  3. Identify high-risk sites (e.g., climate zones and subgrade types) for material problems that cause long pavement design life to be impractical or infeasible.
  4. Identify tests and develop testing guidelines for identifying potential material problems as well as mitigation strategies.
  5. Prepare comprehensive guidelines for selecting, specifying, and testing the materials required during construction for long life concrete pavements.
Benefits: Reliable requirements and testing guidelines for identifying suitable concrete materials as well as base and other materials; tools for practicing engineers that will design against possible material-related problems and distress.
Products: Materials requirements and testing guidelines for establishing the suitability of long life pavement materials for a wide variety of climates, considering concrete, base, and other materials.
Implementation: This research will be coordinated closely with work in track 2 (Performance- Based Design Guide for New and Rehabilitated Concrete Pavements). The results of this research are essential to reliable long life concrete pavement designs, materials, and construction. Results will be useful immediately and will be used to design and construct the test sections under problem statement LL 2.3 (Design, Construct, and Evaluate Experimental Long Life Concrete Pavements).

Problem Statement LL 2.3. Design, Construct, and Evaluate Experimental Long Life Concrete Pavements
Track: 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)
Subtrack: LL 2. Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements and Overlays
Approximate Phasing: Years 3–10
Estimated Cost: $3 M–$5 M
This research will develop innovative designs that promise superior long-term performance and test them in an ALF, test roads (e.g., MnROAD), or as a highway test section (e.g., LTPP). The designs may include innovative structural section, including concrete overlays; precast designs and advanced materials; and innovative pavement service life management that considers rehabilitation strategy as a part of life cycle design. Based on the results of this research, the long life pavement design guidelines developed under this research track may be modified.
Tasks:
  1. Identify new and innovative pavement structural sections, including concrete overlays and available innovative materials that promise superior long-term performance.
  2. Determine the best method of testing the long-term performance of the promising designs using ALFs or full-scale test facilities and highways.
  3. Design and prepare specifications and QC/QA tests and observe materials testing and other needed and feasible QA activities for several sites.
  4. Analyze test section performance results over time and provide performance data to States and others.
  5. Develop revised design, construction, and materials specifications and other products based on test results and analysis.
Benefits: Design, construction, and monitoring of several promising concrete pavements that will prove the long life pavement concept, strongly encouraging implementation of other such long life projects.
Products: Design and construction of several promising concrete pavement types with appropriate design features, foundations, materials, construction, QC/QA, and preservation treatments, considering advancements from other research and development, including precast joints, and advanced materials; pavements that will be monitored for performance over time.
Implementation: This research will be coordinated closely with work in track 9 (Concrete Pavement Accelerated and Long-Term Data Collection). Constructing the most promising designs will demonstrate the feasibility of long-term concrete pavement. Results from design, construction, and materials will be useful immediately to States. Performance will be useful over time.

Problem Statement LL 2.4. Design, Construct, and Evaluate Concrete Overlays
Track: 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)
Subtrack: LL 2. Construction and Materials for Long Life Concrete Pavements and Overlays
Approximate Phasing: Years 3–10
Estimated Cost: $3 M–$5 M
Concrete overlays are discussed throughout the CP Road Map, especially in the problem statements addressing the use of asphalt bases throughout track 1 (Performance-Based Concrete Pavement Mix Design System). This problem statement will develop approaches to long life pavements that consider concrete overlay construction principles during initial construction and over the analysis period. The research in this problem statement addresses JCPs or CRCPs over an asphalt base or subbase with a cement/epoxy-type or porous concrete surface. For all surface types, the surface is renewable, and the concrete slab is expected to require little maintenance or rehabilitation for 30–50 years or more.
Tasks:
  1. Determine operational strategies that could accommodate concrete overlay construction principles.
  2. Determine ways to incorporate issues concerning asphalt bases with PCC surface courses (e.g., changes in temperature gradients and thickness and stiffness of the layers) into structural design. Develop the initial functional and performance requirements of the top surface course to meet economic, safety, and environmental concerns, and traffic loadings and volumes.
  3. Determine the surface course material requirements for meeting two or three different life expectancy predictions before replacement is required. Identify any the adjustments required to properly integrate specific materials issues with the structural values developed in task 2. Determine the bonding requirements between surface and slab necessary for meeting the desired performance criteria. Consider issues of delaminating, reflection cracking, clogging and stability, and the impact of contained moisture in the structure. Study the effects of the concrete surface layer on the structural design of the slab.
  4. Determine the construction issues unique to these concrete overlay sections, addressing each interlayer. Develop guide specifications for each significant type of concrete overlay.
  5. Build, monitor, and evaluate the various test sections.
Benefits: An exceptionally strong, long life pavement with concrete overlay, combining the strengths of a solid concrete foundation with a renewable surface designed around functional requirements.
Products: Promising concrete overlay types with appropriate design features, surface characteristics, foundations, materials, construction, QC/QA, and preservation treatments.
Implementation: The research in this problem statement will be coordinated with work in track 9 (Concrete Pavement Accelerated and Long-Term Data Collection). This research also will be integrated with Future Strategic Highway Research Program Renewal Project 1–8.3 as it pertains to concrete overlays. Results from the design, construction, and materials aspects of this research will be useful immediately to States, while performance data will be useful over time. This research also may be addressed in other tracks—for example, track 2 (Performance-Based Design Guide for New and Rehabilitated Concrete Pavements), track 4 (Optimized Surface Characteristics for Safe, Quiet, and Smooth Concrete Pavements), and track 6 (Innovative Concrete Pavement Joint Design, Materials, and Construction).

SUBTRACK LL 3. LONG LIFE CONCRETE PAVEMENT IMPLEMENTATION

This subtrack provides for the implementation of the long life pavement research developed in the track. Table 44 provides an overview of this subtrack.

Table 44. Subtrack LL 3 overview.
Problem Statement Estimated Cost Products Benefits
LL 3.1. Implementation of Long Life ConcretePavements $800 k–$1.2 M Strong transfer of long life concrete pavement design and construction technology to the workforce, using workshops, conferences, and Web-based personnel training. A knowledgeable workforce and management that can use the design procedure to design, construct, and specify materials, and preserve long life concrete pavements properly when long life designs are required.
Problem Statement LL 3.1. Implementation of Long Life Concrete Pavements
Track: 8. Long Life Concrete Pavements (LL)
Subtrack: LL 3. Long Life Concrete Pavement Implementation
Approximate Phasing: Years 1–10
Estimated Cost: $800 k–$1.2 M
Implementing long life concrete pavement requires significant efforts in both training the workforce and convincing management that long life concrete pavement is feasible and reliable. This task addresses both of these efforts. The results from many other tracks and projects will help develop long life pavements, and these other efforts will be used in this task without being repeated. For example, track 2 (Performance-Based Design Guide for New and Rehabilitated Concrete Pavements) offers a design procedure that is fully capable of designing long life pavements. However, additional design work will be needed to ensure a reliable design.
Tasks:
  1. Develop and present workshops dealing with aspects of the mechanistic design process that focus on long life concrete pavements (e.g., history and case studies of past successes, structural modeling, materials characterization, distress and IRI prediction, concrete overlays, restoration, optimization, traffic, climate, and local calibration).
  2. Organize national conferences and workshops on the mechanistic design process in which States and other highway agencies share their findings.
  3. Develop Web-based, online training tools.
  4. Develop a method for strong transfer of long life concrete pavement design technology, using workshops, conferences, and Web-based personnel training.
Benefits: A knowledgeable workforce and management that can use the design procedure to design, construct, specify materials, and preserve long life concrete pavements properly, when long life designs are required.
Products: Strong transfer of long life concrete pavement design and construction technology to the workforce, using workshops, conferences, and Web-based personnel training.
Implementation: This work will provide the technology transfer critical to the success of the long life concrete pavement track.

 

 


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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